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Table of Contents
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_______________________________________________
FOR ANNUAL AND TRANSITION REPORTS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
(Mark One)
| | | | | | |
| ☒ | ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 |
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
OR
| | | | | | |
| ☐ | TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 |
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 0-28191
_______________________________________________
BGC Partners, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
_______________________________________________
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Delaware | | 13-4063515 |
| (State or Other Jurisdiction of | | (I.R.S. Employer |
| Incorporation or Organization) | | Identification No.) |
| | | | | | | |
| 499 Park Avenue | , | New York | , | NY | | 10022 |
| (Address of Principal Executive Offices) | | (Zip Code) |
(212) 610-2200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Title of each class | | Trading | | Name of each exchange on which registered |
| | | Symbol(s) | | |
| Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value | | BGCP | | The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC |
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Large Accelerated Filer | ☒ | Accelerated Filer | ☐ |
| Non-accelerated Filer | ☐ | Smaller Reporting Company | ☐ |
| Emerging growth company | ☐ | | |
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of the Class A common stock on June 30, 2022 as reported on NASDAQ, was approximately $1,056,877,057.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
On February 24, 2022, the registrant had 321,093,235 On February 27, 2023, the registrant had 327,948,927 shares of Class A common stock, $0.01 par value, and 45,884,380 shares of Class B common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding.
_______________________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE.
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 2023 annual meeting of stockholders (the "2023 Proxy Statement") are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We anticipate that we will file the 2023 Proxy Statement with the SEC on or before May 1, 2023.
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Table of Contents
BGC Partners, Inc.
2022 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | Page |
| | | |
| | Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms | 2 |
| | Special Note on Forward-Looking Information | 11 |
| | Risk Factor Summary | 10 |
| | Where You Can Find More Information | 11 |
| | | |
| PART I | | |
| | | |
| ITEM 1. | Business | 13 |
| ITEM 1A. | Risk Factors | 37 |
| ITEM 1B. | Unresolved Staff Comments | 72 |
| ITEM 2. | Properties | 72 |
| ITEM 3. | Legal Proceedings | 73 |
| ITEM 4. | Mine Safety Disclosures | 73 |
| | | |
| PART II | | |
| | | |
| ITEM 5. | Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities | 74 |
| ITEM 6. | [Reserved] | 81 |
| ITEM 7. | Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations | 82 |
| ITEM 7A. | Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk | 129 |
| ITEM 8. | Financial Statements and Supplementary Data | 132 |
| ITEM 9. | Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure | 201 |
| ITEM 9A. | Controls and Procedures | 201 |
| ITEM 9B. | Other Information | 201 |
| ITEM 9C. | Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions That Prevent Inspections | 201 |
| | | |
| PART III | | |
| | | |
| ITEM 10. | Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance | 202 |
| ITEM 11. | Executive Compensation | 202 |
| ITEM 12. | Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters | 202 |
| ITEM 13. | Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence | 202 |
| ITEM 14. | Principal Accountant Fees and Services | 202 |
| | | |
| PART IV | | |
| | | |
| ITEM 15. | Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules | 203 |
| ITEM 16. | Form 10-K Summary | 208 |



Table of Contents
GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
The following terms, abbreviations and acronyms are used to identify frequently used terms and phrases that may be used in this report:
| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| | |
| 3.750% Senior Notes | The Company's $300.0 million principal amount of 3.750% senior notes maturing on October 1, 2024 and issued on September 27, 2019 |
| | |
| 4.375% Senior Notes | The Company's $300.0 million principal amount of 4.375% senior notes maturing on December 15, 2025 and issued on July 10, 2020 |
| | |
| 5.125% Senior Notes | The Company's original $300.0 million principal amount of 5.125% senior notes, which matured on May 27, 2021 and were issued on May 27, 2016, of which $44.0 million was redeemed through a cash tender offer by the Company on August 14, 2020 |
| | |
| 5.375% Senior Notes | The Company's $450.0 million principal amount of 5.375% senior notes maturing on July 24, 2023 and issued on July 24, 2018 |
| | |
| Adjusted Earnings | A non-GAAP financial measure used by the Company to evaluate financial performance, which primarily excludes (i) certain non-cash items and other expenses that generally do not involve the receipt or outlay of cash and do not dilute existing stockholders, and (ii) certain gains and charges that management believes do not best reflect the ordinary results of BGC |
| | |
| ADV | Average daily volume |
| | |
| Algomi | Algomi Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on March 6, 2020 |
| | |
| API | Application Programming Interface |
| | |
| April 2008 distribution rights shares | Cantor's deferred stock distribution rights provided to current and former Cantor partners on April 1, 2008 |
| | |
| Aqua | Aqua Securities L.P., an alternative electronic trading platform, which offers new pools of block liquidity to the global equities markets and is a 49%-owned equity method investment of the Company and 51% owned by Cantor |
| | |
| ASC | Accounting Standards Codification |
| | |
| ASU | Accounting Standards Update |
| | |
| Audit Committee | Audit Committee of the Board |
| | |
| August 2022 Sales Agreement | CEO Program sales agreement, by and between the Company and CF&Co, dated August 12, 2022, pursuant to which the Company can offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock |
| | |
| Berkeley Point | Berkeley Point Financial LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company acquired on September 8, 2017 and contributed to Newmark in the Separation |
| | |
| Besso | Besso Insurance Group Limited, formerly a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on February 28, 2017. and Sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 as part of the Insurance Business Disposition |
| | |
| BGC | BGC Partners, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries |
| | |
| BGC or our Class A common stock | BGC Partners Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| BGC or our Class B common stock | BGC Partners Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share |
| | |
| BGC Credit Agreement | Agreement between the Company and Cantor, dated March 19, 2018, that provides for each party or its subsidiaries to borrow up to $250.0 million, as amended on August 6, 2018 to increase the facility to $400.0 million |
| | |
| BGC Financial or BGCF | BGC Financial, L.P. |
| | |
| BGC Global OpCo | BGC Global Holdings, L.P., an operating partnership, which is owned jointly by BGC and BGC Holdings and holds the non-U.S. businesses of BGC |
| | |
| BGC Entity Group | BGC, BGC Holdings, and BGC U.S. OpCo, and their respective subsidiaries (other than, prior to the Spin-Off, the Newmark Group), collectively |
| | |
| BGC Group, Inc. | BGC Group, Inc., a Delaware corporation and currently a wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Partners. BGC Group was incorporated on April 19, 2021, solely for the purpose of effecting the Corporate Conversion and to serve as the new publicly traded holding company for the BGC businesses. Immediately following the Corporate Conversion, BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock is expected to be listed on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the ticker symbol "BGC." BGC Group, Inc. has not carried on any activities other than in connection with the Corporate Conversion |
| | |
| BGC Holdings | BGC Holdings, L.P., an entity owned by Cantor, Founding Partners, BGC employee partners and, after the Separation, Newmark employee partners |
| | |
| BGC Holdings Distribution | Pro-rata distribution, pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by BGC Holdings to its partners of all of the exchangeable limited partnership interests of Newmark Holdings owned by BGC Holdings immediately prior to the distribution, completed on the Distribution Date |
| | |
| BGC OpCos | BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo, collectively |
| | |
| BGC Partners | BGC Partners, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries |
| | |
| BGC U.S. OpCo | BGC Partners, L.P., an operating partnership, which is owned jointly by BGC and BGC Holdings and holds the U.S. businesses of BGC |
| | |
| Board | Board of Directors of the Company |
| | |
| Brexit | Exit of the U.K. from the EU |
| | |
| Cantor | Cantor Fitzgerald, L.P. and, where applicable, its subsidiaries |
| | |
| Cantor group | Cantor and its subsidiaries other than BGC Partners, including Newmark |
| | |
| Cantor units | Limited partnership interests of BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings held by the Cantor group, which units are exchangeable into shares of BGC Class A common stock or BGC Class B common stock, or Newmark Class A common stock or Newmark Class B common stock, as applicable |
| | |
| CCRE | Cantor Commercial Real Estate Company, L.P. |
| | |
| CECL | Current Expected Credit Losses |
| | |
| CEO Program | Controlled equity offering program |
| | |
| CF&Co | Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., a wholly owned broker-dealer subsidiary of Cantor |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| CFGM | CF Group Management, Inc., the general partner of Cantor |
| | |
| CFS | Cantor Fitzgerald Securities, a wholly owned broker-dealer subsidiary of Cantor |
| | |
| CFTC | Commodity Futures Trading Commission |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Charity Day | BGC's annual event held on September 11th where employees of the Company raise proceeds for charity |
| | |
| Class B Issuance | Issuance by BGC of 10,323,366 and 712,907 shares of BGC Class B common stock to Cantor and CFGM, respectively, in exchange for an aggregate of 11,036,273 shares of BGC Class A common stock under the Exchange Agreement, completed on November 23, 2018 |
| | |
| CLOB | Central Limit Order Book |
| | |
| CME | CME Group Inc., the company that acquired NEX in November 2018 |
| | |
| Company | BGC Partners, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries |
| | |
| Company Debt Securities | The 5.125% Senior Notes, 5.375% Senior Notes, 3.750% Senior Notes, 4.375% Senior Notes and any future debt securities issued by the Company |
| | |
| Compensation Committee | Compensation Committee of the Board |
| | |
| Contribution Ratio | Equal to a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest multiplied by one, divided by 2.2 (or 0.4545) |
| | |
| Corant | Corant Global Limited, BGC's former Insurance brokerage business |
| | |
| Corporate Conversion | The Company's exploration of converting its umbrella partnership C corporation (Up-C) into a simpler Corporate structure |
| Corporate Conversion | The Corporate Conversion of the BGC businesses through a series of mergers and related transactions pursuant to which BGC Partners and BGC Holdings will become wholly owned subsidiaries of BGC Group, Inc. Once the Corporate Conversion is completed, it will have the effect of transforming the organizational structure of the BGC businesses from an Up-C structure to a simplified "Full C-Corporation" structure |
| | |
| Corporate Conversion Agreement | The Corporate Conversion Agreement is the agreement entered into on November 15, 2022 by and among BGC Partners, BGC Holdings, BGC Group, Inc., and other affiliated entities, and, solely for the purposes of certain provisions therein, Cantor, that provides for the Corporate Conversion of the BGC businesses |
| | |
| Corporate Conversion Transactions | The Corporation Conversion Transactions refers to the series of mergers contemplated by the Corporate Conversion Agreement and related transactions |
| | |
| COVID-19 | Coronavirus Disease 2019 |
| | |
| CRD | Capital Requirements Directive |
| | |
| Credit Facility | A $150.0 million credit facility between the Company and an affiliate of Cantor entered into on April 21, 2017, which was terminated on March 19, 2018 |
| | |
| DCM | Designated Contract Market |
| | |
| DCO | Derivatives Clearing Organization |

| | |
| Distribution Date | November 30, 2018, the date that BGC and BGC Holdings completed the Spin-Off and the BGC Holdings Distribution, respectively |
| | |
| Dodd-Frank Act | Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| ECB | European Central Bank |
| | |
| Ed Broking | Ed Broking Group Limited, formerly a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on January 31, 2019 and sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 as part of the Insurance Business Disposition |
| | |
| EMIR | European Market Infrastructure Regulation |
| | |
| EPS | Earnings Per Share |
| | |
| Equity Plan | Eighth Amended and Restated Long Term Incentive Plan, approved by the Company's stockholders at the annual meeting of stockholders on November 22, 2021 |
| | |
| ESG | Environmental, social and governance, including sustainability or similar items |
| | |
| eSpeed | Various assets comprising the Fully Electronic portion of the Company's former benchmark on-the-run U.S. Treasury brokerage, market data and co-location service businesses, sold to Nasdaq on June 28, 2013 |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| | |
| ETR | Effective Tax Rate |
| | |
| EU | European Union |
| | |
| Exchange Act | Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended |
| | |
| Exchange Agreement | A letter agreement by and between BGC Partners and Cantor and CFGM, dated June 5, 2015, that grants Cantor and CFGM the right to exchange shares of BGC Class A common stock into shares of BGC Class B common stock on a one-to-one basis up to the limits described therein |
| | |
| Exchange Ratio | Ratio by which a Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest can be exchanged for shares of Newmark Class A or Class B common stock |
| | |
| FASB | Financial Accounting Standards Board |
| | |
| FCA | Financial Conduct Authority of the U.K. |
| | |
| FCM | Futures Commission Merchant |
| | |
| February 2012 distribution rights shares | Cantor's deferred stock distribution rights provided to current and former Cantor partners on February 14, 2012 |
| | |
| Fenics | BGC's group of electronic brands, offering a number of market infrastructure and connectivity services, Fully Electronic marketplaces, and the Fully Electronic brokerage of certain products that also may trade via Voice and Hybrid execution, including market data and related information services, Fully Electronic brokerage, connectivity software, compression and other post-trade services, analytics related to financial instruments and markets, and other financial technology solutions; includes Fenics Growth Platforms and Fenics Markets |
| | |
| Fenics Growth Platforms | Consists of Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX and other newer standalone platforms |
| | |
| Fenics Integrated | Represents Fenics businesses that utilize sufficient levels of technology such that significant amounts of their transactions can be, or are, executed without broker intervention and have expected pre-tax margins of at least 25% |
| | |
| Fenics Markets | Consists of the Fully Electronic portions of BGC's brokerage businesses, data, software and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues |
| | |
| FINRA | Financial Industry Regulatory Authority |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| FMX | BGC's combined U.S. Treasury and Futures electronic marketplace |
| | |
| Founding Partners | Individuals who became limited partners of BGC Holdings in the mandatory redemption of interests in Cantor in connection with the 2008 separation and merger of Cantor's BGC division with eSpeed, Inc. (provided that members of the Cantor group and Howard W. Lutnick (including any entity directly or indirectly controlled by Mr. Lutnick or any trust with respect to which he is a grantor, trustee or beneficiary) are not founding partners) and became limited partners of Newmark Holdings in the Separation |
| | |
| Founding/Working Partners | Holders of FPUs |
| | |
| FPUs | Founding/Working Partners units in BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings that are generally redeemed upon termination of employment |
| | |
| Freedom | Freedom International Brokerage Company, a 45%-owned equity method investment of the Company |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Fully Electronic | Broking transactions intermediated on a solely electronic basis rather than by Voice or Hybrid broking |
| | |
| Futures Exchange Group | CFLP CX Futures Exchange Holdings, LLC, CFLP CX Futures Exchange Holdings, L.P., CX Futures Exchange Holdings, LLC, CX Clearinghouse Holdings, LLC, CX Futures Exchange, L.P. and CX Clearinghouse, L.P. |
| | |
| FX | Foreign exchange |
| | |
| GDPR | General Data Protection Regulation |
| | |
| GFI | GFI Group Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on January 12, 2016 |
| | |
| GILTI | Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income |
| | |
| Ginga Petroleum | Ginga Petroleum (Singapore) Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on March 12, 2019 |
| | |
| GUI | Graphical User Interface |
| | |
| HDUs | LPUs with capital accounts, which are liability awards recorded in "Accrued compensation" in the Company's consolidated statements of financial condition |
| | |
| Hybrid | Broking transactions executed by brokers and involving some element of Voice broking and electronic trading |
| | |
| ICAP | ICAP plc, a part of TP ICAP group, and a leading markets operator and provider of execution and information services |
| | |
| ICE | Intercontinental Exchange |
| | |
| IMO | Initial Margin Optimization |
| | |
| Incentive Plan | The Company's Second Amended and Restated Incentive Bonus Compensation Plan, approved by the Company's stockholders at the annual meeting of stockholders on June 6, 2017 |
| | |
| Insurance brokerage business | The insurance brokerage business of BGC, including Corant, Ed Broking, Besso, Piiq Risk Partners, Junge, Cooper Gay, Global Underwriting and Epsilon, which business was sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Insurance Business Disposition | The sale of the Insurance brokerage business for $534.9 million in gross cash proceeds after closing adjustments, subject to limited post-closing adjustments, completed on November 1, 2021 |
| | |
| IR Act | Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 |
| | |
| LCH | London Clearing House |
| | |
| Legacy BGC Holdings Units | BGC Holdings LPUs outstanding immediately prior to the Separation |
| | |
| Legacy Newmark Holdings Units | Newmark Holdings LPUs issued in connection with the Separation |
| | |
| LGD | Loss Given Default |
| | |
| LIBOR | London Interbank Offering Rate |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| LPUs | Certain limited partnership units in BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings held by certain employees of BGC Partners or Newmark and other persons who have provided services to BGC Partners or Newmark, which units may include APSIs, APSUs, AREUs, ARPSUs, HDUs, U.K. LPUs, N Units, PLPUs, PPSIs, PPSUs, PSEs, PSIs, PSUs, REUs, and RPUs, along with future types of limited partnership units in BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings |
| | |
| Lucera | A wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, also known as "LFI Holdings, LLC" or "LFI," which is a software defined network offering the trading community direct connectivity |
| | |
| March 2018 Form S-3 | CEO Program shelf registration statement on Form S-3 filed on March 9, 2018 |
| | |
| March 2018 Sales Agreement | CEO Program sales agreement, by and between the Company and CF&Co, dated March 9, 2018, pursuant to which the Company could offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock, which agreement expired in September 2021 |
| | |
| MEA | Middle East and Africa region |
| | |
| MiFID II | Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II, a legislative framework instituted by the EU to regulate financial markets and improve protections for investors by increasing transparency and standardizing regulatory disclosures |
| | |
| Mint Brokers | A wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on August 19, 2010, registered as an FCM with both the CFTC and the NFA |
| | |
| Nasdaq | Nasdaq, Inc., formerly known as NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. |
| | |
| NDF | Non-deliverable forwards |
| | |
| Newmark | Newmark Group, Inc. (NASDAQ symbol: NMRK), a publicly traded and former majority-owned subsidiary of BGC until the Distribution Date, and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries |
| | |
| Newmark Class A common stock | Newmark Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share |
| | |
| Newmark Class B common stock | Newmark Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share |
| | |
| Newmark Group | Newmark, Newmark Holdings, and Newmark OpCo and their respective subsidiaries, collectively |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Newmark Holdings | Newmark Holdings, L.P. |
| | |
| Newmark IPO | Initial public offering of 23 million shares of Newmark Class A common stock by Newmark at a price of $14.00 per share in December 2017 |
| | |
| Newmark OpCo | Newmark Partners, L.P., an operating partnership, which is owned jointly by Newmark and Newmark Holdings and holds the business of Newmark |
| | |
| NYAG | New York Attorney General's Office |
| | |
| NEX | NEX Group plc, an entity formed in December 2016, formerly known as ICAP |
| | |
| NFA | National Futures Association |
| | |
| Non-GAAP | A financial measure that differs from the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, such as Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted EBITDA |
| | |
| N Units | Non-distributing partnership units of BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings that may not be allocated any item of profit or loss, and may not be made exchangeable into shares of Class A common stock, including NREUs, NPREUs, NLPUs, NPLPUs, NPSUs, and NPPSUs |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| OCI | Other comprehensive income (loss), including gains and losses on cash flow and net investment hedges, unrealized gains and losses on available for sale securities (in periods prior to January 1, 2018), certain gains and losses relating to pension and other retirement benefit obligations and foreign currency translation adjustments |
| | |
| OECD | Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development |
| | |
| OTC | Over-the-Counter |
| | |
| OTF | Organized Trading Facility, a regulated execution venue category introduced by MiFID II |
| | |
| PCD assets | Purchased financial assets with deterioration in credit quality since origination |
| | |
| PD | Probability of Default |
| | |
| Period Cost Method | Treatment of taxes associated with the GILTI provision as a current period expense when incurred rather than recording deferred taxes for basis differences |
| | |
| Poten & Partners | Poten & Partners Group, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on November 15, 2018 |
| | |
| Preferred Distribution | Allocation of net profits of BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings to holders of Preferred Units, at a rate of either 0.6875% (i.e., 2.75% per calendar year) or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation |
| | |
| Preferred Units | Preferred partnership units in BGC Holdings or Newmark Holdings, such as PPSUs, which are settled for cash, rather than made exchangeable into shares of Class A common stock, are only entitled to a Preferred Distribution, and are not included in BGC's or Newmark's fully diluted share count |
| | |
| Real Estate L.P. | CF Real Estate Finance Holdings, L.P., a commercial real estate-related financial and investment business controlled and managed by Cantor, of which Newmark owns a minority interest |
| | |
| Real GDP | Real Gross Domestic Product is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation), which transforms the money-value measure, nominal GDP, into an index for quantity of total output |
| | |
| Record Date | Close of business on November 23, 2018, in connection with the Spin-Off |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Repurchase Agreements | Securities sold under agreements to repurchase that are recorded at contractual amounts, including interest, and accounted for as collateralized financing transactions |
| | |
| Revolving Credit Agreement | The Company's unsecured senior revolving credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, dated as of November 28, 2018, that provides for a maximum revolving loan balance of $350.0 million, bearing interest at either LIBOR or a defined base rate plus additional margin, amended on December 11, 2019 to extend the maturity date to February 26, 2021 and further amended on February 26, 2020 to extend the maturity date to February 26, 2023. On March 10, 2022, the agreement was amended and restated to increase the size of the credit facility to $375.0 million, bearing interest at either SOFR or a defined base rate plus additional margin, and extend the maturity date to March 10, 2025 |
| | |
| ROU | Right-of-Use |
| | |
| RSUs | BGC or Newmark unvested restricted stock units, payable in shares of BGC Class A common stock or Newmark Class A common stock, respectively, held by certain employees of BGC Partners or Newmark and other persons who have provided services to BGC Partners or Newmark, or issued in connection with certain acquisitions |
| Russia's Invasion of Ukraine | Russia's invasion of Ukraine, which led to imposed sanctions by the U.S., U.K., EU, and other countries on Russian counterparties |
| | |
| SaaS | Software as a Service |
| | |
| SEC | U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission |
| SBSEF | Security-based Swap Execution Facility |
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| | | | | | |
| SEC | U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission |
| | |
| Securities Act | Securities Act of 1933, as amended |
| | |
| SEF | Swap Execution Facility |
| | |
| Separation | Principal corporate transactions pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by which BGC, BGC Holdings and BGC U.S. OpCo and their respective subsidiaries (other than the Newmark Group) transferred to Newmark, Newmark Holdings and Newmark OpCo and their respective subsidiaries the assets and liabilities of the BGC Entity Group relating to BGC's real estate services business, and related transactions, including the distribution of Newmark Holdings units to holders of units in BGC Holdings and the assumption and repayment of certain BGC indebtedness by Newmark |
| | |
| Separation and Distribution Agreement | Separation and Distribution Agreement, by and among the BGC Entity Group, the Newmark Group, Cantor and BGC Global OpCo, originally entered into on December 13, 2017, as amended on November 8, 2018 and amended and restated on November 23, 2018 |
| | |
| SMCR | Senior Managers Certification Regime |
| | |
| SOFR | Secured Overnight Financing Rate |
| | |
| SPAC | Special Purpose Acquisition Company |
| | |
| SPAC Investment Banking Activities | Aurel's investment banking activities with respect to SPACs |
| | |
| Spin-Off | Pro-rata distribution, pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by BGC to its stockholders of all the shares of common stock of Newmark owned by BGC Partners immediately prior to the Distribution Date, with shares of Newmark Class A common stock distributed to the holders of shares of BGC Class A common stock (including directors and executive officers of BGC Partners) of record on the Record Date, and shares of Newmark Class B common stock distributed to the holders of shares of BGC Class B common stock (Cantor and CFGM) of record on the Record Date, completed on the Distribution Date |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| TERM | DEFINITION |
| Tax Act | Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 |
| | |
| TDRs | Troubled Debt Restructurings |
| | |
| The Ardonagh Group | The Ardonagh Group Limited; the U.K.'s largest independent insurance broker and purchaser of BGC's Insurance brokerage business completed on November 1, 2021 |
| | |
| Tower Bridge | Tower Bridge International Services L.P., a subsidiary of the Company, which is 52%-owned by the Company and 48%-owned by Cantor |
| | |
| TP ICAP | TP ICAP plc, an entity formed in December 2016, formerly known as Tullett |
| | |
| Tradition | Compagnie Financière Tradition (which is majority owned by Viel & Cie) |
| | |
| Tullett | Tullett Prebon plc, a part of TP ICAP group and an interdealer broker, primarily operating as an intermediary in the wholesale financial and energy sectors |
| | |
| U.K. | United Kingdom |
| | |
| U.S. GAAP or GAAP | Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America |
| | |
| UBT | Unincorporated Business Tax |
| | |
| VIE | Variable Interest Entity |
| | |
| Voice | Voice-only broking transactions executed by brokers over the telephone |
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SPECIAL NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. Such statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. For example, words such as "may," "will," "should," "estimates," "predicts," "possible," "potential," "continue," "strategy," "believes," "anticipates," "plans," "expects," "intends," and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The information included herein is given as of the filing date of this Form 10-K with the SEC, and future results or events could differ significantly from these forward-looking statements. The Company does not undertake to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
The following is a summary of material risks that could affect our business, each of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. This summary may not contain all of our material risks, and it is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed risk factors set forth in Item 1A "Risk Factors."
•Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects have been and may continue to be affected both positively and negatively by conditions in the global economy and financial markets generally.
•Actions taken by governments in response to rising inflation rates may have a material impact on our business.
•The U.K. exit from the EU could materially adversely impact our customers, counterparties, businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted and adversely affected
•The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to significantly disrupt and adversely affect the environment in which we and our customers and competitors operate, including the global economy, the U.S. economy, the global financial markets, our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•The U.K. exit from the EU could materially adversely impact our customers, counterparties, businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•We may pursue opportunities, including strategic alliances, acquisitions, dispositions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities (including hiring new brokers and salespeople), which could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs and could dilute our stockholders. We may also face competition in our acquisition strategy, and such competition may limit such opportunities.
•We may be adversely affected by the transition away from LIBOR and the use of SOFR or other alternative reference rates.
•We have offerings linked to cryptocurrencies that could expose us to technology, regulatory and financial risks.
•We are subject to certain risks relating to our indebtedness, including constraints on our ability to raise additional capital, declines in our credit ratings and limitations on our financial flexibility to react to changes in the economy or the financial services industry. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance our growth strategy, including in connection with the re-positioning of aspects of our business to adapt to changes in market conditions in the financial services industry.
•We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.
•The loss of one or more of our key executives, the development of future talent and the ability of certain key employees to devote adequate time and attention to us are a key part of the success of our businesses, and failure to continue to employ and have the benefit of these executives, may adversely affect our businesses and prospects.
•If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, our operations, reputation, and stock price could suffer, we may need to restate our financial statements, and we may be delayed or prevented from accessing the capital markets.
•Consolidation and concentration of market share in the banking, brokerage, exchange and financial services industries could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects because we may not be able to compete successfully.
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•The financial services industry in general faces potential regulatory, litigation and/or criminal risks that may result in damages or fines or other penalties as well as costs, and we may face damage to our professional reputation and legal liability if our products and services are not regarded as satisfactory, our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, or for other reasons, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•Because competition for the services of brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, in the financial services industry is intense, it could affect our ability to attract and retain a sufficient number of highly skilled brokers or other professional services personnel, in turn adversely impacting our revenues, resulting in a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•We are subject to risks inherent in doing business in international financial markets, international expansion and international operations, including regulatory risks, political risks, and foreign currency risks.
•Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks, which could result in us incurring significant losses that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
•Increased scrutiny and changing expectations from stockholders with respect to the Company's ESG practices may result in additional costs or risks.
•If we or BGC Holdings were deemed an "investment company" under the Investment Company Act, the Investment Company Act's restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business.
•We are a holding company with dual class common stock. Holders of our Class A common stock are subject to certain risks resulting from our structure, including our dependence upon distributions from the BGC OpCos and the concentration of our voting control among the holders of our Class B common stock, which may materially adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
•We are controlled by Cantor and Mr. Lutnick, who have potential conflicts of interest with us and may exercise their control in a way that favors their interests to our detriment.Cantor's interests may conflict with our interests, and Cantor may exercise its control in a way that favors its interests to our detriment, including in competition with us for acquisitions or other business opportunities. in addition, agreements between us and Cantor are between related parties, and the terms of these agreements may be less favorable to us than those that we could negotiate with third parties and may subject us to litigation.
•The expected benefits of the Corporate Conversion may not be obtained.
•We are currently controlled by Cantor, but the Corporate Conversion will have the effect of increasing the percentage of voting power held by Cantor as a result of the issuance of BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock in exchange for the BGC Holdings exchangeable units held by Cantor. The increase in voting power held by Cantor could result in Cantor exercising control over BGC Group, Inc. for a longer period of time than it would over us absent the Corporate Conversion.
•If there is a determination that the Spin-Off (as defined below) was taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, then we and our stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities, and we could incur significant liabilities.
•Purchasers, as well as existing stockholders, may experience significant dilution as a result of offerings of shares of our Class A common stock. Our management will have broad discretion as to the timing and amount of sales of our Class A common stock, as well as the application of the net proceeds of any such sales.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These filings are available to the public from the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.bgcpartners.com. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, the following documents as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC: our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our proxy statements for our annual and special stockholder meetings; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our Current Reports on Form 8-K; Forms 3, 4 and 5 and Schedules 13D with respect to our securities filed on behalf of Cantor, CFGM, our directors and our executive officers; and amendments to those documents. Our website also contains additional information with respect to our industry and businesses. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Throughout this document, BGC Partners, Inc. is referred to as "BGC" and, together with its subsidiaries, as the "Company," "BGC Partners," "we," "us," or "our."
Our Business
BGC is a leading global financial brokerage and technology company servicing the global financial markets.
Through brands including BGC®, Fenics®, GFI®, Sunrise Brokers™, Poten & Partners®, and RP Martin® and Fenics® among others, our businesses specialize in the brokerage of a broad range of products, including fixed income such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments, as well as related interest rate derivatives and credit derivatives. Additionally, we provide brokerage products across FX, we also broker products across FX, equity derivatives and cash Equities, Energy and Commodities, Shipping and Futures and Options. We have also recently announced the leveraging of our infrastructure and assets for cryptocurrency initiatives. Our businesses also provide a wide variety of services, including trade execution, connectivity solutions, brokerage services, clearing, trade compression and other post-trade services, information, and other back-office services to a broad assortment of financial and non-financial institutions.
Our integrated platform is designed to provide flexibility to customers with regard to price discovery, execution and processing of transactions, and enables them to use our Voice, Hybrid, or, in many markets, Fully Electronic brokerage services in connection with transactions executed either OTC or through an exchange. Through our Fenics® group of electronic brands, we offer a number of market infrastructure and connectivity services, including our Fully Electronic marketplaces, and the Fully Electronic brokerage of certain products that also may trade via our Voice and Hybrid execution platforms. The full suite of Fenics® offerings includes our Fully Electronic and Hybrid brokerage, market data and related information services, trade compression and other post-trade services, analytics related to financial instruments and markets, and other financial technology solutions. Fenics® brands also operate under the names Fenics®, FMX™, FMX Futures Exchange™, Fenics Markets Xchange™, Fenics Futures Exchange™, Fenics UST™, Fenics FX™, Fenics Repo™, Fenics Direct™, Fenics MID™, Fenics Market Data™, Fenics GO™, BGC Market Data™, kACE2®, Capitalab®, Swaptioniser®, CBID®, Lucera® and LumeAlfa™.Fenics PortfolioMatch™, kACE2®, and Lucera®.
BGC, BGC Partners, BGC Trader, GFI, GFI Ginga, CreditMatch, Fenics, Fenics.com, FMX, Sunrise Brokers, Poten & Partners, RP Martin, kACE2, Capitalab, Swaptioniser, CBID, and Lucera are trademarks/service marks, and/or registered trademarks/service marks of BGC Partners, Inc. and/or its affiliates.
Our customers include many of the world's largest banks, broker-dealers, investment banks, trading firms, hedge funds, governments, corporations, and investment firms. We have dozens of offices globally in major markets including New York and London, as well as in Bahrain, Beijing, Bogotá, Brisbane, Cape Town, Chicago, Copenhagen, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hong Kong, Houston, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Monaco, Nyon, Paris, Perth, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Toronto, and Zurich.
As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 2,100 As of December 31, 2022, we had 1,985 brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office professional personnel across our businesses.
Our History
Our business originated from one of the oldest and most established inter-dealer or wholesale brokerage franchises in the financial intermediary industry. Cantor started our wholesale intermediary brokerage operations in 1972. In 1996, Cantor launched its eSpeed system, which revolutionized the way government bonds are traded in the inter-dealer market by providing a Fully Electronic trading marketplace. eSpeed completed an initial public offering in 1999 and began trading on Nasdaq, yet it remained one of Cantor's controlled subsidiaries.
Following eSpeed's initial public offering, Cantor continued to operate its inter-dealer Voice and Hybrid brokerage businesses separately from eSpeed. In August 2004, Cantor announced the reorganization and separation of its inter-dealer Voice and Hybrid brokerage businesses into a subsidiary called "BGC," in honor of B. Gerald Cantor, the pioneer in screen brokerage services and fixed income market data products. In April 2008, BGC and certain other Cantor assets merged with and into eSpeed, and the combined company began operating under the name "BGC Partners, Inc."
In June 2013, we sold certain assets relating to our U.S. Treasury benchmark business and the name "eSpeed" to Nasdaq. In 2011, we also acquired and built up a commercial real estate services business called "Newmark," which we spun-off to BGC's stockholders in November 2018. In addition, we acquired and built-up an insurance brokerage business, which we
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sold in November 2021. We also acquired the Futures Exchange Group from Cantor in July 2021, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse.
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Prior to the events of September 11, 2001, our financial brokerage business was widely recognized as one of the leading full-service wholesale financial brokers in the world, with a rich history of developing innovative technological and financial solutions. After September 11, 2001 and the loss of the majority of our U.S.-based employees, our Voice financial brokerage business operated primarily in Europe.
Since 2001, we have substantially rebuilt our U.S. presence and have continued to expand our global footprint through the acquisition and integration of established brokerage companies and the hiring of experienced brokers. Through these actions, we have been able to expand our presence in key markets and position our business for sustained growth. Since 2015, our acquisitions have included those of GFI, Sunrise Brokers Group, Poten & Partners, Perimeter Markets Inc., Lucera, Micromega Securities Proprietary Limited, Ginga Petroleum, Emerging Markets Bond Exchange Ltd, Kalahari Ltd, Algomi, and the Futures Exchange Group.
Since the founding of eSpeed, we have continued to pioneer advances in electronic trading across the wholesale capital markets. Fenics, BGC's financial brokerage and technology business, has grown significantly, supported by our investment in new trading technologies and platforms, as well as from trends of proliferating electronic execution across the capital markets and the demand for electronic data services.
Fenics is the foundation for our Fully Electronic and associated Hybrid transactions across all asset classes. For the purposes of this document and subsequent SEC filings, all of our Fully Electronic businesses may be collectively referred to as "Fenics." These offerings include Fully Electronic financial brokerage products and services, as well as offerings in market data, software solutions, and post-trade services across the Company.
We currently operate electronic marketplaces in multiple financial markets through numerous products and services, including Fenics, BGC Trader, and several multi-asset Hybrid offerings for Voice and Fully Electronic execution, including BGC's Volume Match and GFI's CreditMatch. We also operate a number of newer standalone, Fully Electronic platforms such as Fenics UST, Fenics FX, Fenics GO, and PortfolioMatch, among others. These electronic marketplaces offer electronic trading of numerous OTC and listed financial products, including government bonds, interest rate derivatives, spot foreign exchange, foreign exchange derivatives, corporate bonds, and credit derivatives. We believe that we offer a comprehensive application providing volume, access, connectivity, speed of execution and ease of use. Our trading platform establishes a direct link between our brokers and customers and occupies valuable real estate on traders' desktops, which is difficult to replicate.
We believe that we can leverage our platform to offer Fully Electronic trading as additional products transition from Voice and Hybrid trading to Fully Electronic execution and additional electronic data services. We intend to continue to invest in this Fully Electronic business. Going forward, we expect Fenics to become an even more valuable part of BGC as it continues to grow. We continue to analyze how to optimally configure our Voice, Hybrid and Fully Electronic businesses. Further, we continue to navigate the volatile interest rate environment experienced over the last year and the impact of high interest rates on our trading volumes and spreads.
Corporate Conversion
On November 15, 2022, we and BGC Holdings, along with certain other entities, entered into a Corporate Conversion Agreement in order to reorganize and simplify our organizational structure by converting us from an Up-C to a "Full C-Corporation." Upon completion of the Corporate Conversion Transactions, the stockholders of BGC Partners and the limited partners of BGC Holdings will participate in the economics of the BGC businesses through the same publicly traded corporate entity, BGC Group, Inc. By simplifying the organizational structure, the Corporate Conversion Transactions are intended to improve transparency and reduce operational complexity.
in recent years, we have been adversely affected as a result of COVID-19 and its impact on the macroeconomic environment. For example, surges in global COVID-19 cases caused market-wide disruptions, particularly across our Voice/Hybrid business in December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our fully electronic businesses have been A key growth driver andcompetitive advantage as many of our brokers and clients have adapted to working remotely. additional information with respect to the impact of COVID-19 on our businesses, results of operations and human capital resources is contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Corporate Conversion Agreement provides that, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Corporate Conversion Agreement, BGC, BGC Holdings and their applicable subsidiaries will engage in the Mergers, pursuant to which:
•each share of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock outstanding at the effective time of the Mergers will be converted into one share of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, respectively, of BGC Group, Inc.;
•each exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings held by Cantor or one of its subsidiaries and outstanding at the effective time of the Mergers will be converted into one share of Class B common stock of BGC Group, Inc., subject to the terms and conditions of the Corporate Conversion Agreement, provided that a portion of the shares of BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock issued to Cantor will exchange into BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock in the event that BGC Group, Inc. does not issue at least $75,000,000 in BGC Group, Inc. common stock in connection with certain acquisition transactions prior to the seventh anniversary of the closing of the Mergers;

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•each exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings not held by Cantor or any of Cantor's subsidiaries and outstanding at the effective time of the Mergers will be converted into one share of Class A common stock of BGC Group, Inc.; and
•each non-exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings will, subject to certain limited exceptions, be converted into awards denominated in cash, restricted stock and/or RSUs of BGC Group, Inc., each as further set forth in the Corporate Conversion Agreement.

In connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, BGC Group, Inc. is expected to assume our Equity Plan, which is expected to be amended and restated to increase the number of shares of Class A common stock reserved for the grant of awards thereunder, to make certain other additional changes in connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, and to change the name of the Equity Plan to the "BGC Group, Inc., Inc. Long Term Incentive Plan". It is also expected that, in connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, BGC Group, Inc. will assume our Incentive Plan, as appropriately amended and restated, and renamed the "BGC Group, Inc. Incentive Bonus Compensation Plan." There will no longer be any need for our Participation Plan following the Corporate Conversion Transactions.
The Corporate Conversion Agreement has been approved by our Board of Directors, at the recommendation of the independent Audit Committee and the independent Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors, sitting jointly (the "Joint Committee"). The Joint Committee has been advised by independent financial and legal advisors selected by the Joint Committee. Houlihan Lokey, Inc., as financial advisor, has provided a fairness opinion to the Joint Committee.
In the first quarter of 2023, we received preliminary approvals from various U.S. and international regulatory authorities relating to the Corporate Conversion Transactions. We continue to seek regulatory approvals where required. Following receipt of such approvals, and subject to other customary closing conditions, including approval of our shareholders, which are expected to be satisfied, we expect to close the Corporate Conversion in the third quarter of 2023.
We expect to file a Registration Statement on Form S-4 in connection with the Corporate Conversion in the second quarter of 2023. We also expect to provide additional information with respect to our expected tax rates going forward as soon as practicable.
Overview of Our Products and Services
Financial Brokerage and Technology
Financial Brokerage
While Voice and Hybrid brokerage revenues still represent the majority of BGC's overall revenues, we continue to convert our Voice and Hybrid brokerage to our higher margin, technology-driven Fenics business, which has grown to represent 25% of total BGC revenues excluding the Insurance brokerage business, during the fourth quarter of 2021. during the fourth quarter and year end 2022. Over the past several years, we have invested in, and developed, new state-of-the-art trading platforms, including Fenics UST, Fenics FX, Fenics GO, and PortfolioMatch, across Rates, FX, Equities, and Credit, respectively. We have also invested in, and deployed, trading technology solutions across our entire business, including our Voice and Hybrid brokerage desks, with an aim to increase our average broker productivity and to accelerate trends of electronic conversion. Underpinning our efforts to automate and electronify our overall brokerage business are macro trends across the capital markets, where the adoption of electronic trading has accelerated in recent years.
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in the first quarter of
Beginning in 2021, we began to categorize our Fenics business as Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms as follows:
• Fenics Markets includes the Fully Electronic portion of BGC's brokerage business, data, software and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues. Fenics Integrated, introduced during the second quarter of 2020, seamlessly integrates hybrid liquidity with customer electronic orders either by GUI and/or API. Desks are categorized as "Fenics Integrated" if they utilize sufficient levels of technology such that significant amounts of their transactions can be or are executed without broker intervention and have expected pre-tax margins of at least 25%.
• Fenics Growth Platforms includes Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX, PortfolioMatch and other newer standalone platforms. Revenues generated from data, software and post-trade attributable to Fenics Growth Platforms are included within their related businesses.
We have leveraged our Hybrid platform to provide real-time product and price discovery information through applications such as BGC Trader. We also provide straight-through processing to our customers for an increasing number of
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products. Our end-to-end solution includes real-time and auction-based transaction processing, credit and risk management tools and back-end processing and billing systems. Customers can access our trading application through our privately managed global high speed data network, over the Internet, or through third-party communication networks.
On November 3, 2021, the Company announced FMX, which will include Fenics' U.S. Treasury business with a state-of-the-art U.S. Rates futures platform. in development. Following the announcement and consultation with BGC's global clients and strategic partners, FMX will expand the scope of its futures product offering to cover the entire U.S. Rates Futures complex. for more information about FMX, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview and Business Environment."FMX is expected to complete all regulatory filings and submissions by the end of the first quarter. We remain on track for a soft launch of our futures platform, and we expect to announce our FMX strategic investors prior to the launch. For more information about FMX,
During the quarter, the Company continued to expand its cryptocurrency offerings within Lucera and kACE. Furthermore, we will be launching additional cryptocurrency and digital asset trading offerings throughout 2022, which will be underpinned by Fenics' state-of-the-art technology. BGC's futures exchange, acquired during the third quarter, was among the first exchanges to be permitted to list cryptocurrency derivative contracts. For more information about our cryptocurrency initiatives as well as the Futures Exchange Group acquisition, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Overview and Business Environment."
The following table identifies some of the key products that we broker:
| | | | | | |
| Rates | Interest rate derivatives |
| | |
| | Benchmark U.S. Treasuries |
| | |
| | Off-the-run U.S. Treasuries |
| | |
| | Other global government bonds |
| | |
| | Agencies |
| | |
| | Futures |
| | |
| | Inflation derivatives |
| | |
| | Repurchase agreements |
| | |
| | Non-deliverable swaps |
| | |
| | Interest rate swaps and options |
| | |
| Credit | Credit derivatives |
| | |
| | Asset-backed securities |
| | |
| | Convertibles |
| | |
| | Corporate bonds |
| | |
| | High yield bonds |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| | Emerging market bonds |
| | |
| Foreign Exchange | Foreign exchange forwards and options |
| | |
| | G-10 |
| | |
| | Emerging markets |
| | |
| | Cross currencies |
| | |
| | Exotic options |
| | |
| | Spot FX |
| | |
| | Emerging market FX options |
| | |
| | Non-deliverable forwards |
| | |
| Energy and Commodities (OTC and listed derivatives) | Environmental products and emissions |
| | |
| | Electricity |
| | |
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| | | | | | |
| | Natural Gas |
| | |
| | Coal |
| | |
| | Base and precious metals |
| | |
| | Refined and crude oil |
| | |
| | Soft commodities |
| | |
| | Shipping brokerage |
| | |
| Equity Derivatives and Cash Equities | Equity derivatives |
| | |
| | Cash equities |
| | |
| | Index futures |
| | |
| | Other derivatives and futures |
| | |
Certain categories of trades settle for clearing purposes with CF&Co, one of our affiliates. CF&Co is a member of FINRA and the Fixed Income Clearing Corporation ("FICC"), a subsidiary of the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation ("DTCC"). In addition, certain affiliated entities are subject to regulation by the CFTC, including CF&Co and BGCF. In certain products, we, CF&Co, BGC Financial and other affiliates act in a matched principal or principal capacity in markets by posting and/or acting upon quotes for our account. Such activity is intended, among other things, to assist us, CF&Co and other affiliates in managing proprietary positions (including, but not limited to, those established as a result of combination of trades and errors), facilitating transactions, framing markets, adding liquidity, increasing commissions and attracting order flow.
Technology Offerings
Our market data, software, and post-trade offerings provide a range of trade lifecycle services which include market data and analytics services, infrastructure and connectivity solutions, and post-trade services, such as trade compression, matching and other post-trade optimization services. These businesses have highly recurring and compounding revenue bases, which are reported within our overall Fenics business. We have invested in the growth of our Data, Software and Post-trade businesses, which continue to scale and represent record levels of overall revenue contribution to our overall business.
Fenics Market Data™ is a supplier of real-time, tradable, indicative, end-of-day and historical market data. Our market data product suite includes fixed income, interest rate derivatives, credit derivatives, foreign exchange, foreign exchange options, money markets, energy, metals, and equity derivatives and structured market data products and services. The data are
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is sourced from the Voice, Hybrid and Fully Electronic brokerage operations, across Electronic broking operations, as well as the market data operations, including BGC, GFI, RP Martin and Fenics, among others. The data is made available to financial professionals, research analysts, compliance and surveillance departments, and other market participants via direct data feeds and BGC-hosted FTP environments, as well as via information vendors such as Bloomberg, Refinitiv, ICE Data Services, QUICK Corp., and other select specialist vendors.In the fourth quarter of 2020, we began delivering our innovative new data product created for compliance and surveillance departments.
Through our Software Solutions business, we provide customized screen-based market solutions to both related and unrelated parties. Our clients are able to develop a marketplace, trade with their customers and access our network and our intellectual property. We can add advanced functionality to enable our customers to distribute branded products to their customers through online offerings and auctions, including private and reverse auctions, via our trading platform and global network.
Through kACE2, our analytics brand, we offer a derivative price discovery, pricing analysis, risk management and trading software used by over 200 institutions across over 20 countries. Our clients include mid-tier banks, financial institutions and corporate clients. In 2019 we launched our Gateway module that links our client base with their counterparties, trading venues and regulators, enabling clients to automate order flow, straight through processing, data distribution and regulatory reporting.
As part of our Software Solutions business, our Lucera® brand delivers high-performance technology solutions designed to be secure and scalable and to power demanding financial applications across several offerings: LumeFX® (distributed FX platform with managed infrastructure and software stack), LumeMarkets™ (multi-asset class aggregation platform), Connect™ (global SDN for rapid provisioning of connectivity to counter-parties), and Compute™ (on-demand, co-located compute services in key financial data centers).In 2020, we acquired Algomi (a buy-side focused platform that allows bond market participants to improve their workflow and liquidity by data aggregation, pre-trade information analysis, and execution facilitation) that was folded into Lucera and rebranded as LumeAlfa.
Through kACE2, our analytics brand, we offer a derivative price discovery, pricing analysis, risk management and trading software used by over 280 client sites in 35 countries. Our clients include mid-tier banks, financial institutions and corporate clients. Our Gateway module links our client base with their counterparties, trading venues and regulators, enabling clients to automate order flow, straight through processing, data distribution and regulatory reporting.
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Our Post-Trade Services include post-trade risk mitigation services provided using our Capitalab® brand. Capitalab, a division of BGC Brokers L.P. ("BGC Brokers"), provides compression, matching and optimization services that are designed to bring greater capital and operational efficiency to the global derivatives market. Capitalab assists clients in managing the growing cost of holding derivatives, while helping them to meet their regulatory mandates. Through the Swaptioniser® service for portfolio compression of Interest Rate Swaptions, Interest Rate Swaps, Caps and Floors, and through the Capitalab FX, with CLS service offering portfolio compression of FX Forwards, FX Swaps and FX Options, as well as Initial Margin Optimization services complete with fully automated trade processing and connection with LCH SwapAgent, Capitalab looks to simplify the complexities of managing large quantities of derivatives to promote sustainable growth and lower systemic risk and to improve resiliency in the industry.
Aqua Business
Cantor owns 51% and we own 49% of Aqua, a business that provides access to new block trading liquidity in the equities markets. The SEC has granted approval for Aqua to operate an Alternative Trading System in compliance with Regulation ATS.
Shipping Brokerage
In November 2018, we acquired Poten & Partners, a leading ship brokerage, consulting and business intelligence firm specializing in LNG, tanker and LPG markets. Founded over 80 years ago and with 170 employees worldwide, Poten & Partners provides its clients with valuable insight into the international oil, gas and shipping markets.
Energy Brokerage
In March 2019, we acquired Ginga Petroleum, which complemented our existing energy brokerage businesses within BGC, GFI, and Poten & Partners. Ginga Petroleum provides a comprehensive range of broking services for physical and derivative energy products including naphtha, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel oil, biofuels, middle distillates, petrochemicals and gasoline.
Disposition of Insurance Brokerage (Corant)
On November 1, 2021, the Company successfully completed the Insurance Business Disposition and, after closing adjustments, received $534.9 million in gross cash proceeds, subject to limited post-closing adjustments. The investment in the Insurance brokerage business generated an internal rate of return of 21.2% for our shareholders.

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Industry Recognition
Our businesses have consistently won global industry awards and accolades in recognition of their performance and achievements. Recent examples include:
•BGC won Best Broker for Options at the FX Markets Best Bank Awards 2021
•Capitalab was named Compression Service of the Year at the GlobalCapital Americas Derivatives Awards 2021
•Fenics Market Data was named Best Market Data Newcomer (Vendor or Product) at
•Fenics Market Data named Data and Analytics Vendor of the Year - Europe & Asia at the Global Derivatives Awards 2022 by GlobalCapital
•Fenics Market Data named Best Market Data Provider at WatersTechnology Inside Market Data & Inside Reference Data Awards 2022
•Fenics Market Data named Best Market Data Provider at FX Markets e-FX Awards 2021
•Fenics Market Data named Data Provider of the Year at The Asia Capital Markets Awards 2022 by FOW Global Investor Group
•Fenics GO was named OTC Trading Platform of the Year by Risk.net and Risk magazine at the Risk Awards 2021at the Asia Risk Awards 2022 by Risk.net
•Capitalab was named OTC Infrastructure Service of the Year by Risk.net and Risk magazine at the Risk Awards 2021
Customers and Clients
We primarily serve the wholesale financial markets, with clients including many of the world's largest banks, brokerage houses, investment firms, hedge funds, and investment banks. Customers using our products and services also include professional trading firms, futures commission merchants, and other professional market participants and financial institutions. Our market data products and services are available through many platforms and are available to a wide variety of capital market participants, including banks, investment banks, brokerage firms, asset managers, hedge funds, investment analysts, compliance and surveillance professionals and financial advisors. We also license our intellectual property portfolio and offerings in Software Solutions to various financial markets participants. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our top ten customers, collectively, accounted for approximately 31.0% of our total revenue on a consolidated basis, and our largest customer accounted for approximately 4.7% of our total revenue on a consolidated basis.
Sales and Marketing
Our brokers and salespeople are the primary marketing and sales resources to our customers. Thus, our sales and marketing program is aimed at enhancing the ability of our brokers to cross-sell effectively in addition to informing our customers about our product and service offerings. We also employ product teams and business development professionals. We leverage our customer relationships through a variety of direct marketing and sales initiatives and build and enhance our brand image through marketing and communications campaigns targeted at a diverse audience, including traders, potential partners
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and the investor and media communities. We may also market to our existing and prospective customers through a variety of co-marketing/co-branding initiatives with our partners.
Our brokerage product team is composed of product managers who are each responsible for a specific part of our brokerage business. The product managers seek to ensure that our brokers, across all regions, have access to technical expertise, support and multiple execution methods in order to grow and market their business. This approach of combining marketing with our product and service strategy has enabled us to turn innovative ideas into both deliverable Fully Electronic and Hybrid solutions.such as CreditMatch, our multi-asset hybrid offering to our customers for voice and electronic execution.
Our team of business development professionals is responsible for growing our global footprint through raising awareness of our products and services. The business development team markets our products and services to new and existing customers. As part of this process, they analyze existing levels of business with these entities in order to identify potential areas of growth and also to cross-sell our multiple offerings.
Our market data, software solutions, and post-trade products and services are promoted to our existing and prospective customers through a combination of sales, marketing and co-marketing campaigns.
These efforts are supported by a central team of professionals across marketing, design, event planning, public relations, and corporate communications.
Technology
Pre-Trade Technology. Our financial brokers use a suite of pricing and analytical tools that have been developed both in-house and in cooperation with specialist software suppliers. The pre-trade software suite combines proprietary market data, pricing and calculation libraries, together with those outsourced from external providers. The tools in turn publish to a normalized, global market data distribution platform, allowing prices and rates to be distributed to our proprietary network, data vendor pages, secure websites and trading applications as indicative pricing.
Inter-Dealer and Wholesale Trading Technology. We utilize a sophisticated proprietary electronic trading platform to provide execution and market data services to our customers. The services are available through our proprietary API, FIX and a
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multi-asset proprietary trading platform, operating under brands including BGC Trader™, CreditMatch®, Fenics®, FMX™ GFI ForexMatch®, BGCForex™, BGCCredit™, BGCRates™, FenicsFX™, FenicsUST™, FenicsDirect™, Fenics GO™, MidFX, GBX™, and Fenics Invitations™. This platform presently supports a wide and constantly expanding range of products and services, which includes FX options, corporate bonds, credit derivatives, OTC interest rate derivatives in multiple currencies, US REPO, TIPS, MBS, government bonds, spot FX, NDFs, and other products. Every product on the platform is supported in either view-only, Hybrid/managed or Fully Electronic mode, and can be transitioned from one mode to the next in response to market demands. The flexible BGC technology stack is designed to support feature-rich workflows required by the Hybrid mode as well as delivering high throughput and low transaction latency required by the Fully Electronic mode. Trades executed by our customers in any mode are, when applicable, eligible for immediate electronic confirmation through direct straight-through processing ("STP") links as well as STP hubs. The BGC trading platform services are operated out of several globally distributed data centers and delivered to customers over BGC's global private network, third-party connectivity providers as well as the Internet. BGC's proprietary graphical user interfaces and the API/FIX connectivity are deployed at hundreds of major banks and institutions and service thousands of users.
Post-Trade Straight Through Processing Technology. Our platform automates previously paper and telephone-based transaction processing, confirmation and other functions, substantially improving and reducing the cost of many of our customers' back offices and enabling STP. In addition to our own system, confirmation and trade processing is also available through third-party hubs, including MarkitWIRE, ICElink, Reuters RTNS, and STP in FIX for various banks.
We have electronic connections to most mainstream clearinghouses, including DTCC, CLS Group, Euroclear, Clearstream, Monte Titoli, LCH.Clearnet, Eurex Clearing, CME Clearing and the Options Clearing Corporation ("OCC"). As more products become centrally cleared, and as our customers request that we use a particular venue, we expect to expand the number of clearinghouses to which we connect in the future.
Systems Architecture. Our systems consist of layered components, which provide matching, credit management, market data distribution, position reporting, customer display and customer integration. The private network currently operates from six concurrent core data centers (three of which are in the U.K., one each in Trumbull, Connecticut, Weehawken, New Jersey and Secaucus, New Jersey) and many hub cities throughout the world acting as distribution points for all private network customers. The redundant structure of our system provides multiple backup paths and re-routing of data transmission in the event of failure.
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In addition to our own network system, we also receive and distribute secure trading information from customers using the services of multiple, major Internet service providers throughout the world. These connections enable us to offer our products and services via the Internet to our global customers.
Software Development
We devote substantial efforts to the development and improvement of our Hybrid and Fully Electronic marketplaces and licensed software products and services. We work with our customers to identify their specific requirements and make modifications to our software, network distribution systems and technologies that are responsive to those needs. Our efforts focus on internal development, strategic partnering, acquisitions and licensing.
Our Intellectual Property
We regard our technology and intellectual property rights, including our brands, as a critical part of our business. We hold various trademarks, trade dress and trade names and rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, service mark and trade secret laws, as well as contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We own numerous domain names and have registered numerous trademarks and/or service marks in the United States and foreign countries. Our trademark registrations must be renewed periodically, and, in most jurisdictions, every 10 years.
We have adopted a comprehensive intellectual property program to protect our proprietary technology and innovations. We currently have licenses covering various patents from related parties. We also have agreements to license technology that may be covered by several pending and/or issued U.S. patent applications relating to various aspects of our electronic trading systems, including both functional and design aspects. We have filed a number of patent applications to further protect our proprietary technology and innovations and have received patents for some of those applications. We will continue to file additional patent applications on new inventions, as appropriate, demonstrating our commitment to technology and innovation.
Our patent portfolio continues to grow, and we continue to look for opportunities to license and/or otherwise monetize the patents in our portfolio.
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Credit Risk
For a description of our exposure to credit risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Credit Risk."
Principal Transaction Risk
For a description of our exposure to principal transaction risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Principal Transaction Risk."
Market Risk
For a description of our exposure to market risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Market Risk."
Operational Risk
For a description of our exposure to operational risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Operational Risk."
Foreign Currency Risk
For a description of our exposure to foreign currency risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Foreign Currency Risk."
Interest Rate Risk
For a description of our exposure to interest rate risk, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Interest Rate Risk."
Disaster Recovery
For a description of our disaster recovery processes, see "Item 7A - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk - Disaster Recovery."
Competition
We encounter competition in all aspects of our business. We compete primarily with other inter-dealer or wholesale financial brokers for market share, brokers, salespeople, and suitable acquisition candidates. Our existing and potential competitors are numerous and include other wholesale financial brokerage and inter-dealer brokerage firms, multi-dealer trading companies, financial technology companies, market data and information vendors, securities and futures exchanges, electronic communications networks, crossing systems, software companies, financial trading consortia, shipping brokers, business-to-business marketplace infrastructure companies, as well as niche market energy and other Internet-based commodity trading systems.
Inter-Dealer or Wholesale Financial Brokers
We primarily compete with four publicly traded, diversified inter-dealer and/or wholesale financial brokers. These are TP ICAP, Tradition, and Dealerweb, an inter-dealer and wholesale financial brokerage business within Tradeweb Markets, Inc. ("Tradeweb"), and XP Inc.'s fixed income and FX inter-dealer broking business. Other competitors include a number of smaller, private firms that tend to specialize in specific product areas or geographies, such as Marex Spectron Group Limited in energy and commodities, XP Inc. in fixed income and foreign exchange, and Gottex Brokers Holding SA, which is an affiliate of Tradition, in OTC interest rate derivatives.
Demand for wholesale brokerage services is directly affected by the overall level of economic activity, international and domestic economic and political conditions, including central bank policies, broad trends in business and finance, including employment levels, the level and volatility of interest rates, changes in and uncertainty regarding tax laws and substantial fluctuations in the volume and price levels of securities transactions. Other significant factors affecting competition in the brokerage industry are the quality and ability of professional personnel, the depth and pricing efficiency of the markets in which the brokers transact, the strength of the technology used to service and execute on those markets and the relative prices of products and services offered by the brokers and by competing markets and trading processes.
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Business development is another highly competitive component of wholesale financial brokerage. During the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional business development efforts were adversely impacted for both us and our competitors. Competition for new and existing client business remains high, as does the importance of developing new ways to execute successful business development efforts in the current environment.
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Market Data, Financial Software and Post-Trade Solution Vendors
The majority of our large inter-dealer and wholesale financial broker competitors also sell proprietary market data and information, which competes with our market data offerings. In addition to direct sales, we resell market data through large market data and information providers. These companies have established significant presences on the vast majority of trading desks in our industry. Some of these market data and information providers, such as Bloomberg L.P. and Refinitiv, include in their product mix electronic trading and execution of both OTC and listed products in addition to their traditional market data offerings. In January 2021, Refinitiv was acquired by the London Stock Exchange Group ("LSEG"), which also sells proprietary market data and information.
Growth in new trading venues has led to fragmentation of liquidity across the financial markets. Our software solutions business helps aggregate liquidity and connect counterparties across these marketplaces. We compete with other market infrastructure and connectivity providers, such as Pico, ION Group and Broadway Technology in this space.
Our post-trade services that offer derivative compression, matching and optimization services operate in an industry which has benefitted from increased regulatory requirements. Competition in this space includes OSSTRA, a joint venture between CME Group Inc. and IHS Markit Ltd, Parameta Solutions, TP ICAP's data and analytics business, Quantile Group Limited ("Quantile") and Capitolis. Quantile was acquired by the LSEG in December 2020 for a maximum aggregate consideration of £274 million.
Exchanges and Other Trading Platforms
Although our business will often use exchanges to execute transactions brokered in both listed and OTC markets, we believe that exchanges have sought and will seek to migrate products traditionally traded in OTC markets by inter-dealer and/or wholesale financial brokers to exchanges. However, we believe that when a product goes from OTC to exchange-traded, the underlying or related OTC market often continues to experience growth in line with the growth of the exchange-traded contract. In addition, ICE operates both regulated exchanges and OTC execution services, and in the latter, it competes directly with inter-dealer and/or wholesale financial brokers in energy, commodities, and credit products. ICE entered these OTC markets primarily by acquiring independent OTC brokers. We also compete with CME via its acquisition of NEX and our expected launch of U.S. Rates Futures in the second quarter of 2023. We believe that it is likely ICE, CME, or other exchange operators may seek to compete with us in the future by acquiring other such brokers, by creating listed products designed to mimic OTC products, or through other means.
In addition to exchanges, other electronic trading platforms which primarily operate in the dealer-to-client markets, including those run by MarketAxess Holdings Inc. ("MarketAxess") and Tradeweb now compete with us in the inter-dealer markets. At the same time, we have begun to offer an increasing number of our products and services to the customers of firms like MarketAxess and Tradeweb. Further, ICE also operates a SEF, as does Tradeweb, and we expect that other exchanges and trading platforms may also seek to do so.
Banks and Broker-Dealers
Banks and broker-dealers have in the past created and/or funded consortia to compete with exchanges and inter-dealer brokers. For example, CME's wholesale businesses for fully electronic trading of U.S. Treasuries and spot foreign exchange both began as dealer-owned consortia before being acquired by ICAP plc, the predecessor company to CME's NEX platform. An example of a current and similar consortium is Tradeweb. Several large banks continue to hold public equity stakes in Tradeweb. Refinitiv, which was acquired by the LSEG in January 2021, is Tradeweb's single largest shareholder. Although Tradeweb operates primarily as a dealer to customer platform, some of its offerings include a voice and electronic inter-dealer platform and a SEF. Tradeweb's management has previously said that it would like to further expand into other inter-dealer markets, and in June 2021, it acquired Nasdaq's U.S. fixed income electronic trading platform, formerly known as eSpeed. In 2013, BGC sold the eSpeed platform to Nasdaq, and subsequently launched a competing platform, Fenics UST.
In addition, certain investment management firms that traditionally deal with banks and broker-dealers have expressed a desire to have direct access to certain parts of the wholesale financial markets via firms such as ours. We believe that over time, interdealer-brokers will therefore gain a growing percentage of the sales and trading market currently dominated by banks and broker-dealers. Since their collective revenues are many times those of the global inter-dealer market, we believe that gaining even a small share of banks and broker-dealers' revenues could lead to a meaningful increase in our revenues.
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Additionally, wholesale financial brokers have aimed to grow their agency brokerage businesses, which typically serve a broader client set, including banks, broker-dealers, and institutional clients, Recent actions taken by wholesale financial brokers to expand their agency businesses include our acquisition of Algomi in March 2020 and such as TP ICAP's acquisition of Liquidnet in March 2021.
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Overall, we believe that we may also face future competition from market data and technology companies and some securities brokerage firms, some of which are currently our customers, as well as from any future strategic alliances, joint ventures or other partnerships created by one or more of our potential or existing competitors.
Seasonality
Traditionally, the financial markets around the world generally experience lower volume during the late summer and at the end of the year due to a slowdown in the business environment around holiday seasons. Therefore, our revenues tend to be strongest in the first quarter and lowest in the second half of the year. For both of the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, we earned approximately 28.2% of our revenues in the first quarter.while in 2020 we earned 29.3% of such revenues in the first quarter.
Partnership Overview
Many of our key brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front office professionals have a substantial amount of their own capital invested in our business, aligning their interests with our stockholders. Limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings (received in connection with the Spin-Off) consist of: (i) "founding/working partner units" held by limited partners who are employees; (ii) "limited partnership units," which consist of a variety of units that are generally held by employees such as REUs, RPUs, PSUs, PSIs, PSEs, HDUs, U.K. LPUs, APSUs, APSIs, APSEs, AREUs, ARPUs and NPSUs; (iii) "Cantor units" which are the exchangeable limited partnership interests held by Cantor entities; and (iv) Preferred Units, which are working partner units that may be awarded to holders of, or contemporaneous with, the grant of certain limited partnership units. For further details, see "Our Organizational Structure." NPSUs are partnership units that are not entitled to participate in partnership distributions, not allocated any items of profit or loss and may not be exchangeable into shares of our common stock. On terms and conditions determined by us as the general partner of BGC Holdings in our sole discretion, NPSUs are expected to be replaced by a grant of limited partnership units, which may be set forth in a written schedule and subject to additional terms and conditions, provided that, in all circumstances such grant of limited partnership units shall be contingent upon our, including our affiliates, earning, in aggregate, at least $5 million in gross revenues in the calendar quarter in which the applicable award of limited partnership units is to be granted. In addition, we have N Units which are non-distributing partnership units that may not be allocated any item of profit or loss and may not be made exchangeable into shares of our Class A common stock. Subject to the approval of the Compensation Committee or its designee, the N Units are expected to be converted into the underlying unit type (i.e., an NREU will be converted into an REU) and then participate in distributions from BGC Holdings, subject to terms and conditions determined by us as the general partner of BGC Holdings in our sole discretion, including that the recipient continue to provide substantial services to us and comply with his or her partnership obligations.
We believe that our emphasis on equity-based compensation promotes recruitment, motivation of our brokers and employees and alignment of interest with shareholders. Virtually all of our executives and front-office employees have equity or partnership stakes in us and our subsidiaries and generally receive grants of deferred equity or LPUs as part of their compensation. A significant percentage of BGC's fully diluted shares are owned by its executives, partners and employees. While BGC Holdings limited partnership interests generally entitle our partners to participate in distributions of income from the operations of our business, upon leaving BGC Holdings (or upon any other redemption or purchase of such limited partnership interests as described below), any such partners are only entitled to receive over time, and provided he or she does not violate certain partner obligations, an amount for his or her BGC Holdings limited partnership interests that reflects such partner's capital account or compensatory grant awards, excluding any goodwill or going concern value of our business unless Cantor, in the case of the founding partners, and we, as the general partner of BGC Holdings, otherwise determine. We may effect redemptions of BGC Holdings LPUs and FPUs, and concurrently grant shares of our Class A common stock, or may grant our partners the right to exchange their BGC Holdings limited partnership interests for shares of our Class A common stock (if, in the case of founding partners, Cantor so determines and, in the case of working partners and limited partnership unit holders, we, as the BGC Holdings general partner, with Cantor's consent, determine otherwise) and thereby realize any higher value associated with our Class A common stock. Similar provisions with respect to Newmark Holdings limited partnership interests are contained in the Newmark Holdings limited partnership agreement. We believe that having invested in us, partners feel a sense of responsibility for the health and performance of our business and have a strong incentive to maximize our revenues and profitability.
Impact of Corporate Conversion
In connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, each exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings held by Cantor or one of its subsidiaries and outstanding at the effective time of the Mergers will be converted into one share of Class B common stock of BGC Group, Inc., subject to the terms and conditions of the Corporate Conversion Agreement, provided that a portion of the shares of BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock issued to Cantor will exchange
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into BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock in the event that BGC Group, Inc. does not issue at least $75,000,000 in BGC Group, Inc. common stock in connection with certain acquisition transactions prior to the seventh anniversary of the closing of the Mergers; each exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings not held by Cantor or any of Cantor's subsidiaries and outstanding at the effective time of the Mergers will be converted into one share of Class A common stock of BGC Group, Inc.; and each non-exchangeable limited partnership unit of BGC Holdings will, subject to certain limited exceptions, be converted into awards denominated in cash, restricted stock and/or RSUs of BGC Group, Inc., each as further set forth in the Corporate Conversion Agreement. See "-Our History-Corporate Conversion."
Relationship Between BGC Partners and Cantor
See "-Our Organizational Structure" and "Risk Factors - Risks Related to our Relationship with Cantor and its Affiliates."
Debt
For information about our credit agreements and senior notes, see "Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources."
Newmark Spin-Off
On November 30, 2018, we completed the Spin-Off of the shares of Newmark Class A and Class B common stock held by us to our stockholders as of the close of business on the Record Date through a special pro-rata stock dividend pursuant to which shares of Newmark Class A common stock held by BGC were distributed to holders of BGC Class A common stock and shares of Newmark Class B common stock held by BGC were distributed to holders of BGC Class B common stock (which holders of BGC Class B common stock were Cantor and CFGM). Following the Spin-Off, BGC no longer holds any interest in Newmark.
Regulation
U.S. Regulation
The financial services industry in the United States is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws. As registered broker-dealers, introducing brokers and FCMs, and other types of regulated entities as described below, certain of our subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations which cover all aspects of financial services, including sales methods, trade practices, use and safekeeping of customers' funds and securities, minimum capital requirements, recordkeeping, business practices, securities lending and financing of securities purchases and the conduct of associated persons. We and our subsidiaries also are subject to the various anti-fraud provisions of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the Commodity Exchange Act, certain state securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. We also may be subject to vicarious and controlling person liability for the activities of our subsidiaries and our officers, employees and affiliated persons.
The SEC is the federal agency primarily responsible for the administration of federal securities laws, including adopting rules and regulations applicable to broker-dealers (other than government securities broker-dealers) and enforcing both its rules regarding broker-dealers and the Treasury's rules regarding government securities broker-dealers. In addition, we operate a number of platforms that are governed pursuant to SEC Regulation ATS. Broker-dealers are also subject to regulation by state securities administrators in those states in which they conduct business or have registered to do business. In addition, Treasury rules relating to trading government securities apply to such activities when engaged in by broker-dealers. The CFTC is the federal agency primarily responsible for the administration of federal commodities future laws and other acts, including the adoption of rules applicable to FCMs, Designated Contract Markets ("DCM") and SEFs such as BGC Derivative Markets, L.P. ("BGC Derivative Markets") and GFI Swaps Exchange LLC.
Much of the regulation of broker-dealers' operations in the United States has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations. These self-regulatory organizations adopt rules (which are subject to approval by the SEC) that govern the operations of broker-dealers and government securities broker-dealers and conduct periodic inspections and examinations of their operations. In the case of our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries, the principal self-regulatory organization is FINRA. FINRA was formed from the consolidation of the NASD's member regulation operations and the regulatory arm of the NYSE Group to act as the self-regulatory organization for all broker-dealers doing business within the United States. Accordingly, our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to both scheduled and unscheduled examinations by the SEC and FINRA. In our futures-related activities, our subsidiaries are also subject to the rules of the CFTC, futures exchanges of which they are members and the NFA, a futures self-regulatory organization.See the section entitled "2019 Settlement" below for a description of the September 2019 settlement between two of our subsidiaries and the CFTC and NYAG.
The changing regulatory environment, new laws that may be passed by Congress, and rules that may be promulgated by the SEC, the Treasury, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the CFTC, the NFA, FINRA and other self-regulatory organizations, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, if adopted, may directly affect our operations and profitability and those of our competitors and customers and of the securities markets in which we participate in a way that could adversely affect our business.
The SEC, self-regulatory organizations and state securities administrators conduct informal and formal investigations of possible improprieties or illegal action by broker-dealers and their "associated persons," which could be followed by the institution of administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings against broker-dealers and/or "associated persons." Among the
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sanctions that may result if administrative, civil or criminal proceedings were ever instituted against us or our "associated persons" are injunctions, censure, fines, penalties, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or suspension or expulsion from the industry and, in rare instances, even imprisonment. The principal purpose of regulating and disciplining broker-dealers is to protect customers and the securities markets, rather than to protect broker-dealers or their creditors or equity holders. From time to time, our "associated persons" have been and are subject to routine investigations, none of which to date have had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
In light of recent events in the U.S. and global financial markets, Regulators and legislators in the U.S. and EU continue to craft new laws and regulations for the global OTC derivatives markets. The Dodd-Frank Act mandates or encourages several reforms regarding derivatives, including new regulations for swaps markets creating impartiality considerations, additional pre- and post-trade transparency requirements, and heightened collateral or capital standards, as well as recommendations for the obligatory use of central clearing for most standardized derivatives. The law also requires that standardized OTC derivatives be traded in an open and non-exclusionary manner on a DCM or a SEF.The SEC is still in the process of finalizing rules for the implementation of many of these requirements, however the SEC has not indicated when they may release their rule set surrounding security-based SEFs. The actual implementation of such rules may be phased in over a longer period.
As these rules require authorized execution facilities to maintain robust front-end and back-office IT capabilities and to make large and ongoing technology investments, and because these execution facilities may be supported by a variety voice and auction-based execution methodologies, we expect our hybrid and fully electronic trade and execution capability to perform strongly in such an environment.
Similarly, while the Volcker Rule does not apply directly to us, the Volcker Rule may have a material impact on many of the banking and other institutions with which we do business or compete. There may be continued uncertainty regarding the Volcker Rule, its impact on various affected businesses, how those businesses will respond to it, and the effect that it will have on the markets in which we do business.
BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange, our subsidiaries, operate as SEFs. Mandatory Dodd-Frank Act compliant execution on SEFs by eligible U.S. persons commenced in February 2014 for "made available to trade" products, and a wide range of other rules relating to the execution and clearing of derivative products were finalized with implementation periods in 2016 and beyond. We also own ELX, which became a dormant contract market on July 1, 2017 and in July 2021, we completed the purchase of the CX Futures Exchange (now FMX Futures Exchange) from Cantor, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse. As these rules require authorized execution facilities to maintain robust front-end and back-office IT capabilities and to make large and ongoing technology investments, and because these execution facilities may be supported by a variety of voice and auction-based execution methodologies, we expect our Hybrid and Fully Electronic trading capability to perform strongly in such an environment.
On June 25, 2020, the CFTC approved a final rule prohibiting post-trade name give-up for swaps executed, prearranged or prenegotiated anonymously on or pursuant to the rules of a SEF and intended to be cleared. The rule provides exemptions for package transactions that include a component transaction that is not a swap that is intended to be cleared. The rule went into effect on November 1, 2020 for swaps subject to the trade execution requirement under the Commodity Exchange Act Section 2(h)(8) and July 5, 2021 for swaps not subject to the trade execution requirement, but intended to be cleared.
On April 6, 2022, the SEC proposed Rules for the Registration and Regulation of Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities. The SEC proposed new Regulation SE under the Exchange Act to create a regime for the registration and regulation of SBSEFs. The new regulatory framework was one of the major reforms required under Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act relating to the over-the-counter derivatives market.
In developing this proposal, the SEC sought to harmonize as closely as practicable with parallel rules of the CFTC that govern SEFs and swap execution generally. The proposal was published on SEC.gov and in the Federal Register with a public comment period of 60 days. If adopted as proposed, the proposal would implement the Exchange Act's trade execution requirement for security-based swaps and address the cross-border application of that requirement; implement Section 765 of the Dodd-Frank Act to mitigate conflicts of interest at SBSEFs and national securities exchanges that trade security-based swaps; and promote consistency between proposed Regulation SE and existing rules under the Exchange Act.
In addition, several state laws that have recently come to into effect, and may come into effect in the future, have created and will create new compliance obligations in related to personal data.
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Recent Settlements
In September 2019, two of the Company's subsidiaries, BGCF and GFI Securities LLC, settled investigations conducted jointly by the CFTC. and the NYAG. The CFTC and NYAG alleged that in 2014 and 2015, certain emerging markets foreign exchange options (EFX options) brokers in The U.S. misrepresented that certain prices posted to their electronic platform were immediately executable when in fact they were not and that such brokers had communicated that transactions had been matched when they had not. On October 9, 2019, The Company paid an aggregate of $25.0 million in connection with the settlements and agreed to a monitor for two years to assess regulatory compliance, which monitorship concluded in October 2021. The NYAG settlements include a non-prosecution agreement, and there was no criminal penalty from either agency.
On September 29, 2022, one of the Company's subsidiaries, CX Futures Exchange, L.P. a/k/a FMX Futures Exchange, L.P. (CX) a designated contract market, reached a settlement with the CFTC. The CFTC alleged that from September 2017 to August 2021, CX failed to comply with certain system safeguards regulations. The CFTC also alleged that from November 2017 to June 2020, CX failed to report certain data for approximately 200,000 options transactions to the CFTC, and that from November 2017 to August 2022, CX failed to report certain data for the same transactions to a swap data repository. The CFTC further alleged that in connection with a 2017 request for a no-action letter regarding its swap data repository reporting obligations, CX represented to CFTC staff that its trading data was being reported to the CFTC when it had not been reported. In connection with the settlement, CX paid a $6.5 million civil monetary penalty, and agreed to comply with certain conditions and undertakings, including that CX back-report all required swap reporting data. A criminal penalty was not imposed.
In September 2020, the SEC announced a settlement with BGC regarding alleged negligent disclosure violations related to one of BGC's non-GAAP financial measures for periods beginning with the first quarter of 2015 through the first quarter of 2016. All of the relevant disclosures related to those periods and pre-dated the SEC staff's May 2016 detailed
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compliance and disclosure guidance with respect to non-GAAP presentations. BGC revised its non-GAAP presentation beginning with the second quarter of 2016 as a result of the SEC's guidance, and the SEC has made no allegations with regard to any periods following the first quarter of 2016. In connection with the SEC settlement, BGC was ordered to cease and desist from any future violations of Sections 17(a)(2) and 17(a)(3) of the Securities Act, Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13a-11 thereunder, and Rule 100(b) of Regulation G, and agreed to pay A civil penalty of $1.4 million without admitting or denying the SEC's allegations.
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U.K. and European Regulation
The FCA is the relevant statutory regulator for the United Kingdom financial services industry. The FCA's objectives are to protect customers and financial markets, protect and enhance the integrity of the United Kingdom financial system and promote competition between financial services providers. It has broad rule-making, investigative and enforcement powers derived from the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and subsequent and derivative legislation and regulations. The FCA's recent focus has been on financial and operational resilience, and promoting market integrity. Currently, we have subsidiaries and branches regulated by the FCA (some include BGC Brokers L.P., the U.K. branch of Aurel BGC, GFI Securities Ltd., and GFI Brokers Limited). GFI Securities Limited, and GFI Brokers Limited).
From time to time, we have been and are subject to periodic examinations, inspections and investigations, including periodic risk assessment and related reviews of our U.K. group. As a result of such reviews, we may be required to include or enhance certain regulatory structures and frameworks in our operating procedures, systems and controls. When acquiring control of regulated entities, we may be required to obtain the consent of their applicable regulator.
The FCA has in the past developed a practice of requiring senior officers of regulated firms to provide individual attestations or undertakings as to the status of a firm's control environment, compliance with specific rules and regulations, or the completion of required tasks. Officers of BGC Brokers L.P. and GFI Brokers Limited have previously given such attestations or undertakings and may do so again in the future. Similarly, the FCA can seek a voluntary requirement notice, which is a voluntary undertaking on behalf of a firm that is made publicly available on the FCA's website. The SMCR came into effect in the U.K. on December 9, 2019 for FCA solo-regulated firms. Personal accountability requirements fall on senior managers, and a wider population of U.K. staff are subject to certification requirements and conduct rules. SMCR has increased the cost of compliance and will potentially increase financial penalties for non-compliance.
Recent Settlements
On December 8, 2022, certain of the Company's U.K. subsidiaries, BGC Brokers LP, GFI Brokers Limited and GFI Securities Limited, were fined a total US$5.8 million, or GBP 4.8 million, in relation to what the FCA characterized as a "legacy matter for the Firms", for failings in relation to aspects of their trade surveillance systems during the period July 2016 to January 2018. The firms engaged in a remediation process during the course of late 2017 and much of 2018, during which the surveillance systems and controls were significantly enhanced. The fines are therefore in respect of matters that have been fully remediated for some years now.
European Regulation
European Regulatory Developments
The EMIR Directive on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories was adopted in July 2012. EMIR fulfills several of the EU's G20 commitments to reform OTC derivatives markets. The reforms are designed to reduce systemic risk and bring more transparency to both OTC and listed derivatives markets.
Along with the implementation of EMIR reporting requirements, the Regulation on Wholesale Energy Markets Integrity and Transparency ("REMIT") Implementation Acts became effective on January 7, 2015. The REMIT Implementing Acts developed by the European Commission define the details of reporting under REMIT, drawing up the list of reportable contracts and derivatives; defining details, timing and form of reporting, and establishing harmonized rules to report that information to the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators ("ACER"). They enable ACER to collect information in relation to wholesale energy market transactions and fundamentals through the Agency's REMIT Information System (ARIS), to analyze this data to detect market abuse and to report suspicious events to the National Competent Authorities, which are responsible for investigating these matters further, and if required, imposing sanctions. Market participants and third parties reporting on their behalf have had to: (i) report transactions executed at organized marketplaces and fundamental data from the central information transparency platforms; and (ii) report transactions in the remaining wholesale energy contracts (OTC standard and non-standard supply contracts, transportation contracts) and additional fundamental data.
To achieve a high level of harmonization and convergence in regular supervisory reporting requirements, the Committee of European Banking Supervisors issued guidelines on prudential reporting with the aim of developing a supervisory reporting framework based on common formats, known as COREP. COREP has become part of European Banking Authorities' implementing technical standards on reporting under Basel III. Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord) is a global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk introduced by bank regulators in most, if not all, of the world's major economies. Basel III is designed to strengthen bank capital requirements and introduces new regulatory requirements on bank liquidity and bank leverage. The ongoing adoption of these rules could restrict the ability of our large bank and broker-dealer customers to operate proprietary trading businesses and to maintain current capital market exposures under the present structure of their balance sheets, and will cause these entities to need to raise additional capital in order to stay active in our marketplaces. Meanwhile, global "Basel IV" standards are expected be adopted in the years to come.
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Much of our global derivatives volumes continue to be executed by non-U.S. based clients outside the U.S. and subject to local prudential regulations. As such, we will continue to operate a number of European regulated venues in accordance with EU or U.K. legislation and licensed by the FCA or EU-based national supervisors. These venues are also operated for non-derivative instruments for these clients. MiFID II was published by the European Securities and Markets Authority in September 2015 and implemented in January 2018 and introduced important infrastructural changes.
MiFID II requires a significant part of the market in these instruments to trade on trading venues subject to transparency regimes, not only in pre- and post-trade prices, but also in fee structures and access. In addition, it has impacted a number of key areas, including corporate governance, transaction reporting, pre- and post-trade transparency, technology synchronization, best execution and investor protection.
MiFID II was intended to help improve the functioning of the EU single market by achieving a greater consistency of regulatory standards. By design, therefore, it was intended that EU member states should have very similar regulatory regimes in relation to the matters addressed to MiFID. MiFID II has also introduced a new regulated execution venue category called an OTF that captures much of the voice-and hybrid-oriented trading in the EU. Much of our existing EU derivatives and fixed income execution business now take place on OTFs. Further to its decision to leave the EU, the U.K. has implemented MIFID II's requirements into its own domestic legislation. Brexit may impact future market structures and MiFID II rulemaking and implementation due to potential changes in mutual passporting and equivalence arrangements between the U.K. and EU member states. See "- Brexit" below.
Rights in relation to an individual's personal data in the EU and U.K. are governed respectively by the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in the EU and the equivalent Data Protection Act 2018 in the U.K. Since May 25, 2018, when these two pieces of legislation came into effect, we have been subject to in addition, the GDPR came into effect in the EU on May 25, 2018, and creates new compliance obligations in relation to such personal data and the possibility of significant the GDPR may affect our practices, and will increase financial penalties for non-compliance.significantly.
In 2019, a new European Commission took office which may over the course of its five-year mandate or introduce new legislative proposals for the Financial Services Sector and change the Brexit landscape for EU and UK financial firms alike. We are unable to predict how any of these new laws and proposed rules and regulations in the U.S. or the U.K. will be implemented or in what form, or whether any additional or similar changes to statutes or rules and regulations, including the interpretation or implementation thereof or a relaxation or other amendment of existing rules and regulations, will occur in the future. Any such action could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways, including important changes in market infrastructure, increased reporting costs and a potential rearrangement in the sources of available revenue in a more transparent market. Certain enhanced regulations could subject us to the risk of fines, sanctions, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements and additional restrictions or limitations on our ability to conduct or grow our businesses, and could otherwise have an adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We believe that uncertainty and potential delays around the final form of such new rules and regulations may negatively impact our customers and trading volumes in certain markets in which we transact, Although a relaxation of existing rules and requirements could potentially have a positive impact in certain markets. Increased capital requirements may also diminish transaction velocity.
Apart from some minor non-material changes, at this time there has not been any legislation from the EU Commission or the U.K. Government that have materially changed how the U.K. and EU approach financial regulation since MiFID II and the implementation of Brexit. Although divergence of U.K. regulation from EU regulation may occur, there has been no firm legislative change signaled or published by the FCA or the U.K. Government.
We believe that it remains premature to know conclusively the specific aspects of the U.S. and EU proposals that may directly affect our businesses, as some proposals have not yet been finalized and others which have been proposed remain subject to supervisory debate. While we generally believe the net impact of the rules and regulations are positive for our business, it is possible that unintended consequences of the rules and regulations may materially adversely affect us in ways yet to be determined.
Brexit
On January 1, 2021, the U.K. formally left the EU and U.K.-EU trade became subject to a new agreement that was concluded in December of 2020. The exit from the EU is commonly referred to as Brexit. Financial services fall outside of the scope of this trade agreement. At the time the relationship was expected to be determined by a series of "equivalence decisions," each of which would grant mutual market access for a limited subset of financial services where either party finds the other party has a regulatory regime that achieves similar outcomes to its own. It is currently unknown if or when equivalence decisions will be taken. In March 2021, the U.K. and EU agreed a Memorandum of Understanding on Financial Services Regulatory Cooperation which creates a structure for dialogue but does not include commitments on equivalence.
In light of ongoing uncertainties, market participants are still adjusting the way in which they conduct business between the U.K. and EU. The impact of Brexit on the U.K.-EU flow of financial services therefore remains unknown. This same uncertainty applies to the consequences for the and economies of the U.K. and the EU member states as a result of the U.K.'s withdrawal from the EU.continues to evolve.
We implemented plans to ensure continuity of service in Europe and continue to have regulated offices in place in many of the major European markets. As part of our ongoing Brexit strategy, ownership of BGC Madrid, Copenhagen and Frankfurt & GFI Paris, Madrid and Dublin branches was transferred to Aurel BGC SAS (a French-based operation and therefore based in the EU) in July 2020. We have been generally increasing our footprint in the EU which includes the establishment of a new branch office of Aurel BGC SAS in Milan and a new office in Monaco under a new local Monaco subsidiary.
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Regardless of these and other mitigating measures, our European headquarters and largest operations are in London, and market access risks and uncertainties have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our customers, counterparties, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, in the future the U.K. and EU's regulation may diverge, which could disrupt and increase the costs of our operations, and result in a loss of existing levels of cross-border market access.
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Other Regulation
Our subsidiaries that have foreign operations are subject to regulation by the relevant regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations in the countries in which they do business. The following table sets forth certain jurisdictions, other than the U.S., in which we do business and the applicable regulatory authority or authorities of each such jurisdiction:
| | | | | | | | | |
| Jurisdiction | | Regulatory Authorities/Self-Regulatory |
| | | Organizations |
| | | |
| Argentina | | Comisión Nacional de Valores |
| | | |
| Australia | | Australian Securities and Investments Commission and Australian Securities Exchange |
| | | |
| Bahrain | | The Central Bank of Bahrain |
| | | |
| Bermuda | | Bermuda Monetary Authority |
| | | |
| Brazil | | Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, the Central Bank of Brazil, BM&F BOVESPA and Superintendencia de Seguors Privados |
| | | |
| Canada | | Ontario Securities Commission, Autorite des Marches Financiers (Quebec), Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) |
| | | |
| Cayman | | Cayman Islands Monetary Authority |
| | | |
| Chile | | Superintendencia de Valores y Seguros |
| | | |
| China | | China Banking Regulatory Commission, State Administration of Foreign Exchange and China Insurance Regulatory Commission |
| | | |
| Columbia | | Superintendencia Financiera de Columbia |
| | | |
| Cyprus | | Superintendent of Insurance |
| | | |
| Denmark | | Finanstilsynet |
| | | |
| Dubai | | Dubai Financial Supervisory Authority |
| | | |
| France | | ACPR (L'Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution), AMF (Autorité des Marchés Financiers) |
| | | |
| Germany | | Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BAFIN) |
| | | |
| Hong Kong | | Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission and The Hong Kong Monetary Authority |
| | | |
| Ireland | | Central Bank of Ireland |
| | | |
| Italy | | Commissione Nazionale Per Le Societa E La Borsa (CONSOB) |
| | | |
| Japan | | Japanese Financial Services Agency, Japan Securities Dealers Association and the Securities and Exchange Surveillance Commission |
| | | |
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| | | | | | | | | |
| Mexico | | Banking and Securities National Commission, Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores (CNBV) |
| | | |
| Monaco | | Commission for the Control of Financial Affairs (CCAF) |
| | | |
| Peru | | Ministerio de Economica y Finanzas |
| | | |
| Philippines | | Securities and Exchange Commission |
| | | |
| Russia | | Federal Service for Financial Markets |
| | | |
| Singapore | | Monetary Authority of Singapore |
| | | |
| South Africa | | Johannesburg Stock Exchange |
| | | |
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| | | | | | | | | |
| South Korea | | Ministry of Strategy and Finance, The Bank of Korea, The Financial Services Commission and The Financial Supervisory Service |
| | | |
| Spain | | Comision Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV) |
| | | |
| Switzerland | | Financial Markets Supervisory Authority (FINMA), Swiss Federal Banking Commission |
| | | |
| Turkey | | Capital Markets Board of Turkey, The Financial Crimes Investigation Board of Turkey, the Undersecretariat of the Turkish Treasury and the Insurance Regulation and Supervision Authority |
| | | |
| United Kingdom | | Financial Conduct Authority |

Capital Requirements
U.S.
Every U.S.-registered broker-dealer is subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. FCMs, such as our subsidiary, Mint Brokers ("Mint"), are also subject to CFTC capital requirements. These requirements are designed to ensure financial soundness and liquidity by prohibiting a broker or dealer from engaging in business at a time when it does not satisfy minimum net capital requirements.
In the United States, net capital is essentially defined as net worth (assets minus liabilities), plus qualifying subordinated borrowings and less certain mandatory deductions that result from excluding assets that are not readily convertible into cash and from conservatively valuing certain other assets, such as a firm's positions in securities. Among these deductions are adjustments, commonly referred to as "haircuts," to the market value of securities positions to reflect the market risk of such positions prior to their liquidation or disposition. The Uniform Net Capital Requirements also impose a minimum ratio of debt to equity, which may include qualified subordinated borrowings.
Regulations have been adopted by the SEC that prohibit the withdrawal of equity capital of a broker-dealer, restrict the ability of a broker-dealer to distribute or engage in any transaction with a parent company or an affiliate that results in a reduction of equity capital or to provide an unsecured loan or advance against equity capital for the direct or indirect benefit of certain persons related to the broker-dealer (including partners and affiliates) if the broker-dealer's net capital is, or would be as a result of such withdrawal, distribution, reductions, loan or advance, below specified thresholds of excess net capital. In addition, the SEC's regulations require certain notifications to be provided in advance of such withdrawals, distributions, reductions, loans and advances that exceed, in the aggregate, 30% of excess net capital within any 30-day period. The SEC has the authority to restrict, for up to 20 business days, such withdrawal, distribution or reduction of capital if the SEC concludes that it may be detrimental to the financial integrity of the broker-dealer or may expose its customers or creditors to loss. Notice is required following any such withdrawal, distribution, reduction, loan or advance that exceeds, in the aggregate, 20% of excess net capital within any 30-day period. The SEC's regulations limiting withdrawals of excess net capital do not preclude the payment to employees of "reasonable compensation."
Four of our subsidiaries, BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution, LLC and Mint, are registered with the SEC and are subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. As an FCM, Mint is also subject to CFTC minimum capital requirements. In December of 2018, BGCF, submitted an application with the CFTC to withdraw its FCM license which was approved. BGCF now conducts its business as an Introducing Broker registered BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution, LLC and Amerex Brokers LLC are registered as an Introducing Broker with the NFA. BGCF is also a member of the
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FICC, which imposes capital requirements on its members.We also hold a 49% limited partnership interest in Aqua, a U.S. registered broker-dealer and ATS.
In addition, our SEFs, BGC Derivative Markets, and GFI Swaps Exchange, FMX Futures Exchange, and CX Clearinghouse, L.P. are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months' operating costs. The Company also operates a designated contract market (DCM) and derivatives clearing organization (DCO) through the Futures Exchange Group, which are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months' operating costs. Compliance with the Uniform Net Capital Requirements may limit the extent and nature of our operations requiring the use of our registered broker-dealer subsidiaries' capital, and could also restrict or preclude our ability to withdraw capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries or SEFs.
Non-U.S.
Our international operations are also subject to capital requirements in their local jurisdictions. BGC Brokers L.P., BGC European Holdings, L.P, GFI Brokers Limited, and GFI Securities Limited, which are based in the U.K., are currently subject to capital requirements established by the FCA. The capital requirements of our French entities (and their EU branches) are predominantly set by ACPR and AMF. U.K. and EU authorities apply stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of these brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of their activities. EU policymakers
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have introduced a new capital regime applicable to EU Investment Firms with a phased implementation beginning in June 2021. The U.K. has introduced a regime that, while applying different rules and methods, is largely similar in its objectives. This regime has commenced a phased implementation beginning in January 2022.
In addition, the majority of our other foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation by the relevant authorities in the countries in which they do business. Additionally, certain other of our foreign subsidiaries are required to maintain non-U.S. net capital requirements. For example, in Hong Kong, BGC Securities (Hong Kong), LLC, GFI (HK) Securities LLC and Sunrise Brokers (Hong Kong) Limited are regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission. BGC Capital Markets (Hong Kong) Limited and GFI (HK) Brokers Ltd, are regulated by The Hong Kong Monetary Authority. All are subject to Hong Kong net capital requirements. In France, Aurel BGC and BGC France Holdings; in Australia, BGC Securities (Australia) Pty Limited, BGC (Securities) Pty Limited and GFI Australia Pty Ltd.; in Japan, BGC Shoken Kaisha Limited's Tokyo branch and BGC Capital Markets Japan LLC's Tokyo Branch; in Singapore, BGC Partners (Singapore) Limited, GFI Group Pte Ltd and Ginga Global Market Pte Ltd; in South Korea, BGC Capital Markets & Foreign Exchange Broker (Korea) Limited and GFI Korea Money Brokerage Limited; and in Turkey, BGC Partners Menkul Degerler AS, all have net capital requirements imposed upon them by local regulators. In addition, the LCH (LIFFE/LME) clearing organization, of which BGC Brokers L.P. is a member, also imposes minimum capital requirements. In Latin America, BGC Liquidez Distribuidora De Titulos E Valores Mobiliarios Ltda. (Brazil) has net capital requirements imposed upon it by local regulators.
We had net assets in our regulated subsidiaries of $666.0 million and $667.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Human Capital Management
Human Capital Resources
BGC is an organization built on strong values, employee engagement and ownership. At our core, we are committed to our employees by providing an opportunity to participate in our success. We believe that by cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we enrich the performance of our business, the experience of our increasingly diverse employee base and the dynamism of our communities.
Workforce
As of December 31, 2022, we employed approximately 3,818 employees in 26 countries spread across five continents. Within this total, 99% of our employee base was comprised of full-time employees. Brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel across our business comprise approximately 1,985 employees, representing 52% of the total workforce. Approximately 28% of our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel were based in the Americas, and approximately 50.5% were based in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, with the remaining approximately 21.5% based in the Asia-Pacific region. On November 1, 2021, we completed the Insurance Business Disposition and approximately 519 front and back-office employees in our insurance brokerage business were transferred in connection with the transaction. Various of our employees also work for Cantor and its affiliates and provide services to us pursuant to the Administrative Services Agreement and devote only a portion of their time to our business, and therefore have not been included in the counts above. Generally, our employees are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements, except for certain of our employees based in our Latin American and European offices that are covered by the national, industry-wide collective bargaining agreements relevant to the countries in which they work.
We have invested significantly in our human capital resources through acquisitions, and the hiring of new brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel. The business climate for these acquisitions and recruitment has been competitive, and it is expected that these conditions will persist for the foreseeable future. We have been able to attract businesses and brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel to our platform as we believe they recognize that we have the scale, technology, experience and expertise to succeed.
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BGC is an organization built on strong values, employee engagement and ownership. At our core, we are committed to our employees by providing an opportunity to participate in our success. We believe that by cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we enrich the performance of our business, the experience of our increasingly diverse employee base and the dynamism of our communities.
Human Capital Measures and Objectives
In operating our business, we focus on certain human capital measures and objectives that are key drivers of our revenues and margins. We continually work to expand our trading across more asset classes and geographical regions and to grow our Fully Electronic business while seeking to manage our human capital resources to maximize our profitability in the face of shifting demands and conditions.
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Our key human capital measures and objectives include front-office employee headcount (described above) and average revenue per front-office employee. Our average revenue per front-office employee has historically declined for the 12-month period immediately following significant headcount increases, and the additional brokers and salespeople generally achieve significantly higher productivity levels in their second or third year with the Company. While during 2021 and into the first quarter of 2022 we have experienced higher than normal turnover for our back office and operational employees due to recent wage pressures and the effects of COVID-19, our front office headcount taking into account the sale of our Insurance brokerage business has not been affected by these factors. As we continue to deepen the integration of Fenics technology solutions into our workflows, and convert more of our Voice and Hybrid businesses to our Fenics businesses, we expect our average revenue per front-office employee to continue to improve. As of December 31, 2022, our front-office revenue-generating headcount was approximately 1,985 brokers and salespeople, managers and technology professionals, down 6.0% from 2,111 a year ago as we selectively reduced less productive front office headcount. These reductions were made alongside increased migration toward Fenics technology solutions, which helped drive increased average productivity. Compared to the prior year period, average revenue per front-office employee for the year ended December 31, 2022, increased by 6.1% to approximately $861,000, an all-time record.
We invest heavily in developing our technology and new products and services in order to drive increased front-office productivity and generate higher margins, in particular with respect to our Fenics brokerage and other higher-margin businesses. For example, in our Fenics business, we aim to convert Voice and Hybrid trading to Fully Electronic trading in order to improve our margins. This is largely because automated and electronic trading efficiency allows the same number of employees to manage a greater volume of trades resulting in a decrease in the marginal cost of trading. Our Fully Electronic business has generally overcome challenges associated with remote working grown faster than our overall business, including during the COVID-19 pandemic and the adoption of hybrid and remote working environments, with average front office productivity increasing by 6.1% for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year. From time to time, we also engage in cost-savings initiatives and restructurings in order to improve our margins.

Retention Measures
In order To retain and hire additional workforce, To facilitate the retention of our employees, we have increased our flexible work arrangements, where appropriate, and made compensation adjustments, established additional corporate opportunities and provided additional benefits, including a 401(k) match for many of our U.S. support employees.
We have taken significant measures to develop a safe work environment for all employees, which is conducive to work in our office locations, particularly for front-office brokers and revenue generating employees, subject to applicable state and local regulatory requirements. We have established a more flexible hybrid approach in many instances for non-revenue generating roles or for roles which are not office dependent, where appropriate. We have established vaccination requirements in accordance with applicable laws, including time-off for vaccines, coverage for COVID-19 testing and enhanced sick leave. We continue to offer employee assistance programs and additional avenues for mental health consultation and wellness. We continue to take significant steps to protect our employees and encourage them all to get vaccinated.
Performance-Based and Highly Retentive Compensation Structure
Virtually all of our executives and front-office employees have equity or partnership stakes in the Company and its subsidiaries and generally receive grants of deferred equity or LPUs as part of their compensation. As of December 31, 2022, our employees, partners, executive officers and directors owned approximately 17% of our equity, on a fully diluted basis.
We issue LPUs as well as other forms of equity-based compensation, including grants of exchangeability into shares of Class A common stock and grants of shares of restricted stock, to provide liquidity to our employees, to align the interests of our employees and management with those of common stockholders, to help motivate and retain key employees, and to encourage a collaborative culture that drives cross-selling and revenue growth. These LPUs, which may be redeemed at any time for zero, and shares of restricted stock, which are subject to forfeiture if the non-compete, confidentiality or non-solicit provisions of the BGC Holdings limited partnership agreement are violated, are also extremely retentive. In addition, we pay
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amounts due to a partner upon termination of service over a number of years in order to ensure compliance with partner obligations.
We also enter into various agreements with certain of our employees and partners whereby these individuals receive loans which may be either wholly or in part repaid from the distributions that these individuals receive on some or all of their LPUs and from proceeds of the sale of the employees' shares of BGC Class A common stock, or may be forgiven over a period of time. From time to time, the Company may also enter into agreements with employees and partners to grant bonus and salary advances or other types of loans. These advances and loans are repayable in the timeframes outlined in the underlying agreements.
Impact of Corporate Conversion
See "-Our History-Corporate Conversion."
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Human Capital and Social Policies and Practices
We are committed to our people, our stockholders and the community as a whole. We have a variety of programs to incentivize and support our employees, from employee ownership to comprehensive benefits and training. We are also committed to equal opportunity, diversity and other policies and practices designed to fulfill our commitment to social and human capital development.
Employee Diversity, Inclusion and Equal Opportunity
We believe that by cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we improve the performance of our business and enrich the experience of our employees. We are committed to equal opportunity, diversity and other policies and practices that seek to further our development of a diverse and inclusive workplace. We consider all qualified applicants for job openings and promotions without regard to race, color, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or reassignment, national origin or ancestry, age, disability, service in the armed forces, pregnancy or maternity, familial status, marriage and civil partnership, genetic information or any other characteristic that has no bearing on the ability of employees to do their jobs well. We continue to develop initiatives to support these values.
Our recruitment, promotion and compensation processes are designed to enable us to treat employees fairly, and our compensation decisions are differentiated based on performance.
Talent remains at the core of who we are as a company, and we remain committed to having a culture built around inclusion and developing a diverse workforce. We continue to work to enhance our ability to attract, develop and retain top talent with an emphasis on increasing representation of traditionally underrepresented groups at all levels of the organization, encompassing early careers to experienced hiring, retention and development initiatives with a focus on diversity and inclusion. Our goal is to build an even more successful organization that more closely reflects our clients bases and the population at large.
Our Network of Women ("NOW") program supports the recruitment, development and retention of women across our organization to advance our business and reputation. NOW offers a variety of opportunities, tools, events and workshops to help our employees make new professional contacts, find mentors, gain knowledge and develop their careers. These events and activities also allow our employees to support one another through a valuable exchange of experiences, advice and best practices for career success.
A number of initiatives across our geographic regions are in place to promote our corporate values and foster greater diversity and inclusion. Such examples include a range of early career work experiences and internship programs focusing on diverse talent, mentorship programs, and initiatives to foster women's leadership. In the U.K., we have signed up to HM Treasury's Women in Finance Charter, which commits signatory firms to set percentage targets to increase the proportion of women in senior roles and publicly report on their progress in seeking to meet these targets. We have also rolled out organizational Core Values (Integrity, Commitment and Opportunity) and appointed Culture Champions in the U.K., as well as further initiatives which seek to embed these values and drive an enhanced culture across our workforce.
Employee Engagement, Communication, Management and Leadership Training and Development
We are investing in our employees' long-term development and engagement by delivering training and development programs and a culture where our people can thrive and maximize their potential. We require annual regulatory and mandatory training in anti-money laundering and anti-crime, global sanctions, ethics, cyber-security and harassment prevention, cyber-security and workplace respect and inclusion, among other topics. We also provide or support periodic job-specific and other developmental training and support for our employees so they can maximize their potential, as well as a tuition reimbursement program to eligible employees.
We provide virtual and in-person leadership training to managers on topics including management effectiveness, communication skills, interview skills and delivering effective performance evaluations, managing diverse teams and other topics. This training is supplemented by a library of online training courses that managers and employees may access. Finally, our individual business lines offer ongoing learning and development opportunities tied to deepening the understanding of the subject matter expertise of their professionals. We also have intern and early career programs throughout the year in various parts of our business.in various parts of our businesses, including technology, and within the businesses regionally.
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Our success depends on employees' understanding of how their work and engagement contribute to our strategy, culture, values, and regulatory environment. We use various channels to facilitate open and direct communication, including internal calls and meetings with employees, training and policy updates, employee resource groups, such as NOW, and social and family outings and events.
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SuccessionPlanning
From time to time, the Board discusses succession planning, including our consideration of succession strategy, the impact of any potential absence due to illness or leave of certain key executive officers or employees, as well as competing demands on the time of certain of our executive officers who also provide services to Cantor, Newmark, and various other ventures and investments sponsored by Cantor. Our Board also discusses from time to time, as part of its succession planning, engagement and encouragement of future business leaders and the process of introducing directors to leaders in our business lines. The Board also considers hiring and retention of leaders required for the changing business landscape and to lead future business lines. At the business and departmental levels, managers discuss and identify potential talent, opportunities for employee growth, successors and future leaders. These future leaders are offered management training opportunities as referenced above and the privilege of participating in our mentoring program, including through NOW.
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) / Sustainability Information
We believe that our environmental, social and governance ("ESG") policies and practices will create sustainable long-term value for BGC, our stockholders and other stakeholders, our clients and our employees while also helping us mitigate risks, reduce costs, protect brand value, and identify market opportunities.
In April 2021, we established a Board-level ESG Committee to provide oversight with respect to our ESG policies and practices. The ESG Committee charter may be found on our website at https://www.bgcpartners.com/esg/governance under the heading "Independent Environmental, Social and Governance Committee." With the Board's and the ESG Committee's oversight, we are embedding social and human capital, employment, environmental, sustainability, charitable and corporate governance policies and practices into our corporate strategy, compensation, disclosure, and goals to maintain and advance long-term stockholder value.
For more information about these topics, new and evolving initiatives and specific examples of policies and practices, see our website at https://www.bgcpartners.com/esg.
Our Environmental Focus, Environmental Markets and Sustainable Business Practices
We are focused on the environment and recognize the importance of treating our natural resources with the greatest respect, so that they are available to future generations. As a socially responsible business operating within financial services, we are actively aware of climate change and other major issues affecting the environment. We believe BGC Environmental Brokerage Services is a leader in the world's environmental and green energy markets. Our Environmental Brokerage Services business provides expert innovative carbon offset solutions and advice to the world's green energy markets, from transactions and financing to technology and consulting. For decades, we have helped clients worldwide navigate the complex financial requirements in order to achieve their environmental initiatives, in the process contributing to dramatically reduced emissions and the promotion of renewable energy. thereby supporting our clients' efforts to meet their emission reduction goals through the provision of brokerage services. For more information on BGC Environmental Brokerage Services, please visit https://www.bgcebs.com.
In our workplaces, we are studying how to make our own contribution to state, national and global environmental initiatives and to require the same of our vendors and suppliers when doing business with us. As part of this, we are considering how to minimize our future carbon footprint when planning office renovations and will continue to focus our attention in the near term on methods of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions, increasing use of renewable energy, conserving water, and reducing waste generation.
BGC supports sustainable business practices and is focused on the steps necessary to establish a sustainability program internally as we focus on our own real estate usage. Building operations have a significant impact on the environment, and as technology continues to place greater demands on building systems for power and cooling, energy consumption is expected to continue to rise at an unsustainable rate. energy usage. We believe it is our responsibility to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption to protect the environment through continuous improvement of building practices We understand that sustainable buildings provide a better work environment, increase building efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of our own building operations. We our energy use practices and increased scrutiny on the energy efficiency of the buildings we utilize for our space. We intend to continue to work on these initiatives.
To learn more about policies and practices and our continuing efforts related to Human Capital Management, as well as ESG as well as environmental, social and governance matters, please refer to the ESG / sustainability section of our website at www.bgcpartners.com/esg for further information. https://www.bgcpartners.com/esg. You will also find our Corporate Governance Guidelines, our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, the charters of the committees of our Board of Directors, our Hedging Policy, information about our charitable initiatives and other sustainability and ESG policies and practices on our website and in our annual proxy statement The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not part of, and not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.proxy statement for our annual meeting of stockholders.
For more information about these initiatives as they evolve, visit our website at https://www.bgcpartners.com/esg/environmental.
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Legal Proceedings
See Note 19-"Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the section under the heading "Derivative Suit" included in Part I, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a description of our legal proceedings.
OUR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Dual Class Equity Structure of BGC Partners, Inc. We have a dual class equity structure, consisting of shares of BGC Class A common stock and BGC Class B common stock.
BGC Class A common stock. Each share of BGC Class A common stock is generally entitled to one vote on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. As of December 31, 2022, there were 471.9 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued and 325.9 million shares outstanding. On June 21, 2017, Cantor pledged 10.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock in connection with a partner loan program. On November 23, 2018, those shares of BGC Class A common stock were converted into 10.0 million shares of BGC Class B common stock and remain pledged in connection with the partner loan program.
Through December 31, 2022, Cantor has distributed to its current and former partners an aggregate of 20.9 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, consisting of (i) 19.4 million April 2008 distribution rights shares, and (ii) 1.5 million February 2012 distribution rights shares. As of December 31, 2022, Cantor is still obligated to distribute to its current and former partners an aggregate of 15.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, consisting of 14.0 million April 2008 distribution rights shares and 1.8 million February 2012 distribution rights shares. As of December 31, 2022, Cantor and CFGM held no shares of BGC Class A common stock.
From time to time, we may actively continue to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock including from Cantor, Newmark, our executive officers, other employees, partners and others.
BGC Class B common stock. Each share of BGC Class B common stock is generally entitled to the same rights as a share of BGC Class A common stock, except that, on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, each share of BGC Class B common stock is entitled to 10 votes. The BGC Class B common stock generally votes together with the BGC Class A common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. We expect to retain and have no plans to change our dual class structure. On November 23, 2018, BGC Partners issued 10.3 million shares of BGC Class B common stock to Cantor and 0.7 million shares of BGC Class B common stock to CFGM, an affiliate of Cantor, in each case in exchange for shares of BGC Class A common stock from Cantor and CFGM, respectively, on a one-to-one basis pursuant to Cantor's and CFGM's right to exchange such shares under the letter Agreement. dated as of June 5, 2015, by and between BGC Partners and Cantor.Exchange Agreement. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, no additional consideration was paid to BGC Partners by Cantor or CFGM for the Class B Issuance. The Class B Issuance was exempt from registration pursuant to Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act. As of December 31, 2021, Cantor and CFGM did not own any shares of BGC Class A common stock. Each share of BGC Class A common stock is entitled to one vote on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders.
In addition, as of December 31, 2021, Cantor and CFGM held 2022, Cantor and CFGM held an aggregate of 45.9 million shares of BGC Class B common stock, representing all of the outstanding shares of BGC Class B common stock representing approximately 59.1% of our voting power.on such date. Each share of BGC Class B common stock is generally entitled to the same rights as a share of BGC Class A common stock except that, on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes. The BGC Class B common stock generally votes together with the BGC Class A common stock, on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders.and approximately 58.5% of our total voting power.
Shares of BGC Class B common stock are convertible into shares of BGC Class A common stock at any time in the discretion of the holder on a one-for-one basis. Accordingly, if Cantor and CFGM converted all of their BGC Class B common stock into BGC Class A common stock, Cantor would hold 12.1% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock, CFGM would hold 0.2% of the voting power, and the public stockholders would hold 87.7% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock (and Cantor and CFGM's indirect economic interests in BGC U.S. and BGC Global would remain unchanged). The diagram does not reflect certain BGC Holdings partnership units as follows: (a) 43.9 million Preferred Units, including Preferred N Units, granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners (see "BGC Partners, Inc. Partnership Structure" herein); and (b) 50.1 million N Units, excluding Preferred N Units, granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners.

Through December 31, 2021, Cantor has distributed to its current and former partners an aggregate of 20.9 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, consisting of (i) 19.4 million April 2008 distribution rights shares, and (ii) 1.5 million February 2012 distribution rights shares. As of December 31, 2021, Cantor is still obligated to distribute to its current and former partners an aggregate of 15.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, consisting of 14.0 million April 2008 distribution rights shares and 1.8 million February 2012 distribution rights shares.
From time to time, we may actively continue to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock including from Cantor, Newmark, our executive officers, other employees, Partners, and others.
BGC Partners, Inc. Partnership Structure
We are a holding company with no direct operations, and our business is operated through two operating partnerships, BGC U.S. OpCo, which holds our U.S. businesses, and BGC Global OpCo, which holds our non-U.S. businesses. The limited partnership interests of the two operating partnerships are held by us and BGC Holdings, and the limited partnership interests of BGC Holdings are currently held by LPU holders, Founding Partners, and Cantor. We hold the BGC Holdings general partnership interest and the BGC Holdings special voting limited partnership interest, which entitle us to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC Holdings, and serve as the general partner of BGC Holdings, which entitles us to control BGC Holdings. BGC Holdings, in turn, holds the BGC U.S. OpCo general partnership interest and the BGC U.S. OpCo special voting limited partnership interest, which entitle the holder thereof to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC U.S. OpCo, and the BGC Global OpCo general partnership interest and the BGC Global OpCo special voting limited partnership
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interest, which entitle the holder thereof to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC Global OpCo, and serves as the general partner of BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo, all of which entitle BGC Holdings (and thereby us) to control each of BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo. BGC Holdings holds its BGC Global OpCo general partnership interest through a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, BGC Global Holdings GP Limited.
As of December 31, 2022, we held directly and indirectly, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, 371.7 million BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership units and 371.7 million BGC Global OpCo limited partnership units, representing approximately 76.9% of the outstanding limited partnership units in both BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo. As of that date, BGC Holdings held 111.4 million BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership units and 111.4 million BGC Global OpCo limited
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partnership units, representing approximately 23.1% of the outstanding limited partnership units in both BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo.
LPU holders, Founding Partners, and Cantor directly hold BGC Holdings limited partnership interests. Since BGC Holdings in turn holds BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership interests and BGC Global OpCo limited partnership interests, LPU holders, Founding Partners, and Cantor indirectly have interests in BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership interests and BGC Global OpCo limited partnership interests. Further, in connection with the Separation and Distribution Agreement, limited partnership interests in Newmark Holdings were distributed to the holders of limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings, whereby each holder of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests who at that time held a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest received a corresponding Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest, equal in number to a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest divided by 2.2 (i.e., 0.4545 of a unit in Newmark Holdings). Accordingly, existing partners at the time of the Separation in BGC Holdings are also partners in Newmark Holdings and hold corresponding units issued at the applicable ratio. Thus, such partners now also have an indirect interest in Newmark OpCo.
As of December 31, 2022, excluding Preferred Units and NPSUs described above, outstanding BGC Holdings partnership interests included 51.9 million LPUs, 7.2 million FPUs and 57.6 million Cantor units.
We may in the future effect additional redemptions of BGC Holdings LPUs and FPUs, and concurrently grant shares of BGC Class A common stock. We may also continue our earlier partnership restructuring programs, whereby we redeemed or repurchased certain LPUs and FPUs in exchange for new units, grants of exchangeability for BGC Class A common stock or cash and, in many cases, obtained modifications or extensions of partners' employment arrangements. We also generally expect to continue to grant exchange rights with respect to outstanding non-exchangeable LPUs and FPUs, and to repurchase BGC Holdings partnership interests from time to time, including from Cantor, our executive officers, and other employees and partners, unrelated to our partnership restructuring programs.
Cantor units in BGC Holdings are generally exchangeable under the Exchange Agreement for up to 23.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock (or, at Cantor's option or if there are no such additional authorized but unissued shares of our Class B common stock, BGC Class A common stock) on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustments). Upon certain circumstances, Cantor may have the right to acquire additional Cantor units in connection with the redemption of or grant of exchangeability to certain non-exchangeable BGC Holdings FPUs owned by persons who were previously Cantor partners prior to our 2008 acquisition of the BGC business from Cantor. Cantor has exercised this right from time to time.
As of December 31, 2021, there were no FPUs remaining which BGC Holdings had the right to redeem or exchange and with respect to which Cantor had the right to purchase an equivalent number of Cantor units following such redemption or exchange. On October 28, 2021, On May 17, 2022, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 427,494 Cantor units for an aggregate consideration of $841,010 as a result of the redemption of 427,494 FPUs, and 52,681 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $105,867 as a result of the exchange of 52,681 FPUs. On October 25, 2022, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 275,833 Cantor units for an aggregate consideration of $397,196 as a result of the redemption of 275,833 FPUs, and 77,507 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $142,613 as a result of the exchange of 1,618,376 FPUs Each Cantor unit in BGC Holdings held by Cantor is exchangeable by Cantor at any time on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment) for shares of BGC Class A common stock.77,507 FPUs. Following such purchases, as of December 31, 2022, there were 0.3 million FPUs in BGC Holdings remaining which BGC Holdings had the right to redeem or exchange and with respect to which Cantor will have the right to purchase an equivalent number of Cantor units following such redemption or exchange.
In order to facilitate partner compensation and for other corporate purposes, the BGC Holdings limited partnership agreement provides for Preferred Units, which are Working Partner units that may be awarded to holders of, or contemporaneous with the grant of, PSUs, PSIs, PSEs, LPUs, APSUs, APSIs, APSEs, REUs, RPUs, AREUs, and ARPUs. These Preferred Units carry the same name as the underlying unit, with the insertion of an additional "P" to designate them as Preferred Units.
Such Preferred Units may not be made exchangeable into BGC Class A common stock and accordingly will not be included in the fully diluted share count. Each quarter, the net profits of BGC Holdings are allocated to such Units at a rate of either 0.6875% (which is 2.75% per calendar year) of the allocation amount assigned to them based on their award price, or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation, before calculation and distribution of the quarterly BGC Holdings distribution for the remaining BGC Holdings units. The Preferred Units will not be entitled to participate in BGC Holdings distributions other than with respect to the Preferred Distribution. As of December 31, 2022, there were 43.9 million such units, including Preferred N Units, granted and outstanding.
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On June 5, 2015, we entered into an agreement with Cantor providing Cantor, CFGM and other Cantor affiliates entitled to hold BGC Class B common stock the right to exchange from time to time, on a one-to-one basis, subject to adjustment, up to an aggregate of 34.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock then owned or subsequently acquired by such Cantor entities for up to an aggregate of 34.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock. Such shares of BGC Class B common stock, which currently can be acquired upon the exchange of exchangeable LPUs owned in BGC Holdings, are already included in the Company's fully diluted share count and will not increase Cantor's current maximum potential voting power in the common equity. The Exchange Agreement enables the Cantor entities to acquire the same number of shares of BGC
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Class B common stock that they were already entitled to acquire without having to exchange their exchangeable LPUs in our Holdings.
Under the Exchange Agreement, Cantor and CFGM have the right to exchange shares of BGC Class A common stock owned by them for the same number of shares of BGC Class B common stock. As of December 31, 2022, Cantor and CFGM do not own any shares of BGC Class A common stock. Cantor and CFGM would also have the right to exchange any shares of BGC Class A common stock subsequently acquired by either of them for shares of BGC Class B common stock, up to 23.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock.
We and Cantor have agreed that any shares of BGC Class B common stock issued in connection with the Exchange Agreement would be deducted from the aggregate number of shares of BGC Class B common stock that may be issued to the Cantor entities upon exchange of exchangeable LPUs in BGC Holdings. Accordingly, the Cantor entities will not be entitled to receive any more shares of BGC Class B common stock under this agreement than they were previously eligible to receive upon exchange of exchangeable LPUs.
Non-distributing partnership units, or N Units, carry the same name as the underlying unit with the insertion of an additional "N" to designate them as the N Unit type and are designated as NREUs, NPREUs, NLPUs, NPLPUs and NPPSUs. The N Units are not entitled to participate in BGC Holdings distributions, will not be allocated any items of profit or loss and may not be made exchangeable into shares of BGC Class A common stock. Subject to the approval of the Compensation Committee or its designee, certain N Units may be converted into the underlying unit type (i.e., an NREU may be converted into an REU) and will then participate in BGC Holdings distributions, subject to terms and conditions determined by us as the general partner of BGC Holdings, in our sole discretion, including that the recipient continue to provide substantial services to us and comply with his or her partnership obligations.
On December 13, 2017, the Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement was amended and restated a second time to include prior standalone amendments and to make certain other changes related to the Separation. The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement, among other things, reflects changes resulting from the division in the Separation of BGC Holdings into BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings, including:
•an apportionment of the existing economic attributes (including, among others, capital accounts and post-termination payments) of each BGC Holdings LPU outstanding immediately prior to the Separation between such Legacy BGC Holdings Unit and the 0.4545 of a Newmark Holdings LPU issued in the Separation in respect of each such Legacy BGC Holdings Unit, based on the relative value of BGC and Newmark as of after the Newmark IPO; and
•a right of the employer of a partner to determine whether to grant exchangeability with respect to Legacy BGC Holdings Units held by such partner.
The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement also removes certain classes of BGC Holdings units that are no longer outstanding and permits the general partner of BGC Holdings to determine the total number of authorized BGC Holdings units. The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was approved by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company.
The following diagram illustrates our organizational structure as of December 31, 2022. The diagram does not reflect the various subsidiaries of BGC, BGC U.S. OpCo, BGC Global OpCo, or Cantor, or the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated subsidiaries other than Cantor's units in BGC Holdings.
STRUCTURE OF BGC PARTNERS, INC. AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2021
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* Shares of BGC Class B common stock are convertible into shares of BGC Class A common stock at any time in the discretion of the holder on a one-for-one basis. Accordingly, if Cantor and CFGM converted all of their BGC Class B common stock into BGC Class A common stock, Cantor would hold 12.4% of the voting power, CFGM would hold 0.2% of the voting power, and the public stockholders would hold 87.4% of the voting power (and Cantor and CFGM's indirect economic interests in BGC U.S. and BGC Global would remain unchanged). The diagram does not reflect certain BGC Class A common stock and BGC Holdings partnership units as follows: (a) any shares of BGC Class A common stock that may become issuable upon the
The diagram does not take into account the effects of the Corporate Conversion.
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conversion or exchange OF any convertible or exchangeable debt securities that may in the future be sold under our shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-180331); (b) 20.1 million Preferred Units granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners (see "BGC PARTNERS, INC. Partnership Structure" herein); and (c) 54.7 million N Units granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners.
STRUCTURE OF BGC PARTNERS, INC. AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2022
The diagram reflects the following activity of BGC Class A common stock and BGC Holdings partnership unit activity from January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2022 as follows: (a) 27.1 million shares of BGC Class A common stock repurchased by us; (b) 8.3 million LPUs redeemed for Newmark employees and executives; (c) 12.1 million LPUs for12.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for vested N Units; (c) 9.7 million LPUs for
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vested N Units; (d) 3.6 million LPUs granted by BGC Holdings; (e) 4.8 million LPUs and FPUs redeemed or repurchased by us for cash; (f) 4.5 million LPUs forfeited; (g) 2.2 forfeited; (e) 3.3 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for vested restricted stock units; (h) 0.9 million LPUs related to prior period adjustments; (i) 1.8 (f) an aggregate of 3.1 million LPUs granted by BGC Holdings; (g) 1.4 million LPUs and FPUs redeemed or repurchased by us for cash; (h) 1.2 million shares of Class A common stock issued by us under our acquisition shelf Registration Statement on Form S-4 (Registration No. 333-169232), but not the 2.8 million of such shares remaining available for issuance by us under such Registration Statement or the 20.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock available for issuance under our 2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-233761); (i) 0.4 million FPUs related to prior period adjustments; (j) 0.1 million LPUs related to prior period adjustments; and (k) 26 thousand shares issued by us under our Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 (Registration No. 333-173109), but not the 9.2 million of such shares remaining available for issuance by us under our Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan. On March 8, 2021, we filed a new CEO Program shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with respect to the issuance and sale of up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock were sold by us during the year ended December 31, 2021 under the March 2018 Sales Agreement"), pursuant to our previous Registration Statement on Form S-3. (Registration No. 333-223550). the March 2018 Sales Agreement, expired in September 2021. As December 31, 2021, we have not issued from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis (the "March 2021 Form S-3"). On July 8, 2022, we filed an amendment to the March 2021 Form S-3. On August 3, 2022, the March 2021 Form S-3 was declared effective by the SEC. On August 12, 2022, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement with CF&Co (the "August 2022 Sales Agreement"), pursuant to which we could offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock under the March 2021 Form S-3. Under the August 2022 Sales Agreement, we agreed to pay to CF&Co a commission of 2% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares. As of December 31, 2022, we had not sold any shares of BGC Class A common stock or paid any commission to CF&Co under the August 2022 Sales Agreement.under our 2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-233761).
Impact of Corporate Conversion
See "-Our History-Corporate Conversion".
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These filings are available to the public from the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
the Company continues to explore a possible conversion into a simpler corporate structure. our board and committees have hired advisors and are reviewing The potential structure and details of such conversion.
Our website address is www.bgcpartners.com. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, the following documents as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC: our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our proxy statements for our annual and special stockholder meetings; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our Current Reports on Form 8-K; Forms 3, 4 and 5 and Schedules 13D with respect to our securities filed on behalf of Cantor, CFGM, our directors and our executive officers; and amendments to those documents. Our website also contains additional information with respect to our industry and business. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Any investment in shares of our Class A common stock, our 5.375% Senior Notes, our 3.750% Senior Notes, our 4.375% Senior Notes or our or those of BGC Group, Inc. other securities involves risks and uncertainties. The following are important risks and uncertainties that could affect our business, but we do not ascribe any particular likelihood or probability to them unless specifically indicated. Any of the risks and uncertainties set forth below, should they occur, could significantly and negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects and/or the trading price of our Class A common stock, our 5.375% Senior Notes, our 3.750% Senior Notes, our 4.375% Senior Notes or our other securities or those of BGC Group, Inc.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS GENERALLY
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted and adversely affected the environment in which we and our customers and competitors operate, including the Global economy, the U.S. economy, the global financial markets, and our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Global Economic and Market Conditions
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted and adversely affected the environment in which we and our customers and competitors operate, including the global economy, the U.S. economy, the global financial markets, and our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The spread of COVID-19 has caused illness, quarantines, cancellation of events and travel, business and school shutdowns, reduction in business activity and financial transactions, labor shortages, supply chain disruptions and overall Economic and financial Market instability. The ongoing effects of COVID-19 remain challenging to predict due to multiple uncertainties, including the transmissibility, severity, duration and resurgences of the outbreak; new virus variants and the potential extent of their spread; the application and effectiveness of health and safety measures that are voluntarily adopted by the public or required by government or public health authorities, including vaccines and treatments and public resistance thereto; the speed and strength of an economic recovery and the effect thereon of rising inflation and the increase in interest rates in response thereto; and the impact on our employees, operations, suppliers, and vendors, and our clients' operations.
We have taken, and continue to take, necessary and recommended precautions to protect the safety and well-being of Our employees, including by means of conducting certain business, activities and operations remotely. However, no assurance can be given that the steps being taken will be adequate, nor can we predict the level of disruption which will occur to our employees' ability to provide client support and service. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact on our businesses.
Our business,
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to adversely affect us in certain respects. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, or the emergence of new variants or another pandemic, and measures taken in response thereto, could continue to negatively affect the global economy, the United States economy, and global financial markets and, in turn,
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materially adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. Any increase in the duration or impact of the pandemic, including any new variants or another pandemic, as well as measures taken in response thereto, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Global Economic and Market Conditions
Our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects have been and may continue to be affected both positively and negatively by conditions in the global economy and financial markets generally.
Our business and results of operations have been and may continue to be affected both positively and negatively by conditions in the global economy and financial markets generally. Difficult market and economic conditions and geopolitical uncertainties have in the past adversely affected and may in the future adversely affect our business. Such conditions and uncertainties include financial pressures exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, fluctuating levels of economic output, zero to near-zero interest rates and the impact on trading volumes, recently rising interest and inflation rates, employment levels, consumer confidence levels, and fiscal and monetary policy. The economic policies of the current administration and Congress, potential further increases in interest rates and potential changes to existing tax rates and infrastructure spending plans may
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further change the regulatory and economic landscape. These conditions may directly and indirectly impact a number of factors in the global markets that may have a positive or negative effect on our operating results, including the levels of trading, investing, and origination activity in the financial markets, the valuations of financial instruments, changes in interest rates, changes in benchmarks, changes in and uncertainty regarding laws and regulations, substantial fluctuations in volume and commissions on securities and derivatives transactions, the absolute and relative level of currency rates and the actual and the perceived quality of issuers, borrowers and investors. For example, the actions of the U.S. Federal Reserve and international central banking authorities directly impact our cost of funds and may impact the value of financial instruments we hold. In addition, changes in monetary policy may affect the credit quality of our customers. Changes in domestic and international monetary policy are beyond our control and difficult to predict.
Our revenues and profitability have historically declined and are likely to decline significantly during past and future periods of low trading volume in the financial markets in which we offer our products and services.
The global financial services markets are, by their nature, risky and volatile and are directly affected by many national and international factors that are beyond our control. Although we believe that rising interest rates in recent periods will positively impact trading volumes in many of our product offerings, any one of the following factors have caused and may in the future cause substantial changes in the U.S. and global financial markets, resulting in positive or negative impacts on transactional volume and profitability for our business. These factors include:
•rising global interest rates;
•pandemics and other international health emergencies, including the combined impact of COVID-19 with the flu and other seasonal illnesses;
•economic and geopolitical conditions and uncertainties in the United States, Europe, Asia and elsewhere in the world, including government deficits, debt and possible defaults, austerity measures, changes in interest rates, and changes in central bank and/or fiscal policies, including the level and timing of government debt issuances, purchases and outstanding amounts;
•possible political turmoil with respect to the U.S. government, the U.K, the EU and/or its member states, Hong Kong, China, or other major economies around the world;
•the effect of Federal Reserve Board and other central banks' monetary policies, increased capital requirements for banks and other financial institutions, and other regulatory requirements;
•terrorism, war and other armed hostilities, such as Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the impact of it and measures taken in response thereto, including sanctions imposed by governments and related counter-sanctions;
•the impact of short-term or prolonged U.S. government shutdowns, elections or other political events;
•inflation, deflation and wavering institutional and consumer confidence levels;
•the availability of capital for borrowings and investments by our clients and their customers;
•the level and volatility of interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and trading in certain equity, debt and commodity markets;
•the level and volatility of the difference between the yields on corporate securities being traded and those on related benchmark securities; which we refer to as "credit spreads"; and
•margin requirements, capital requirements, credit availability, and other liquidity concerns.with respect to our business, its clients, and the customers of its clients.
Low transaction volumes for any of our brokerage asset classes generally result in reduced revenues. Under these conditions, our profitability is adversely affected since many of our costs are fixed. In addition, although less common, some of
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our transaction revenues are determined on the basis of the value of transactions or on spreads. For these reasons, substantial decreases in trading volume, declining prices, and/or reduced spreads could have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Any downgrades of the U.S. sovereign credit rating by one or more of the major credit rating agencies could have material adverse effects on financial markets and economic conditions in the U.S. and throughout the world. This in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. Because of the unprecedented nature of any negative credit rating actions with respect to U.S. government obligations, the ultimate impacts on global financial markets and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects are unpredictable and may not be immediately apparent. Additionally, the negative impact on economic conditions and global financial markets from further sovereign debt matters with respect to the U.K., the EU and/or its member states, Japan, China, or other major economies could adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Concerns about the sovereign debt of certain major economies have caused uncertainty and disruption for financial markets globally, and continued uncertainties loom over the outcome of the various governments' financial support programs and the possibility that EU member states or other major economies may experience similar financial
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troubles. Any downgrades of the long-term sovereign credit rating of the U.S. or additional sovereign debt crises in major economies could cause disruption and volatility of financial markets globally and have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Over the past year, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to uncertainties about global economic growth, which may impact the stability of financial markets and lead to uncertainty with respect to the likely responses of governments and central banks Any one of these factors, or others, could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Actions taken by governments in response to rising inflation rates may have a material impact on our business.
Both domestic and international markets experienced significant inflationary pressures in fiscal year 2022 and inflation rates in the U.S., as well as in other countries in which we operate, are currently expected to continue at elevated levels for at least the near-term. In response, the Federal Reserve in the U.S. and other central banks in various countries have raised, and may again raise, interest rates in response to concerns about inflation, which, coupled with reduced government spending and volatility in financial markets, may have the effect of further increasing economic uncertainty and heightening related risks. Interest rate increases or other government actions taken to reduce inflation could also result in recessionary pressures in many parts of the world. Additionally, these actions have affected FX volumes around the world, causing currency fluctuations and rapid changes in valuations that may make certain strategies less appealing for FX market participants. While higher interest rates are expected to have a positive impact on our revenues, these currency fluctuations have affected, and may continue to affect, the reported value of our assets and liabilities, our expenses, and our cash flows.
Risks Related to the Geographic Locations of Our Business
Our business is geographically concentrated and could be significantly affected by any adverse change in the regions in which we operate.
Historically, our business operations have been substantially located in the U.S. and the U.K. While we are expanding our business to new geographic areas, we are still highly concentrated in these areas. Because we derived approximately 36.1% and approximately 30.2% of our total revenues on a consolidated basis for the year ended December 31, 2022 from our operations in the U.K. and the U.S., respectively, our business is exposed to adverse regulatory and competitive changes, economic downturns and changes in political conditions in these countries. If we are unable to identify and successfully manage or mitigate these risks, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
The U.K. exit from the EU could materially adversely impact our customers, counterparties, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
On January 1, 2021, the U.K. formally left the EU and U.K.-EU trade became subject to a new agreement that was concluded in December of 2020. The exit from the EU is commonly referred to as Brexit. Financial services fall outside of the scope of this trade agreement. Instead, the relationship will largely be determined by a series of "equivalence decisions," each of which would grant mutual market access for a limited subset of financial services where either party finds the other party has a regulatory regime that achieves similar outcomes to its own. It is currently unknown if or when equivalence decisions will be taken. In March 2021, the U.K. and EU agreed a Memorandum of Understanding on Financial Services Regulatory Cooperation which creates a structure for dialogue but does not include commitments on equivalence.
In light of ongoing uncertainties, market participants are still adjusting. The exact impact of Brexit on the U.K.-EU flow of financial services therefore remains unknown. This same uncertainty applies to the consequences for the economies of the U.K. and the EU member states as a result of the U.K.'s withdrawal from the EU.
We implemented plans to ensure continuity of service in Europe and continue to have regulated offices in place in many of the major European markets. As part of our ongoing Brexit strategy, ownership of BGC Madrid, Copenhagen and Frankfurt & GFI Paris, Madrid and Dublin branches was transferred to Aurel BGC SAS (a French-based operation and therefore based in the EU) in July 2020. We have been generally increasing our footprint in the EU which includes the establishment of a new branch office of Aurel BGC SAS in Milan and a new office in Monaco under a new local Monaco subsidiary.
Regardless of these and other mitigating measures, our European headquarters and largest operations are in London, and market access risks and uncertainties have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our customers, counterparties, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Furthermore, in the future the U.K. and EU's regulation may diverge, which could disrupt and increase the costs of our operations, and result in a loss of existing levels of cross-border market access.
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Risks Related to the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic continue to significantly disrupt and adversely affect the environment in which we and our customers and competitors operate, including the global economy, the U.S. economy, the global financial markets, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly disrupted and adversely affected the environment in which we and our customers and competitors operate, including the global economy, the U.S. economy, the global financial markets, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The effects of COVID-19 remain challenging to predict due to multiple uncertainties, including the transmissibility, severity, and duration of new virus variants and the potential extent of their spread, and the impact on our employees, operations, suppliers, vendors, and clients' operations.
On January 30, 2023, the Biden Administration announced its plan to extend the "public health emergency" status of COVID-19 for a final time to May 11, 2023. Once such status expires, government programs supporting public health safety measures may begin to be rolled back or be eliminated. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of the impact of all of the foregoing on our business.
Risks Related to New Opportunities/Possible Transactions and Hires
If we are unable to identify and successfully exploit new product, service and market opportunities, including through hiring new brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Because of significant competition in our market, our strategy is to broker more transactions, increase our share of existing markets and seek out new clients and markets. We may face enhanced risks as these efforts to expand our business result in our transacting with a broader array of clients and expose us to new products and services and markets. Pursuing this strategy may also require significant management attention and hiring expense and potential costs and liability in any litigation or arbitration that may result. We may not be able to attract new clients or brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals or other front-office personnel or successfully enter new markets. If we are unable to identify and successfully exploit new product, service and market opportunities, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We may pursue opportunities including strategic alliances, acquisitions, mergers, investments, dispositions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities or transformational transactions (including hiring new brokers and salespeople), which could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs and could dilute our stockholders. We may also face competition in our acquisition strategy, and such competition may limit such opportunities.
We have explored and continue to explore a wide range of strategic alliances, mergers, investments, acquisitions and joint ventures with other financial services companies that have interests in related businesses or other strategic opportunities. Such transactions may be necessary in order for us to enter into or develop new products or services or markets, as well as to strengthen our current ones.
These opportunities and activities involve a number of risks and challenges, including:
•potential disruption of our ongoing businesses and product, service and market development and distraction of management;
•difficulty retaining and integrating personnel and integrating administrative, operational, financial reporting, internal control, compliance, technology and other systems;
•the necessity of hiring additional managers and other critical professionals and integrating them into current operations;
•increasing the scope, geographic diversity and complexity of our operations;
•to the extent that we pursue these opportunities internationally, exposure to political, economic, legal, regulatory, operational and other risks that are inherent in operating in a foreign country, including risks of possible nationalization and/or foreign ownership restrictions, expropriation, price controls, capital controls, foreign currency fluctuations, regulatory and tax requirements, economic and/or political instability, geographic, time zone, language and cultural differences among personnel in different areas of the world, exchange controls and other restrictive government actions, as well as the outbreak of hostilities;
•the risks relating to integrating accounting and financial systems and accounting policies and the related risk of having to recast our historical financial statements;
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•potential dependence upon, and exposure to liability, loss or reputational damage relating to systems, controls and personnel that are not under our control;
•addition of business lines in which we have not previously engaged;
•potential unfavorable reaction to our strategy by our customers, counterparties, employees, and investors;
•the upfront costs associated with pursuing transactions and recruiting personnel, which efforts may be unsuccessful in the increasingly competitive marketplace for the most talented producers and managers;
•conflicts or disagreements between any strategic alliance or joint venture partner and us;
•exposure to potential unknown liabilities of any acquired business, strategic alliance or joint venture that are significantly larger than we anticipate at the time of acquisition, and unforeseen increased expenses or delays associated with acquisitions, including costs in excess of the cash transition costs that we estimate at the outset of a transaction;
•reduction in availability of financing due to tightened credit markets or credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us, in connection with these opportunities;
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•a significant increase in the level of our indebtedness in order to generate cash resources that may be required to effect acquisitions;
•dilution resulting from any issuances of shares of our Class A common stock or limited partnership units in connection with these opportunities;
•a reduction of the diversification of our business resulting from any dispositions;
•the necessity of replacing certain individuals and functions that are sold in dispositions;
•the cost of rebranding and the impact on our market awareness of dispositions;
•litigation or regulatory scrutiny with respect to any such transactions, including any related party aspects of any proposed arrangements;
•adverse effects on our liquidity as a result of payment of cash resources;and/or issuance of shares of our Class A common stock or limited partnership units;
•the impact of any reduction in our asset base resulting from dispositions on our ability to obtain financing or the terms thereof; and
•a lag in the realization of financial benefits from these transactions and arrangements.
We face competition for acquisition targets, which may limit our number of acquisitions and growth opportunities and may lead to higher acquisition prices or other less favorable terms. As we grow internationally, we may experience additional expenses or obstacles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify, acquire or profitably manage additional businesses or integrate successfully any acquired businesses without substantial costs, delays or other operational or financial difficulties.
In addition, the acquisition of regulated firms generally requires the consent of the home jurisdiction regulator in which the target and regulated subsidiaries are domiciled. In certain circumstances, one or more of these regulators may withhold their consent, impose restrictions or make their consent subject to conditions which may result in increased costs or delays.
Any future growth will be partially dependent upon the continued availability of suitable transactional candidates at favorable prices and upon advantageous terms and conditions, which may not be available to us, as well as sufficient liquidity to fund these transactions. Future transactions and any necessary related financings also may involve significant transaction-related expenses, which include payment of break-up fees, assumption of liabilities, including compensation, severance, lease termination, and other restructuring costs, and transaction and deferred financing costs, among others. In addition, there can be no assurance that such transactions will be accretive or generate favorable operating margins. The success of these transactions will also be determined in part by the ongoing performance of the acquired companies and the acceptance of acquired employees of our equity-based compensation structure and other variables which may be different from the existing industry standards or practices at the acquired companies.
We will need to successfully manage the integration of recent and future acquisitions and future growth effectively. Such integration and additional growth may place a significant strain upon our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, internal control and compliance infrastructure. Our ability to grow depends upon our ability to successfully hire, train, supervise and manage additional employees, expand our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, compliance and other control systems effectively, allocate our human resources optimally, maintain clear lines of
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communication between our transactional and management functions and our finance and accounting functions, and manage the pressure on our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, compliance and other control infrastructure. Additionally, managing future growth may be difficult due to our new geographic locations, markets and business lines. We may not realize the full benefits that we anticipate from strategic alliances, acquisitions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will be able to accurately anticipate and respond to the changing demands we will face as we integrate recent future acquisitions and continue to expand our operations, and we may not be able to manage growth effectively or to achieve growth at all.
From time to time, we may also seek to dispose of portions of our businesses, or otherwise reduce our ownership, each of which could materially affect our cash flows and results of operations. Dispositions involve significant risks and uncertainties, such as ability to sell such businesses at satisfactory prices and terms and in a timely manner (including long and costly sales processes and the possibility of lengthy and potentially unsuccessful attempts by a buyer to receive required regulatory approvals), or at all, disruption to other parts of the business and distraction of management, loss of key employees or customers, and exposure to unanticipated liabilities or ongoing obligations to support the business following such dispositions. In addition, if such dispositions are not completed for any reason, the market price of our Class A common stock may reflect a market assumption that such transactions will occur, and a failure to complete such transactions could result in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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We have offerings linked to cryptocurrencies that could expose us to technology, regulatory and financial risks.
We have offerings linked to cryptocurrencies in certain jurisdictions, and may expand the types of these offerings, the associated types of cryptocurrencies and the jurisdictions in which these offerings are offered. Specifically, BGC provides its cryptocurrency offerings through Lucera by providing connectivity, hosting and trading platforms and through kACE2, its analytics, pricing and distribution software.Furthermore, BGC intends to launch additional cryptocurrency and digital asset trading offerings in 2022.
The distributed ledger technology underlying cryptocurrencies and other similar digital assets is evolving at a rapid pace and may be vulnerable to cyberattacks or have other inherent weaknesses that are not yet apparent. There is currently no broadly accepted regulatory framework for cryptocurrencies, and the regulation of cryptocurrencies is developing and changing rapidly in the U.S. and other countries around the world. If any of the offerings, we transact in are linked to cryptocurrencies and there is a new regulatory framework, it may delay, harm or change our opportunity or outlook. a high degree of fraud, theft, cyberattacks and other forms of risk in the cryptocurrency space. It is possible, for example, for electronic wallet keys to become lost or stolen, for blockchains to experience detrimental changes, such as forks, or for cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians to experience cybersecurity incidents. If such events impact our cryptocurrency offerings, we may experience material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
In addition, cryptocurrency markets including Bitcoin, have experienced significant historical material price fluctuations in 2022, and may continue to experience periods of extreme volatility again in the future. Several entities in the digital asset industry have been, and may continue to be, negatively affected, including to the point of insolvency further undermining confidence in cryptocurrencies. These events are continuing to develop and it is not possible to predict at this time all of the risks that they may pose to the digital asset industry. If markets for any cryptocurrencies linked to the offerings we provide continue to suffer severe fluctuations, our customers could experience significant losses and we could lose their business, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
In the U.S. the SEC, CFTC, state and federal agencies are reviewing virtual currency businesses and have and or may enact regulations that restrict business activities and or require additional licenses to conduct certain businesses. In addition, many foreign regulators and legislatures have taken action against virtual currency businesses or have enacted restrictive regulations. These regulations may negatively impact our ability to offer different products in different regions and/or negatively impact our ability to deal with certain customers depending on where they are located. If licenses are required, it may take a considerable amount of time to obtain the necessary approvals from the respective regimes. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
Risks Related to Change in LIBOR
We may be adversely affected by the transition away from LIBOR and the use of SOFR or other alternative reference rates.
Our $350 million Revolving Credit Agreement is indexed to LIBOR. LIBOR is a basic rate of interest used in lending between banks on The London interbank market and historically has been widely used as a reference for setting the interest rate on loans globally. The United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority and the administrator of LIBOR have announced that the publication of the most commonly used U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease to be published or cease to be representative after June 30, 2023, and the publication of all other LIBOR settings will cease to be published as of December 31, 2021. Starting January 1, 2022, banks in the United States have ceased entering into new credit and other contractual agreements using US dollar LIBOR as a reference rate, and instead began incorporating alternative reference rates, such as SOFR, within such agreements. We have begun working and will continue to work with our funding providers to incorporate alternative reference rates (such as SOFR) within our credit facility and other funding arrangements, as opportunities arise to do so.
The
The expected withdrawal and replacement of LIBOR with alternative benchmarks also introduces risks for our clients and the financial services industry. Various financial instruments are linked to the LIBOR benchmark, and any failure by market participants and regulators to successfully introduce benchmark rates to replace LIBOR and implement effective transitional arrangements to address the discontinuation of LIBOR could negatively affect our clients and the global financial markets. While we have taken steps to minimize the consequences of the transition from LIBOR on our businesses and believe that this transition has currently not had nor is expected to have a material effect on us, business there can be no assurance that the withdrawal and replacement of LIBOR will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
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Risks Related to Liquidity, Funding and Indebtedness
We have debt, which could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations and activities, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our business, expose us to interest rate risk, impact our ability to obtain or maintain favorable credit ratings and prevent us from meeting or refinancing our obligations under our indebtedness.which, depending on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our indebtedness, which at December 31, 2022 was $1,049.2 million, may have important, adverse consequences to us and our investors, including:
•it may limit our ability to borrow money, dispose of assets or sell equity to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, dividend payments, debt service, strategic initiatives or other obligations or purposes;
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•it may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the economy, the markets, regulatory requirements, our operations or business;
•our financial leverage may be higher than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
•it may make us more vulnerable to downturns in the economy or our business;
•it may require a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments;
•it may make it more difficult for us to satisfy other obligations;
•it may increase the risk of a future downgrade of our credit ratings or otherwise impact our ability to obtain or maintain investment-grade credit ratings, which could increase future debt costs and limit the future availability of debt financing;
•we may not be able to borrow additional funds or refinance existing debt as needed or take advantage of business opportunities as they arise, pay cash dividends or repurchase shares of our Class A common stock and purchase limited partnership units; and
•there would be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects if we were unable to service our indebtedness or obtain additional financing or refinance our existing debt on terms acceptable to us.
To the extent that we incur additional indebtedness or seek to refinance our existing debt, or the COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively affect the local, national and global economies, the risks described above could increase. In addition, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected and may impact the rate at which we make payments of obligations or occur additional obligations. Our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to service our outstanding debt or to repay the outstanding debt as it becomes due, and we may not be able to borrow money, dispose of assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms, or at all, to service or refinance our debt.
Some of our borrowings have variable interest rates. As a result, a change in market interest rates has and could have a material adverse effect on our interest expense. Both domestic and international markets experienced significant inflationary pressures in fiscal year 2022 and inflation rates in the U.S., as well as in other countries in which we operate, are currently expected to continue at elevated levels for at least the near-term. In response, the Federal Reserve in the U.S. and other central banks in various countries have raised, and may again raise, interest rates in response to concerns about inflation. in periods of rising interest rates our cost of funds, will increase,
A continued rise in interest rates could further increase our cost of funds, which could reduce our net income. In an effort to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, we may rely on interest rate hedging or other interest rate risk management activities. These activities may limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged borrowings. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Some of our borrowings will mature in the near future. For example, our 5.375% Senior Notes are due July 24, 2023, and have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $450.0 million, and our 3.750% Senior Notes are due October 1, 2024, and have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $300.0 million, and our 4.375% Senior Notes are due December 15, 2025 and have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $300 million. Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt depends on our ability to generate and maintain significant cash flow in the near future or to access alternate sources of liquidity. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that additional capital will be available to us, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under our borrowings and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations and our unable to refinance our obligations on terms or at interest rates acceptable to us at all, we may need sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we are unable to implement one or more of
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these alternatives, our cash flow may be significantly reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are dependent upon availability of adequate funding and liquidity to meet our clearing margin requirements, among other financial needs. Clearing margin is the amount of cash, guarantees or similar collateral that we must provide or deposit with our third-party clearing organizations in support of our obligations under contractual clearing arrangements with these organizations. Historically, these needs have been satisfied from internally generated funds and proceeds from debt and equity financings. We have also relied on arrangements with Cantor to clear certain of our transactions under the clearing agreement we entered into with Cantor in November 2008, which was amended in June 2020. Our next bond maturity is in July 2023 and the Company's senior unsecured revolving credit facility matures in February 2023. Although we have historically been able to raise debt on acceptable terms, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the deterioration of the world's credit markets could make it more difficult for us to refinance or replace such indebtedness in a timely manner or on acceptable terms. Further, if for any reason we need to raise additional funds, including in order to meet regulatory capital requirements and/or clearing margin requirements arising from growth in our brokerage business, to complete acquisitions or otherwise, we may not be able to obtain additional financing when needed. If we cannot raise additional funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop or enhance our business, take advantage of future growth opportunities or respond to competitive pressure or unanticipated requirements.
Our Revolving Credit Agreement contains restrictions that may limit our flexibility in operating our business.
Our Revolving Credit Agreement contains covenants that could impose operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things and subject to certain exceptions:
•create liens on certain assets;
•incur additional debt;
•make significant investments and acquisitions;
•consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
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•dispose of certain assets;
•pay additional dividends on or make additional distributions in respect of our capital stock or make restricted payments;
•repurchase shares of our Class A common stock or purchase limited partnership units;
•enter into certain transactions with our affiliates; and
•place restrictions on certain distributions from subsidiaries.
Indebtedness that we may enter into in the future, if any, could also contain similar or additional covenants or restrictions. Any of these restrictions could limit our ability to adequately plan for or react to market conditions and could otherwise restrict certain of our corporate activities. Any material failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under the Revolving Credit Agreement as well as instruments governing our future indebtedness. Upon a material default, unless such default were cured by us or waived by lenders in accordance with the Revolving Credit Agreement, the lenders under such agreement could elect to invoke various remedies under the agreement, including potentially accelerating the payment of unpaid principal and interest, terminating their commitments or, however unlikely, potentially forcing us into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition, a default or acceleration under such agreement could trigger a cross default under other agreements, including potential future debt arrangements. Although we believe that our operating results will be more than sufficient to meet all of these obligations, including potential future indebtedness, no assurance can be given that our operating results will be sufficient to service our indebtedness or to fund all of our other expenditures or to obtain additional or replacement financing on a timely basis and on reasonable terms in order to meet these requirements when due.
Risks Related to Our Senior Notes
Credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us could adversely affect us.
Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are critical to our reputation and operational and financial success. Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are influenced by a number of factors, including: operating environment, regulatory environment, earnings and profitability trends, the rating agencies' view of our funding and liquidity management practices, balance sheet size/composition and resulting leverage, cash flow coverage of interest, composition and size of the capital base, available liquidity, outstanding borrowing levels, our competitive position in the industry, our relationships in the industry, our relationship with Cantor, acquisitions or dispositions of assets and other matters. A credit rating and/or the associated outlook can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides that circumstances of that
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company or related companies warrant such a change. Any adverse ratings change or a downgrade in the credit ratings of BGC, Cantor or any of their other affiliates, and/or the associated ratings outlooks could adversely affect the availability of debt financing to us on acceptable terms, as well as the cost and other terms upon which we may obtain any such financing. In addition, our credit ratings and associated outlooks may be important to clients of ours in certain markets and in certain transactions. A company's contractual counterparties may, in certain circumstances, demand collateral in the event of a credit ratings or outlook downgrade of that company. Further, interest rates payable on our debt, including with respect to our 5.375% Senior Notes, 3.750% Senior Notes and 4.375% Senior Notes, may increase in the event that our ratings decline.
As of December 31, 2022, BGC Partners' public long-term credit ratings were BBB- from Fitch Ratings Inc. and S&P Global Ratings, BBB from Kroll Bond Rating Agency and BBB+ from Japan Credit Rating Agency, Ltd. and the associated outlooks on all the ratings were stable. No assurance can be given that the credit ratings will remain unchanged in the future. Any additional indebtedness that we incur, as well as any negative change to our credit ratings and associated outlooks, may restrict our ability to raise additional capital or refinance debt on favorable terms, and consequently. any resulting impacts on our funding access, liquidity or creditworthiness perception among our clients, counterparties, lenders, investors, or other market participants, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our acquisitions may require significant cash resources and may lead to a significant increase in the level of our indebtedness.
Potential future acquisitions may lead to a significant increase in the level of our indebtedness. We may enter into short- or long-term financing arrangements in connection with acquisitions which may occur from time to time. In addition, we may incur substantial non-recurring transaction costs, including break-up fees, assumption of liabilities and expenses. and compensation expenses and we would likely incur similar expenses.and assume new liabilities and expenses. The increased level of our consolidated indebtedness in connection with potential acquisitions may restrict our ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms, and such leverage, and any resulting liquidity or credit issues, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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We may incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed herein.
We may incur substantial additional debt in the future, some of which may be secured debt. We are not restricted under the terms of our existing debt arrangements and instruments, including the indentures governing our 5.375% Senior Notes, 3.750% Senior Notes and 4.375% Senior Notes, from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt (with certain exceptions, including to the extent already secured), recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of our debt instruments that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on our debt when due.exacerbating the risks described herein.
We may not have the funds necessary to repurchase our 5.375% Senior Notes, 3.750% Senior Notes or 4.375% Senior Notes upon a change of control triggering event as required by the indentures governing these notes.
Upon the occurrence of a "change of control triggering event" (as defined in the indentures governing the 5.375% Senior Notes , the 3.750% Senior Notes and the 4.375% Senior Notes), unless we have exercised our right to redeem such notes, holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or any part of their notes at a price in cash equal to 101% of the then-outstanding aggregate principal amount of the notes repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. There can be no assurance that we would have sufficient, readily available financial resources, or would be able to arrange financing, to repurchase the 5.375% Senior Notes, the 3.750% Senior Notes or the 4.375% Senior Notes upon a "change of control triggering event." A failure by us to repurchase the notes when required would result in an event of default with respect to the notes. In addition, such failure may also constitute an event of default and result in the effective acceleration of the maturity of our other then-existing indebtedness.
The requirement to offer to repurchase the 5.375% Senior Notes, the 3.750% Senior Notes and the 4.375% Senior Notes upon a "change of control triggering event" may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
The requirement to offer to repurchase the 5.375% Senior Notes, the 3.750% Senior Notes and the 4.375% Senior Notes upon a "change of control triggering event" may in certain circumstances delay or prevent a takeover of us and/or the removal of incumbent management that might otherwise be beneficial to investors in our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to the Spin-Off
If there is a determination that the Spin-Off was taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes because the facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings underlying the tax opinion with respect to the Spin-Off were incorrect, or for any other reason, then we and Our stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities.
Our Intellectual Property
We received an opinion of outside counsel to the effect that the Spin-Off, together with certain related transactions, qualified as a transaction that is described in Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"). The opinion relied on certain facts, assumptions, representations and undertakings from us and Newmark regarding the past and future conduct of the companies' respective businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not otherwise satisfied, we and our stockholders may not be able to rely on the opinion of tax counsel.
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Moreover, notwithstanding the opinion of counsel, the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") could determine that the Spin-Off is taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated, or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion, or for any other reasons. In addition, certain events occurring after the Spin-Off may not be in our control, including certain significant changes in the stock ownership of us or Newmark after the Spin-Off. If the Spin-Off or a related transaction is determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we and our stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities. Any such liabilities could be substantial and could have a negative impact on our financial results and operations.
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Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.
Our success is dependent, in part, upon our intellectual property, including our proprietary technology. We rely primarily on trade secret, contract, patent, copyright, and trademark law in the U.S. and other jurisdictions as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights to proprietary technologies, products, services or methods, and our brands. For example, we regularly file patent applications to protect inventions arising from our research and development, and we are currently pursuing patent applications around the world. We also control access to our proprietary technology and enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our
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employees and consultants and confidentiality agreements with other third parties. Protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time consuming.
Unauthorized use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and harm our operating results. We cannot ensure that our intellectual property rights are sufficient to protect our competitive advantages or that any particular patent, copyright or trademark is valid and enforceable, and all patents ultimately expire. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws in the U.S., or at all. Any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete.
Many companies, including those in the computer and financial services industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, and trademarks and sometimes file lawsuits based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, there has been a proliferation of patents applicable to these industries and a substantial increase in the number of such patent applications filed. Under current law, U.S. patent applications typically remain secret for 18 months or, in some cases, until a patent is issued. Because of technological changes in these industries, patent coverage, and the issuance of new patents, it is possible certain components of our products and services may unknowingly infringe existing patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Although we have taken steps to protect ourselves, there can be no assurance that we will be aware of all patents, copyrights or trademarks that may pose a risk of infringement by our products and services. Generally, it is not economically practicable to determine in advance whether our products or services may infringe the present or future rights of others.
Accordingly, we may face claims of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights that could interfere with our ability to use intellectual property or technology that is material to our business. In addition, restrictions on the distribution of some of the market data generated by our brokerage desks could limit the comprehensiveness and quality of the data we are able to distribute or sell. The number of such third-party claims may grow. Our technologies may not be able to withstand such third-party claims or rights against their use.
We may have to rely on litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets, determine the validity and scope of the rights of others or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Any such claims or litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs, and the diversion of resources and the attention of management, any of which could materially negatively affect our business. Responding to these claims could also require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements with the third parties claiming infringement, stop selling or redesign affected products or services or pay damages on our own behalf or to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers. Such royalty or licensing agreements, if available, may not be available on terms acceptable to us, and may negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If our licenses or services from third parties are terminated or adversely changed or amended or contain material defects or errors, or if any of these third parties were to cease doing business or if products or services offered by third parties were to contain material defects or errors, our ability to operate our business may be materially adversely affected.
We license databases, software and services from third parties, much of which is integral to our systems and our business. The licenses are terminable if we breach or have been perceived to have breached our obligations under the license agreements. If any material licenses were terminated or adversely changed or amended, if any of these third parties were to cease doing business or if any licensed software or databases licensed by these third parties were to contain material defects or errors, we may be forced to spend significant time and money to replace the licensed software and databases, and our ability to operate our business may be materially adversely affected. Further, any errors or defects in third-party services or products (including hardware, software, databases, cloud computing and other platforms and systems) or in services or products that we develop ourselves, could result in errors in, or a failure of our services or products, which could harm our business. Although we take steps to locate replacements, there can be no assurance that the necessary replacements will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. There can be no assurance that we will have an ongoing license to use all intellectual property which our systems require, the failure of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Risks Related to Our IT Systems and Cyber-Security
Defects or disruptions in our technology or services could diminish demand for our products and services and subject us to liability.
Because our technology, products and services are complex and use or incorporate a variety of computer hardware, software and databases, both developed in-house and acquired from third party vendors, our technology, products and services may have errors or defects. Errors and defects could result in unanticipated downtime or failure and could cause financial loss
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and harm to our reputation and our business. We have from time to time found defects and errors in our technology, products and service and defects and errors in our technology, products or services may be detected in the future. In addition, our customers may use our technology, products and services in unanticipated ways that may cause a disruption for other customers. As we acquire companies, we may encounter difficulty in incorporating the acquired technologies, products and services, and maintaining the quality standards that are consistent with our technology, products and services. Since our customers use our technology, products and services for important aspects of their business and for financial transactions, any errors, defects, or disruptions in such technology, products and services or other performance problems with our technology, products and services could subject our customers to financial loss and hurt our reputation.
Malicious cyber-attacks and other adverse events affecting our operational systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties, could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure of confidential information, damage our reputation and cause losses or regulatory penalties.
Our businesses require us to process and monitor, on a daily basis, a very large number of transactions, many of which are highly complex, across numerous and diverse markets in many currencies. Developing and maintaining our operational systems and infrastructure are challenging, particularly as a result of us and our clients entering into new businesses, jurisdictions and regulatory regimes, rapidly evolving legal and regulatory requirements and technological shifts. Our financial, accounting, data processing or other operating and compliance systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, including malicious cyber-attacks or other adverse events, which may adversely affect our ability to process these transactions or provide services or products.
In addition, our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks. Although we take protective measures, such as software programs, firewalls and similar technology, to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our and our customers' information, and endeavor to modify these protective measures as circumstances warrant, the nature of cyber threats continues to evolve. As a result, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability or disruption of service, computer viruses, acts of vandalism, or other malicious code, ransomware, hacking, phishing and other cyber-attacks and other adverse events that could have an adverse security impact. Despite the defensive measures we have taken, these threats may come from external forces, such as governments, nation-state actors, organized crime, hackers, and other third parties, including outsource or infrastructure-support providers and application developers, or may originate internally from within us. Given the high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and rectified.
We also face the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate our business activities, including vendors, customers, counterparties, exchanges, clearing agents, clearinghouses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties could also be the source of a cyber-attack on or breach of our operational systems, network, data or infrastructure. Malicious actors may also attempt to compromise or induce our employees, clients or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information or provide access to our data, and these types of risks may be difficult to detect or prevent.
There have been an increasing number of ransomware, hacking, phishing and other cyber-attacks in recent years in various industries, including ours, and cyber-security risk management has been the subject of increasing focus by our regulators. Like other companies, we have on occasion experienced, and may continue to experience, threats to our systems, including viruses, phishing and other cyber-attacks. The number and complexity of these threats continue to increase over time. The techniques used in these attacks are increasingly sophisticated, change frequently and are often not recognized until launched. If one or more cyber-attacks occur, it could potentially jeopardize the confidential, proprietary and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our, as well as our customers' or other third parties' operations, which could result in reputational damage, financial losses, customer dissatisfaction and/or regulatory penalties, which may not in all cases by covered by insurance. If an actual, threatened or perceived cyber-attack or breach of our security occurs, our clients could lose confidence in our platforms and solutions, security measures and reliability, which would materially harm our ability to retain existing clients and gain new clients. As a result of any such attack or breach, we may be required to expend significant resources to repair system, network
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or infrastructure damage and to protect against the threat of future cyber-attacks or security breaches. We could also face litigation or other claims from impacted individuals as well as substantial regulatory sanctions or fines.
The extent of a particular cyber-attack and the steps that we may need to take to investigate the attack may not be immediately clear, and it may take a significant amount of time before such an investigation can be completed and full and reliable information about the attack is known. While such an investigation is ongoing, we may not necessarily know the full extent of the harm caused by the cyber-attack, and any resulting damage may continue to spread. Furthermore, it may not be clear how best to contain and remediate the harm caused by the cyber-attack, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or
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compounded before they are discovered and remediated. Any or all of these factors could further increase the costs and consequences of a cyber-attack.
Our regulators in recent years have increased their examination and enforcement focus on all matters of our business, especially matters relating to cyber-security threats, including the assessment of firms' vulnerability to cyber-attacks. In particular, regulatory concerns have been raised about firms establishing effective cyber-security governance and risk management policies, practices and procedures that enable the identification of risks, testing and monitoring of the effectiveness of such procedures and adaptation to address any weaknesses; protecting firm networks and information; data loss prevention, identifying and addressing risk associated with remote access to client information and fund transfer requests; identifying and addressing risks associated with customers business partners, counterparties, vendors, and other third parties, including exchanges and clearing organizations; preventing and detecting unauthorized access or activities; adopting effective mitigation and business continuity plans to timely and effectively address the impact of cyber-security breaches; and establishing protocols for reporting cyber-security incidents. As we enter new jurisdictions or different product area verticals, we may be subject to new areas of risk or to cyber-attacks in areas in which we have less familiarity and tools. A technological breakdown could also interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting requirements. The SEC has issued guidance stating that, as a public company, we are expected to have controls and procedures that relate to cybersecurity disclosure, and are required to disclose information relating to certain cyber-attacks or other information security breaches in disclosures required to be made under the federal securities laws. While any insurance that we may have that covers a specific cyber-security incident may help to prevent our realizing a significant loss from the incident, it would not protect us from the effects of adverse regulatory actions that may result from the incident or a finding that we had inadequate cyber-security controls, including the reputational harm that could result from such regulatory actions.
Additionally, data privacy is subject to frequently changing rules and regulations in countries where we do business. For example, the GDPR in the EU requires entities both in the European Economic Area and outside to comply with regulations regarding the handling of personal datarights in relation to an individual's personal data in the EU and U.K. are governed respectively by the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") in the EU and the equivalent Data Protection Act 2018 in the U.K. Since May 25, 2018, when this legislation came into effect, we have been subject to new compliance obligations in relation to such personal data and the possibility of significant financial penalties for non-compliance. We are also subject to certain U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of personal data. These laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number. In addition to the increased cost of compliance, our failure to successfully implement or comply with appropriate processes to adhere to the GDPR and other laws and regulations relating to personal data could result in substantial financial penalties for non-compliance, expose us to litigation risk and harm our reputation.
Risks Relating to Our Key Personnel and Employee Turnover
The loss of one or more of our key executives, the development of future talent and the ability of certain key employees to devote adequate time and attention to us are a key part of the success of our business, and failure to continue to employ and have the benefit of these executives may adversely affect our business and prospects.
Our people are our most important resource. We must retain the services of our key employees and strategically recruit and hire new talented employees to attract customer transactions. Further, as we diversify into future business lines or geographic regions, hiring and engagement of effective management in these areas will impact our future success. In addition, like other companies, we are experiencing turnover among operational and support staff as a result of wage pressures occurring throughout the economy. See "Item 1-Business-Human Capital Management." If our retention efforts are not successful or our turnover rate continues to increase in the future, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to transition smoothly and effectively transfer knowledge to future executive officers and key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. From time to time, senior management, outside directors or other key employees may leave our Company or be absent due to illness or other factors. While we strive to reduce the negative impact of such changes, losing certain key employees could result in significant disruptions to our operations. Hiring, training, and successfully integrating replacement critical personnel is time consuming and, if unsuccessful could disrupt our operations, and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Howard W. Lutnick, who serves as our Chief Executive Officer and as Chairman of us and Newmark, is also the Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer of Cantor and President of CFGM, the managing general partner of Cantor. Stephen M. Merkel, our Executive Vice President and General Counsel, is employed as Executive Managing Director, General Counsel and Secretary of Cantor and Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer of Newmark. Steven Bisgay, our Chief Financial Officer, is also employed as Chief Financial Officer of Cantor. In addition, Messrs. Lutnick Merkel and Bisgay In addition, Messrs. Lutnick and Merkel also hold offices at various other affiliates of Cantor. These three key employees are not subject to employment agreements with us or any of our subsidiaries.
Currently, Mr. Lutnick and Mr. Merkel each typically spends at least 50% of his time on our matters, and Mr. Bisgay spends approximately 80% and Mr. Merkel typically spends at least 40% of his time on our matters. These percentages may vary depending on business developments at us
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or Newmark or Cantor or any of our or Cantor's other affiliates, including SPACs. As a result, these key employees dedicate only a portion of their professional efforts to our business and operations, and there is no contractual obligation for them to spend a specific amount of their time with us and/or Cantor and its affiliates. These key employees may not be able to dedicate adequate time and attention to our business and operations, and we could experience an adverse effect on our operations due to the demands placed on these members of our management team by their other professional obligations. In addition, these key employees' other responsibilities could cause conflicts of interest with us.
Certain of our key employees and officers are subject to post-employment restrictive covenants, including non-competition agreements, in connection with their employment agreements and/or the BGC Holdings limited partnership agreements. There can be no assurance that our non-competition agreements will be found enforceable if challenged in certain states, including states that generally do not enforce post-employment restrictive covenants. The Federal Trade Commission recently proposed a rule that would render non-competition clauses unenforceable in certain situations. If such a rule were passed (in any form) and upheld by the courts, it could have a materially adverse impact on any applicable post-employment restrictive covenants currently in place. Additionally, the BGC Holdings limited partnership agreement and the Newmark Holdings limited partnership agreements to the extent that our executive officers and employees continue to hold Newmark Holdings limited partnership units, which include non-competition and other arrangements applicable to our key employees who are limited partners of BGC Holdings and/or Newmark Holdings, may not prevent our key employees, including Messrs. Lutnick and Merkel, whose employment by Cantor is not subject to these provisions in the limited partnership agreements, from resigning or competing against us.
In addition, our success has largely been dependent on the efforts of Mr. Lutnick and other executive officers. Should Mr. Lutnick or our other most senior executives leave or otherwise become unavailable to render services to us, their loss could disrupt our operations, adversely impact employee retention and morale, and seriously harm our business.
Should any of our key employees join an existing competitor, form a competing company, offer services to Cantor or any affiliates that compete with our products, services or otherwise leave us, some of our customers could choose to use the services of that competitor or another competitor instead of our services, which could adversely affect our revenues and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Internal Controls
If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, our operations, reputation and stock price could suffer, we may need to restate our financial statements, and we may be delayed or prevented from accessing the capital markets.
As a public company, we are required, under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment is required to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our key internal controls over financial reporting. A material weakness is a control deficiency or combination of control deficiencies that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected. To ensure compliance with Section 404, we will continue to evaluate our key internal controls over financial reporting, including with respect to acquisitions, which could be both costly and challenging.
Internal controls over financial reporting, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, internal controls determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and may not prevent or detect all misstatements. Due to the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by management override of the controls. Moreover, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate due to changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. As such, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and stock price.
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Our ability to identify and remediate any material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting could affect our ability to prepare financial reports in a timely manner, control our policies, procedures, operations and assets, assess and manage our operational, regulatory and financial risks, and integrate our acquired businesses. Similarly, we need to effectively manage any growth that we achieve in such a way as to ensure continuing compliance with all applicable control, financial reporting and legal and regulatory requirements. Any material failure to ensure full compliance with control and financial reporting requirements could result in restatement, delay or prevent us from accessing the capital markets, and harm our reputation and the market price for our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to Seasonality
The financial markets in which we operate are generally affected by seasonality, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in a given period.
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Traditionally, the financial markets around the world experience lower volume during the summer and at the end of the year due to a general slowdown in the business environment around holiday seasons, and, therefore, our transaction volume levels may decrease during those periods. The timing of local holidays also affects transaction volumes. These factors could have a material effect on our results of operations in any given period.
The seasonality of our business makes it difficult to determine during the course of the year whether planned results will be achieved, and thus to adjust to changes in expectations. To the extent that we are not able to identify and adjust for changes in expectations or we are confronted with negative conditions that inordinately impact seasonal norms, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to General Market Conditions
Consolidation and concentration of market share in the banking, brokerage, exchange and financial services industries could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects because we may not be able to compete successfully.
In recent years, there has been substantial consolidation and concentration of market share among companies in the banking, brokerage, exchange, and financial services industries, resulting in increasingly large existing and potential competitors, and increased concentration in markets dominated by some of our largest customers. In addition, some of our large broker-dealer customers, such as Deutsche Bank, Barclays, Goldman Sachs, and Credit Suisse, have reduced their sales and trading business in fixed income, currency, and commodities. This is in addition to the reductions in these businesses already completed by customers, including Morgan Stanley, UBS, and The Royal Bank of Scotland.
The combination of this consolidation and concentration of market share and the reduction by large customers of certain businesses may lead to increased concentration among our brokerage customers, which may reduce our ability to negotiate pricing and other matters with our customers and lower volumes. Additionally, the sales and trading global revenue market share has generally become more concentrated over the past five years among five of the top investment banks across equities, fixed income, currencies, and commodities.
We also face existing and potential competition from large exchanges, which seek or may seek to migrate trading from the inter-dealer market to their own platform. Consolidation and concentration of market share are occurring in this area as well. For example, in recent years, CME acquired NEX; BATS Global Markets acquired the foreign-exchange trading venue, Hotspot, from KCG Holdings ("KCG"). KCG was itself acquired by Virtu in 2017, while BATS was acquired by CBOE. In early 2018, the Intercontinental Exchange acquired BondPoint, a provider of electronic fixed income trading solutions, from Virtu Financial, as well as TMC Bonds. Additionally, Deutsche Börse acquired 360T, CBOE acquired Hotspot, the Hong Kong Exchange and Clearing Limited acquired the London Metal Exchange, ICE acquired NYSE Euronext, and London Stock Exchange completed its acquisition of Refinitiv in January 2021. Most recently, in June 2021, as well as Quantile, MarketAxess acquired LiquidityEdge, and Tradeweb acquired Nasdaq's U.S. fixed income electronic trading platform, formerly known as eSpeed. In 2013, BGC sold the eSpeed platform to Nasdaq, and subsequently launched a competing platform, Fenics UST. In addition, in April of 2019, Tradeweb completed its initial public offering, which may increase its ability to hire and acquire in competition with us. Finally, In March 2021, TP ICAP acquired Liquidnet, an electronic trading network. Consolidation among exchanges may increase their financial resources and ability to compete with us.
Continued consolidation and concentration of market share in the financial services industry and especially among our customers could lead to the exertion of additional pricing pressure by our customers, impacting the commissions and spreads we generate from our brokerage services. Further, the consolidation and concentration among exchanges, and expansion by these exchanges into derivative and other non-equity trading markets, will increase competition for customer trades and place additional pricing pressure on commissions and spreads. These developments have increased competition from firms with potentially greater access to capital resources than we have. Finally, consolidation among our competitors other than exchanges
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could result in increased resources and product or service offerings for our competitors. If we are not able to compete successfully in the future, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Actions taken by central banks in major global economies may have a material negative impact on our businesses.
In recent years, including in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, policies undertaken by certain central banks, such as the U.S. Federal Reserve, the ECB, and the Bank of England, have involved quantitative easing. Quantitative easing involves open market transactions by monetary authorities to stimulate economic activity through the purchase of assets of longer maturity and has the effect of lowering interest rates further out on the yield curve.
For example, as of January 5, 2022, the U.S. Federal Reserve held approximately $6.8 trillion worth of long-dated U.S. Treasury and Federal Agency securities which are not being traded or hedged. This compares to $2.9 trillion prior to the onset
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of the COVID-19 pandemic, $1.7 trillion at the beginning of 2011 and zero prior to September 2008. This has reduced volatility and volumes for listed and OTC interest rate products in the U.S. In addition, the Federal Reserve and other central banks may continue to use traditional methods to keep short-term interest rates low by historical standards.
Similarly, global FX volumes have been muted over various periods during the past several years, largely because low interest rates (themselves partially a result of quantitative easing) in most major economies make carry-trade strategies less appealing for FX market participants. In addition, increased capital requirements for banks and other financial institutions are likely to result in increased holdings of government securities, and these holdings will be less likely to be traded or hedged, thus reducing further transaction volumes in those securities. Since the new capital requirements make it more expensive for the banks and other financial institutions to hold assets other than government securities, the new requirements may also reduce their trading and hedging activities in corporate and asset-backed fixed income securities as well as in various other OTC cash and derivative instruments. Moreover, many of our large bank customers have faced increasing regulatory scrutiny of their rates and FX businesses, and this may negatively impact industry volumes. These central banking policies may materially adversely affect our businesses, particularly our rates and FX businesses.
The migration of OTC swaps to SEF markets may adversely impact volumes, liquidity, and demand for our services in certain markets.
BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange, our subsidiaries, operate as SEFs. Mandatory Dodd-Frank Act compliant execution on SEFs by eligible U.S. persons commenced in February 2014 for "made available to trade" products, and a wide range of other rules relating to the execution and clearing of derivative products have been finalized.
Although we believe that BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange are in compliance with applicable rules, no assurance can be given that this will always be the case, that the market for these products will not be less robust that there may accordingly be less volume and liquidity in these markets, that there may be As customers or market participants transition to the rules associated with the Dodd-Frank Act, they may experience disruptions which may negatively impact these products and the market for them may be less robust resulting in less volume and liquidity and less demand for our services or the market in general. or that the industry will not experience disruptions as customers or market participants transition to the rules associated with the Dodd-Frank Act. While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, including any potential relaxation of rules and regulations, our business in these products could be significantly reduced and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected by applicable regulations.
Even after the award of permanent registration status to our SEFs, we will incur significant additional costs, our revenues may be lower than in the past and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by future events.
The Dodd-Frank Act mandated that certain cleared swaps (subject to an exemption from the clearing requirement) trade on either a SEF or DCM. SEF and DCM core principles relate to trading and product requirements, compliance and audit-trail obligations, governance and disciplinary requirements, operational capabilities, surveillance obligations and financial information and resource requirements. While these principles may or may not be permanently enforced, we do know that we will be subject to a more complex regulatory framework going forward, and that there will be significant costs to prepare for and to comply with these ongoing regulatory requirements and potential amendments. We will incur increased legal fees, personnel expenses, and other costs, as we work to analyze and implement the necessary legal structure for full compliance with all applicable regulations. There will also be significant costs related to the development, operation and enhancement of our technology relating to trade execution, trade reporting, surveillance, compliance and back-up and disaster recovery plans designed to meet the requirements of the regulators.
In addition, it is not clear at this point what the impact of these rules and regulations will be on the markets in which we currently provide our SEF services. During the continued implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act and related rules, the markets for cleared and non-cleared swaps may continue to be less robust, there may be less volume and liquidity in these markets and there may be less demand for our services.
On June 25, 2020, the CFTC approved a final rule prohibiting post-trade name give-up for swaps executed, prearranged or prenegotiated anonymously on or pursuant to the rules of a SEF and intended to be cleared. The rule provides exemptions for package transactions that include a component transaction that is not a swap that is intended to be cleared. The rule went into effect on November 1, 2020 for swaps subject to the trade execution requirement under the Commodity Exchange Act Section 2(h)(8) and July 5, 2021 for swaps not subject to the trade execution requirement but intended to be cleared.
On April 6, 2022, the SEC proposed Rules for the Registration and Regulation of Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities. The SEC proposed new Regulation SE under the Exchange Act to create a regime for the registration and regulation of security-based SEFs. The new regulatory framework was one of the major reforms required under Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act relating to the over-the-counter derivatives market. In developing this proposal, the SEC sought to harmonize as closely as practicable with parallel rules of the CFTC that govern SEFs and swap execution generally. The proposal was published on SEC.gov and in the Federal Register with a public comment period of 60 days. If adopted, the proposal would implement the Exchange Act's trade execution requirement for security-based swaps and address the cross-border application of that requirement; implement Section 765 of the Dodd-Frank Act to mitigate conflicts of interest at security-based SEFs and national securities exchanges that trade security-based swaps; and promote consistency between proposed Regulation SE and existing rules under the Exchange Act.
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Certain banks and other institutions may continue to be limited in their conduct of proprietary trading and may be further limited from trading in certain derivatives. The new rules, including the proprietary trading restrictions for certain banks
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and other institutions, could materially impact transaction volumes and liquidity in these markets and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely impacted as a result.
If we fail to continue to qualify as a SEF under any of these conditions, we may be unable to maintain our position as a provider of execution and brokerage services in the markets for many of the OTC products for which we have traditionally acted as an intermediary. This would have a broad impact on us and could have a material adverse effect on our business' financial condition, results operations, and prospects.
Our commodities derivatives activities, including those related to electricity, natural gas and environmental interests, subject us to extensive regulation, potential catastrophic events and other risks that may result in our incurring significant costs and liabilities.
We engage in the brokerage of commodities derivatives, including those involving electricity and natural gas, and related products and indices. These activities subject us and our customers to extensive regulatory oversight, involving federal, state, and local and foreign commodities, energy, environmental, and other governmental laws and regulations and may result in our incurring significant costs and liabilities.
We or our clients may incur substantial costs in complying with current or future laws and regulations relating to our commodities-related activities, including trading of electricity, natural gas, and environmental interests. New regulation of OTC derivatives markets in the U.S. and similar legislation proposed or adopted abroad will impose significant new costs and new requirements on the commodities derivatives activities of us and our customers. Therefore, the overall reputation of us or our customers may be adversely affected by the current or future regulatory environment. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in substantial civil and criminal penalties and fines for market participants.
The commodities-related activities of us and our customers are also subject to the risk of unforeseen catastrophic events, many of which are outside of our control, which could result in significant liabilities for us or our customers. We may not be able to obtain insurance to cover these risks, and the insurance that we have may be inadequate to cover our liabilities. The occurrence of any of such events may prevent us from performing under our agreements with customers, may impair our operations, and may result in litigation, regulatory action, negative publicity or other reputational harm, which could have a material negative effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Compliance
The financial services industry in which we operate is subject to significant regulation. We are subject to regulatory capital requirements on our regulated business, and a significant operating loss or any extraordinary charge against capital could materially adversely affect our ability to expand or, depending upon the magnitude of the loss or charge, even to maintain the current level of our business.
Many aspects of our business, like those of other financial services firms, are subject to significant capital requirements. In the U.S., the SEC, FINRA, the CFTC, the NFA and various other regulatory bodies have stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of these entities' activities. Four of our subsidiaries, BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution LLC and Mint are registered with the SEC and subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. As an FCM, Mint is also subject to CFTC capital requirements. BGCF is also a member of the FICC, which imposes capital requirements on its members. We also hold a 49% limited partnership interest in Aqua, a U.S. registered broker-dealer and ATS. These entities are subject to SEC, FINRA, CFTC and NFA net capital requirements. In addition, our SEFs, BGC Derivative Markets, and GFI Swaps Exchange, FMX Futures Exchange, and CX Clearinghouse, L.P. are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months' operating costs.
Our international operations are also subject to capital requirements in their local jurisdictions. BGC Brokers L.P., BGC European Holdings, L.P, GFI Brokers Limited and GFI Securities Limited, which are based in the U.K., are currently subject to capital requirements established by the FCA. The capital requirements of our French entities (and its EU branches) are predominantly set by ACPR and AMF. U.K. and EU authorities apply stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of these brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of their activities. EU policymakers introduced a new capital regime applicable to EU Investment Firms with a phased implementation that began in June 2021. The U.K. has introduced a regime that, while applying different rules and methods, is largely similar in its objectives. This regime entered into force beginning in January 2022, with a similarly phased implementation.The impact of both regimes on our firm will be dependent on further detailed legislative requirements.
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In addition, the majority of our other foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation by the relevant authorities in the jurisdictions in which they do business, such as Australia, and Hong Kong and Singapore. These regulations often include minimum capital requirements, which are subject to change. Further, we may become subject to capital requirements in other foreign jurisdictions in which we currently operate or in which we may enter.
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We expect to continue to maintain levels of capital in excess of regulatory minimums. Should we fail to maintain the required capital, we may be required to reduce or suspend our brokerage operations during the period that we are not in compliance with capital requirements, and may be subject to suspension or revocation of registration or withdrawal of authorization or other disciplinary action from domestic and international regulators, which would have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, should we fail to maintain the capital required by clearing organizations of which we are a member, our ability to clear through those clearing organizations may be impaired, which may materially adversely affect our ability to process trades.
If the capital rules are changed or expanded, or if there is an unusually large charge against capital, our operations that require the intensive use of capital would be limited. Our ability to withdraw capital from our regulated subsidiaries is subject to restrictions, which, in turn, could limit our ability to pay our indebtedness and other expenses, dividends on our Class A common stock, and distributions on our BGC Holdings limited partnership interests, and to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock or purchase BGC Holdings limited partnership interests or other equity interests in our subsidiaries, including from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners and others, and pursue strategic acquisitions or other growth opportunities. It is possible that capital requirements may also be relaxed as a result of future changes in U.S. regulation, although no assurance can be given that such changes will occur. We cannot predict our future capital needs or our ability to obtain additional financing. No assurance can be given that required capital levels will remain stable or that we will not incur substantial expenses in connection with maintaining current or increased capital levels or engaging in business restructurings or other activities in response to these requirements.
In addition, financial services firms such as ours are subject to numerous conflicts of interests or perceived conflicts, including for example principal trading and trading to make markets. We have adopted various policies, controls, and procedures to address or limit actual or perceived conflicts, and we will regularly seek to review and update our policies, controls and procedures. However, these policies, controls and procedures may result in increased costs and additional operational personnel. Failure to adhere to these policies, controls and procedures may result in regulatory sanctions or customer claims.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected by new laws, rules, or regulations or by changes in existing law, rules or regulations or the application thereof.
The financial services industry, in general, is heavily regulated. Proposals for additional legislation further regulating the financial services industry are periodically introduced in the U.S., the U.K., the EU, and other geographic areas. Moreover, the agencies regulating the financial services industry also periodically adopt changes to their rules and regulations, particularly as these agencies have increased the focus and intensity of their regulation of the financial services industry.
Changes in legislation and in the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC, FINRA, the CFTC, the NFA, the U.S. Treasury, the FCA, the European Commission, ESMA and other domestic and international regulators and self-regulatory organizations, as well as changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, often directly affect the method of operation and profitability of brokerage and could result in restrictions in the way we conduct our business. For example, the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Treasury, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the SEC and the CFTC are continuing to review the nature and scope of their regulation and oversight of the government securities markets and U.S. securities and derivative markets. Furthermore, in Europe, MiFID II was implemented in January 2018. MiFID II requires a significant part of the market in these instruments to trade on trading venues subject to pre- and post-trade transparency regimes and non-discriminatory fee structures and access. In addition, it has had a particularly significant impact in several key areas, including corporate governance, transaction reporting, technology synchronization, best execution and investor protection. MiFID II also introduced a new regulated execution venue category to accompany the existing Multilateral Trading Facility regime. The new venue category is known as an OTF, and it captures much of the voice and hybrid trading in EU. Certain of our existing EU derivatives and fixed income execution business now take place on OTFs, and we currently operate one OTF for each of the U.K.-regulated entities, one in France at Aurel BGC and one MTF under GFI Securities Limited. In 2019, a new European Commission took office which may over the course of its five-year mandate or introduce new legislative proposals for the financial services sector. This will include various legislative reviews of MIFID, which have started in 2020.
Similarly, while the Volcker Rule will not apply directly to us, the Volcker Rule may have a material impact on many of the banking and other institutions with which we do business or compete. There may be a continued uncertainty regarding the application of the Volcker Rule, its impact on various affected businesses, how those businesses will respond to it, and the effect that it will have on the markets in which we do business.
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Other regulatory initiatives include Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord), a global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk introduced by bank regulators in most, if not all, of the world's major economies. Basel III is designed to strengthen bank capital requirements and introduces new regulatory requirements on bank liquidity and bank leverage. The ongoing adoption of these rules could restrict the ability of our large bank and brokerage customers to operate proprietary trading businesses and to maintain current capital market exposures under the present structure of their balance sheets, and will cause these entities to need to raise additional capital in order to stay active in our marketplaces. Meanwhile, global "Basel IV" standards will be implemented across the globe in the years to come. Most of the requirements are expected to be implemented by national and regional authorities by around 2023, with certain delays announced by regulators recently due to COVID-19. The adoption of these proposed rules could restrict the ability of our large bank and broker-dealer customers to operate trading businesses and to maintain current capital market exposures under the present structure of their balance sheets, and will cause these entities to need to raise additional capital in order to stay active in our marketplaces. As a result, their businesses, results of operations, financial condition or prospects could be materially adversely affected, which might cause them to do less business. Such potential impact could materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
In the U.S., the SEC has proposed rules to expand Regulation ATS to cover ATS trading government securities. In addition, the proposed rules extend Regulation SCI to ATSs trading government securities.
Further, the authorities of the U.K. and certain EU countries Further, the authorities of non-U.S. countries in which we have offices or do business may from time-to-time institute changes to tax law that, if applicable to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Similarly, the U.S. has proposed a series of changes to U.S. tax law, some of which could apply to us. It is not possible to predict if any of these new provisions will be enacted or, if they are, what form they may take. It is possible that one or more of such provisions could negatively impact our costs and our effective tax rate, which would affect our after-tax earnings. If any of such changes to tax law were implemented and/or deemed to apply to us, they could have a material
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adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, including on our ability to attract, compensate and retain brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel.
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We believe that uncertainty and potential delays around the final form that such new laws and regulations might take may negatively impact trading volumes in certain markets in which we transact. Increased capital requirements may also diminish transaction velocity. We believe that it remains premature to know conclusively the specific aspects of the U.S., U.K. and EU proposals which may directly impact our business as some proposals have not yet been finalized and others which have been proposed remain subject to further debate. Additionally, unintended consequences of the laws, rules and regulations may adversely affect us in ways yet to be determined. We are unable to predict how any of these new laws, rules, regulations and proposals will be implemented or in what form, or whether any additional or similar changes to laws, rules or regulations, including the interpretation or implementation thereof, will occur in the future. Any such action could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways and could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, we are subject to tax risks inherent in operating a global business in various jurisdictions, including increased taxes and levies and future changes in income tax regulations.
Extensive regulation of our business restricts and limits our operations and activities and results in ongoing exposure to potential significant costs and penalties, including fines, sanctions, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, and additional restrictions or limitations on our ability to conduct or grow our business.
The financial services industry, including our business, is subject to extensive regulation, which is very costly. The requirements imposed by regulators are designed to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect customers and other third parties who deal with us and are not designed to protect the holders of our stock, notes or other securities. These regulations will often serve to restrict or limit our operations and activities, including through capital, customer protection and market conduct requirements.
Our business is subject to regulation by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. Many of these regulators, including U.S. and non-U.S. government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities commissions in the U.S., are empowered to bring enforcement actions and to conduct administrative proceedings and examinations, inspections, and investigations, which may result in costs, penalties, fines, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, restrictions or limitations, and censure, suspension, or expulsion. Self-regulatory organizations such as FINRA and the NFA, along with statutory bodies such as the SEC, the CFTC, and the FCA, and other international regulators, require strict compliance with their rules and regulations. In addition, as a
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result of regulatory actions, our registration statements under the Securities Act will be subject to SEC review prior to effectiveness, which may lengthen the time required for us to raise capital, reducing our access to the capital markets or increasing our cost of capital.
Firms in the financial services industry, including us, have experienced increased scrutiny in recent years, and penalties, fines and other sanctions sought by regulatory authorities, including the SEC, the CFTC, FINRA, the NFA, state securities commissions and state attorneys general in the U.S., and the FCA in the U.K. and other international regulators, have increased accordingly. This trend toward a heightened regulatory and enforcement environment can be expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and this environment may create uncertainty. From time to time, we have been and are subject to periodic examinations, inspections, and investigations, including periodic risk assessment and related reviews of our U.K. group. As a result of such reviews, we may be subject to increased monitoring and be required to include or enhance certain regulatory structures and frameworks in our operating procedures, systems, and controls.
Increasingly, the FCA has developed a practice of requiring senior officers of regulated firms to provide individual attestations or undertakings as to the status of the firm's control environment, compliance with specific rules and regulations, or the completion of required tasks. Officers of BGC Brokers L.P. and GFI Brokers Limited have given such attestations or undertakings in the past and may do so again in the future. Similarly, the FCA can seek a voluntary requirement notice, which is a voluntary undertaking on behalf of a firm that is made publicly available on the FCA's website. The SMCR came into effect in the U.K. on December 9, 2019. Accountability requirements now fall on senior managers, and a wider population of U.K. staff are subject to certification requirements. SMCR has increased the cost of compliance and will potentially increase financial penalties for non-compliance. These activities have resulted, and may in the future result, in significant costs and remediation expenses, and possible disciplinary actions by the SEC, the CFTC, the FCA, self-regulatory organizations and state securities administrators and have impacted, and may impact in the future, our acquisitions of regulated businesses or entry into new business lines.
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The financial services industry in general faces potential regulatory, litigation and/or criminal risks that may result in damages or fines or other penalties as well as costs, and we may face damage to our professional reputation and legal liability if our products and services are not regarded as satisfactory, our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, or for other reasons, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Many aspects of our current business involve substantial risks of liability. The expansion of our businesses, including into new areas, imposes additional risks of liability.
In the normal course of business, we have been a party to investigations, administrative proceedings, lawsuits, arbitrations, and other actions involving primarily claims for damages. In certain circumstances, we could also face potential criminal investigations, enforcement actions or liability, including fines or other penalties. Examinations, inspections, regulatory inquiries and subpoenas or other requests for information or testimony may cause us to incur significant expenses, including fees for legal representation and other professional advisors and costs associated with document production and remediation efforts. Such regulatory, legal, or other actions may also be directed at certain executives or employees who may be critical to our business or to particular brokerage desks. The risks associated with such matters often may be difficult to assess or quantify, and their existence and magnitude often remain unknown for substantial periods of time.
A settlement of, or judgment related to, any such matters could result in regulatory, civil or criminal liability, fines, penalties, restrictions or limitations on our operations and activities and other sanctions and could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Any such action could also cause us significant reputational harm, which, in turn, could seriously harm us. In addition, regardless of the outcome of such matters, we may incur significant legal and other costs, including substantial management time, dealing with such matters, even if we are not a party to the litigation or a target of the inquiry. For example, in September 2020, the SEC announced a settlement with BGC regarding alleged negligent disclosure violations related to one of BGC's non-GAAP financial measures for periods beginning with the first quarter of 2015 through the first quarter of 2016. All of the relevant disclosures related to those periods and pre-dated the SEC staff's May 2016 detailed compliance and disclosure guidance with respect to non-GAAP presentations. BGC revised its non-GAAP presentation beginning with the second quarter of 2016 as a result of the SEC's guidance, and the SEC has made no allegations with regard to any periods following the first quarter of 2016. In connection with the SEC settlement, BGC was ordered to cease and desist from any future violations of Sections 17(a)(2) and 17(a)(3) of the Securities Act, Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13a-11 thereunder, and Rule 100(b) of Regulation G, and agreed to pay a civil penalty of $1.4 million without admitting or denying the SEC's allegations. During the fourth quarter of 2020, management identified the theft of UK tax payment related funds from the Company. The theft, which occurred over several years ending September 2020, was perpetrated by two individuals associated with the Company, and did not involve the operations or business of the Company. Litigation was commenced against the two individuals seeking recovery of stolen amounts. One individual has admitted to all claims and we are now recovering assets pursuant to a court endorsed consent order. Litigation continues against the second individual. The cumulative impact to the Company's "Consolidated net income (loss)" as a result of the theft was determined to be $35.2
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million. The Company expects to recover most or substantially all of the stolen funds through a combination of insurance and return of assets through litigation.
We depend to a large extent on our relationships with our customers and our reputation for integrity and high-caliber professional services to attract and retain customers. We are subject to the risk of failure of our employees to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations or to be adequately supervised by their managers, and to the extent that such individuals do not meet these requirements, we may be subject to the risk of fines or other penalties as well as reputational risk. As a result, if our customers are not satisfied with our products or services, or our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, such matters may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses. Significant regulatory action or substantial legal liability against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, or cause significant reputational damage to us, which could seriously harm us.
Risks Related to Competition
Because competition for the services of brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel in the financial services industry is intense, it could affect our ability to attract and retain a sufficient number of highly skilled brokers or other professional services personnel, in turn adversely impacting our revenues, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our ability to provide high-quality brokerage and other professional services and maintain long-term relationships with our customers depends, in large part, upon our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel. As a result, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel.
Competition for talent is intense, especially for brokers with experience in the specialized businesses in which we participate or we may seek to enter. If we are unable to hire or retain highly qualified professionals, including retaining those
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employed by businesses we acquire in the future, we may not be able to enter new brokerage markets or develop new products or services. If we lose one or more of our brokers in a particular market in which we participate, our revenues may decrease, and we may lose market share.
In addition, recruitment and retention of qualified professionals could result in substantial additional costs, including costs and management time associated with litigation, arbitration or other claims related to employee hires and/or departures.
If we fail to attract new personnel, or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, or if we incur increased costs or restrictions associated with attracting and retaining personnel (such as lawsuits, arbitrations, sign-on or guaranteed bonuses or forgivable loans), our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We face strong competition from brokerages, exchanges, and other financial services firms, many of which have greater market presence, marketing capabilities and financial, technological and personnel resources than we have, which could lead to pricing pressures that could adversely impact our revenues and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The financial services industry is intensely competitive and is expected to remain so. We primarily compete with two major, diversified inter-dealer brokers and financial intermediaries: These include CME, TP ICAP and Tradition. TP ICAP and Tradition are currently publicly traded companies. Other inter-dealer broker and financial intermediary competitors include a number of smaller, privately held firms that tend to specialize in specific products and services or geographic areas.
We also compete with companies that provide alternative products and services, such as contracts traded on futures exchanges, and trading processes, such as the direct dealer-to-dealer market for government securities and stock exchange markets for corporate equities, debt and other securities. We increasingly compete, directly or indirectly, with exchanges for the execution of trades in certain products, mainly in derivatives such as futures, swaps, options, and options on futures, such the CME Group. Certain exchanges have made and will likely continue to make attempts to move certain OTC-traded products to exchange-based execution, or to create listed derivatives products that mimic the qualities of similar OTC-traded products. We also compete with consortia, which are created or funded from time to time by banks, broker-dealers and other companies involved in financial services to compete in various markets with exchanges and inter-dealer brokers. We may compete in OTC-traded products with platforms, such as those owned by MarketAxess Holdings Inc. and Tradeweb Markets, in fixed income products or various OTC FX platforms owned by exchanges such as CBOE and Deutsche Börse. In addition, financial data and information firms such as Refinitiv and Bloomberg L.P. operate trading platforms for both OTC and listed products and may attempt to compete with us for trade execution in the future.
Some of our competitors have greater market presence, marketing capabilities and financial, technological and personnel resources than we have and, as a result, our competitors may be able to:
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•develop and expand their network infrastructures and product and service offerings more efficiently or more quickly than we can;
•adapt more swiftly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements;
•identify and consummate acquisitions and other opportunities more effectively than we can;
•hire our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel;
•devote greater resources to the marketing and sale of their products and services;
•more effectively leverage existing relationships with customers and strategic partners or exploit more recognized brand names to market and sell their products and services;
•provide a lower cost structure and lower commissions and fees;
•provide access to trading in products or a range of products that at any particular time we do not offer; and
•develop services that are preferred by our customers.
In addition, new competitors may emerge, and our product and service lines may be threatened by new technologies or market trends that reduce the value of our existing product and service lines or we may enter new businesses, including crypto-currency and similar opportunities for which there are high barriers to entry or for which we may be regulated. If we are not able to compete successfully in the future, our revenues could be adversely impacted, and as a result our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Competition for financial brokerage transactions also has resulted in substantial commission discounting by brokers that compete with us for business. Further discounting could adversely impact our revenues and margins and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Our operations also include the sale of pricing and transactional data and information produced by our brokerage operations to securities information processors and/or vendors. There is a high degree of competition in pricing and transaction reporting products and services, and such businesses may become more competitive in the future. Competitors and customers of our financial brokerage business have together and individually offered market data and information products and services in competition with those offered and expected to be offered by us.
Risks Related to Our International Operations
We are generally subject to various risks inherent in doing business in the international financial markets, in addition to those unique to the regulated brokerage industry, and any failure to identify and manage those risks could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We currently provide products and services to customers in many foreign countries, and we may seek to further expand our operations into additional jurisdictions. On a consolidated basis, revenues from foreign countries were approximately $1.3 billion, or approximately 70% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2022. In many countries, the laws and rules and regulations applicable to the financial services industry are uncertain and evolving, and it may be difficult for us to determine the exact requirements of local regulations in every jurisdiction. Our inability to remain in compliance with local laws and rules and regulations in a particular foreign jurisdiction could have a significant and negative effect not only on our business in that market but also on our reputation generally. If we are unable to manage any of these risks effectively, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
There are also certain additional political, economic, legal, operational, and other risks inherent in doing business in international financial markets, particularly in the regulated financial services industry. These risks include:
•less developed automation in exchanges, depositories and national clearing systems;
•additional or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, capital requirements, tariffs and other trade barriers;
•the impact of the laws, rules and regulations of foreign governmental and regulatory authorities of each country in which we conduct business, including initiatives such as Brexit;
•possible nationalization, expropriation and regulatory, political and price controls;
•difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
•capital controls, exchange controls and other restrictive governmental actions;
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•failure to develop effective compliance and reporting systems, which could result in regulatory penalties in the applicable jurisdiction;
•fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
•reduced protections for intellectual property rights;
•adverse labor and employment laws, including those related to compensation, tax, health insurance and benefits, and social security;
•the outbreak of hostilities, or mass demonstrations, pandemics, or other global events; and
•potentially adverse tax consequences arising from compliance with foreign laws, rules, and regulations to which our international businesses are subject and the repatriation of overseas earnings.
Credit Risk
Credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us, Cantor or another large financial institution could adversely affect us or financial markets generally.
The commercial soundness of many financial institutions may be closely interrelated as a result of interconnectedness arising from credit, trading, clearing or other relationships between the institutions. A default by one of our customers could lead to liquidity concerns in our business and, to the extent that Cantor or another entity that clears for us has difficulty meeting capital requirements or otherwise meeting its obligations, we may need to provide our own liquidity.
As a result, concerns about, or a default or threatened default by, one institution could lead to significant market-wide liquidity problems, losses, or defaults by other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as "systemic risk" and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which we transact on a regular basis, and therefore could adversely affect us. Similarly, our vendors, including insurance companies and
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other providers, are subject to normal business risks as well as risks related to changes in U.S. and international economic and market conditions. Failure of any of these vendor institutions could also materially, adversely affect us.
Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are critical to our reputation and operational and financial success. Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are influenced by a number of factors, including: operating environment, regulatory environment, earnings and profitability trends the rating agencies' view of our funding and liquidity management practices, balance sheet size/composition and resulting leverage, cash flow coverage of interest, composition and size of the capital base, available liquidity, outstanding borrowing levels, our competitive position in the industry, our relationships in the industry, including with Cantor, acquisitions or dispositions of assets and other matters. Our credit ratings and/or the associated rating outlooks can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides the circumstances of BGC or related companies warrant such a change. Any negative change or a downgrade in credit ratings and/or the associated rating outlooks could adversely affect the availability of debt financing on acceptable terms, as well as the cost and other terms upon which any such financing can be obtained. In addition, credit ratings and associated outlooks may be important to customers or counterparties in certain markets and in certain transactions. Additional collateral may be required in the event of a negative change in credit ratings or rating outlooks.
Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks, which could result in us incurring significant losses that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks. For example, our customers and counterparties may not deliver securities to one of our operating subsidiaries which has sold those securities to another customer. If the securities due to be delivered have increased in value, there is a risk that we may have to expend our own funds in connection with the purchase of other securities to consummate the transaction. While we will take steps to ensure that our customers and counterparties have high credit standings and that financing transactions are adequately collateralized, the large dollar amounts that may be involved in our broker-dealer and financing transactions could subject us to significant losses if, as a result of customer or counterparty failures to meet commitments, we were to incur significant costs in liquidating or covering our positions in the open market.
We have adopted policies and procedures to identify, monitor and manage credit and market risks, in both agency and principal transactions, leveraging risk reporting and control procedures and by monitoring credit standards applicable to our customers and counterparties. These policies and procedures, however, may not be fully effective, particularly against fraud, unauthorized trading, and similar incidents. Some of these risk management methods depend upon the evaluation of information regarding markets, customers, counterparties, or other matters that are publicly available or otherwise accessible by us. That information may not, in all cases, be accurate, complete, up-to-date, or properly evaluated. If our policies and
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procedures are not fully effective or we are not always successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are, or may be, exposed, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, our insurance policies do not provide coverage for these risks.
Transactions executed on a matched principal basis where the instrument has the same or similar characteristics to the counterparty may expose us to correlation risk. In this case, the counterparty's inability to meet its obligations will also result in the value of the instrument declining. For example, if we were to enter into a transaction to sell to a customer a bond or structured note where the issuer or credit support provider was such customer's affiliate, the value of the instrument would decline in value in tandem with the default. This correlation has the potential effect of magnifying the credit loss.
We are subject to financing risk because, if a transaction does not settle on a timely basis, the resulting unmatched position may need to be financed, either directly by us or through one of the clearing organizations, at our expense. These charges may be recoverable from the failing counterparty, but sometimes they are not. In addition, in instances where the unmatched position or failure to deliver is prolonged or widespread due to rapid or widespread declines in liquidity for an instrument, there may also be regulatory capital charges required to be taken by us, which, depending on their size and duration, could limit our business flexibility or even force the curtailment of those portions of our business requiring higher levels of capital. Credit or settlement losses of this nature could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Disruptions in the financial markets have also led to the exposure of several cases of financial fraud. If we were to have trading activity on an agency or principal basis with an entity engaged in defrauding investors or counterparties, we could bear the risk that the counterparty would not have the financial resources to meet their obligations, resulting in a credit loss. Similarly, we may engage in financial transactions with third parties that have been victims of financial fraud and, therefore, may not have the financial resources to meet their obligations to us.
In agency transactions, we charge a commission for connecting buyers and sellers and assisting in the negotiation of the price and other material terms of the transaction. After all material terms of a transaction are agreed upon, we identify the buyer and seller to each other and leave them to settle the trade directly. We are exposed to credit risk for commissions, as we
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bill customers for our agency brokerage services. Our customers may default on their obligations to us due to disputes, bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure, or other reasons. Any losses arising from such defaults could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In emerging market countries, we primarily conduct our business on an agency and matched principal basis, where the risk of counterparty default, inconvertibility events and sovereign default is greater than in more developed countries.
We enter transactions in cash and derivative instruments primarily on an agency and matched principal basis with counterparties domiciled in countries in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia. Transactions with these counterparties are generally in instruments or contracts of sovereign or corporate issuers located in the same country as the counterparty. This exposes us to a higher degree of sovereign or convertibility risk than in more developed countries. In addition, these risks may entail correlated risks. A correlated risk arises when the counterparty's inability to meet its obligations also corresponds to a decline in the value of the instrument traded. In the case of a sovereign convertibility event or outright default, the counterparty to the trade may be unable to pay or transfer payment of an instrument purchased out of the country when the value of the instrument has declined due to the default or convertibility event. The global financial crisis of recent years has heightened the risk of sovereign or convertibility events in emerging markets similar to the events that occurred in previous financial downturns. Our risk management function monitors the creditworthiness of emerging countries and counterparties on an ongoing basis and, when the risk of inconvertibility or sovereign default is deemed to be too great, correlated transactions or all transactions may be restricted or suspended. However, there can be no assurance that these procedures will be effective in controlling these risks.
Concentration and Market Risk
The rates business is our largest product category, and we could be significantly affected by any downturn in the rates product market.
We offer our brokerage services in five broad product categories: rates, credit, FX, energy and commodities, and equity derivatives and cash equities. Our brokerage revenues are strongest in our rates products, which accounted for approximately 30.6% of our total brokerage revenues on a consolidated basis for the year ended December 31, 2022. While we focus on expanding and have successfully diversified our product offerings, we may currently be exposed to any adverse change or condition affecting the rates product market. Accordingly, the concentration of our brokerage business on rates products subjects our results to a greater market risk than if we had more diversified product offerings.
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Due to our current customer concentration, a loss of one or more of our significant customers could materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, on a consolidated basis, our top ten customers, collectively, accounted for approximately 31.0% of our total revenues. We have limited long-term contracts with certain of these customers. If we were to lose one or more of these significant customers for any reason, including as a result of further consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry, and not be compensated for such loss by doing additional business with other customers or by adding new customers, our revenues would decline significantly and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects would materially suffer.
Our revenues and profitability could be reduced or otherwise materially adversely affected by pricing plans relating to commissions and fees on our trading platform.
We negotiate from time to time with certain customers (including many of our largest customers) to enter into customized volume discount pricing plans. While the pricing plans are designed to encourage customers to be more active on our Fully Electronic trade execution platform, they reduce the amount of commissions and fees payable to us by certain of our most active customers for certain products, which could reduce our revenues and constrain our profitability. From time to time, these pricing plans come up for renewal. Failure of a number of our larger customers to enter into renewed agreements, or agreements on terms as favorable as existing agreements, could have a material adverse effect on volumes on our Fully Electronic trade execution platform, the commissions payable to us, our revenues and our profitability.
Reduced spreads in pricing, levels of trading activity and trading through market makers and/or specialists could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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Computer-generated buy/sell programs and other technological advances and regulatory changes in the marketplace may continue to tighten securities spreads. In addition, new and enhanced alternative trading systems, such as electronic communications networks, have emerged as alternatives for individual and institutional investors, as well as brokerage firms. As such systems do not direct trades through market makers, their use could result in reduced revenues for us or for our customers. In addition, reduced trading levels could lead to lower revenues which could materially adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have market risk exposure from unmatched principal transactions entered into by some of our desks, as well as holdings of marketable equity securities, which could result in losses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects for any particular reporting period. In addition, financial fraud or unauthorized trading activity could also adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
On a limited basis, our desks enter into unmatched principal transactions in the ordinary course of business to facilitate transactions, add liquidity, improve customer satisfaction, increase revenue opportunities and attract additional order flow or, in certain instances, as the result of an error. As a result, we have market risk exposure on these unmatched principal transactions.
Market risk refers to the risk that a change in the level of one or more market prices, rates, indices or other factors will result in losses for a specified position. We may allow certain of our desks to enter into unmatched principal transactions in the ordinary course of business and hold long and short inventory positions. These transactions are primarily for the purpose of managing proprietary positions, facilitating customer execution needs, adding liquidity to a market or attracting additional order flow. As a result, we may have market risk exposure on these transactions. Our exposure varies based on the size of the overall position, the terms and liquidity of the instruments brokered and the amount of time the position is held before we dispose of the position. Although we have limited ability to track our exposure to market risk and unmatched positions on an intra-day basis, we attempt to mitigate market risk on these positions by strict risk limits, extremely limited holding periods and active risk management, including hedging our exposure. These positions are intended to be held short term, and generally to facilitate customer transactions. However, due to a number of factors, including the nature of the position and access to the market on which it trades, we may not be able to unwind the position and we may be forced to hold the position for a longer period than anticipated. All positions held longer than intra-day are marked to market.
Certain categories of trades settle for clearing purposes with CF&Co, one of our affiliates. CF&Co is a member of FINRA and the FICC, a subsidiary of the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation. In addition, certain affiliated entities are subject to regulation by the CFTC, including CF&Co and BGC Financial. In certain products we, CF&Co, BGC Financial and other affiliates act in a matched principal or principal capacity in markets by posting and/or acting upon quotes for our account. Such activity is intended, among other things, to assist us, CF&Co, and other affiliates in managing proprietary positions
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(including, but not limited to, those established as a result of combination trades and errors), facilitating transactions, framing markets, adding liquidity, increasing commissions and attracting order flow.
From a risk management perspective, we monitor risk daily, on an end-of-day basis, and desk managers generally monitor such exposure on a continuous basis. Any unmatched positions are intended to be disposed of in the short term. However, due to a number of factors, including the nature of the position and access to the markets on which we trade, we may not be able to match the position or effectively hedge its exposure and often may be forced to hold a position overnight that has not been hedged. To the extent these unmatched positions are not disposed of intra-day, we mark these positions to market. Adverse movements in the market values of assets or other reference benchmarks underlying these positions or a downturn or disruption in the markets for these positions could result in a loss. In the event of any unauthorized trading activity or financial fraud that is not detected by management, it is possible that these unmatched positions could be outstanding for a long period. At the time of any sales and settlements of these positions, the price we ultimately realize will depend on the demand and liquidity in the market at that time and may be materially lower than their current fair values. In addition, our estimates or determinations of the values of our various positions, assets or business are subject to the accuracy of our assumptions and the valuation models or multiples used. Any principal losses and gains resulting from these positions could on occasion have disproportionate effects, negative or positive, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects for any particular reporting period.
In addition, in recent years we have had considerable holdings of marketable securities received by us as consideration for the sale of certain businesses. We may seek to manage the market risk exposure inherent in such holdings by minimizing the effect of price changes on a portion of such holdings, including through the use of derivative contracts. There can, however, be no assurance that our hedging activities will be adequate to protect us against price risks associated with these holdings, or that the costs of such hedging activities will not be significant. Further, any such hedging activities and other risk management techniques may not be fully effective in mitigating our risk exposure in all market environments or against all types of risk, including unpredicted price movements, counterparty defaults or other risks that are unidentified or unanticipated. Any such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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We may have equity investments or profit sharing interests in entities whose primary business is proprietary trading. These investments could expose us to losses that could adversely affect our net income and the value of our assets.
We may have equity investments or profit sharing interests in entities whose primary business is proprietary trading. The accounting treatment applied for these investments varies depending on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our percentage ownership or profit share and whether we have any influence or control over the relevant entity. Under certain accounting standards, any losses experienced by these entities on their investment activities could adversely impact our net income and the value of our assets. In addition, if these entities were to fail and cease operations, we could lose the entire value of our investment and the stream of any shared profits from trading.
Other General Risks
Our operations are global and exchange rate fluctuations and international market events could materially adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Because our operations are global, we are exposed to risks associated with changes in FX rates. Changes in foreign currency rates create volatility in the U.S. dollar equivalent of revenues and expenses which may result in higher or lower values than in an otherwise constant currency exchange rate environment, in particular with regard to British Pounds and Euros. In addition, changes in the remeasurement of our foreign currency denominated net assets are recorded as part of our results of operations and fluctuate with changes in foreign currency rates. We monitor our net exposure in foreign currencies on a daily basis and hedge our exposure as deemed appropriate with major financial institutions. However, potential movements in the U.S. dollar against other currencies in which we earn revenues have in the past and may in the future materially adversely affect our financial results.
Furthermore, our revenues derived from non-U.S. operations are subject to risk of loss from social or political instability, changes in government policies or policies of central banks, downgrades in the credit ratings of sovereign countries, expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and unfavorable legislative, political developments, and other events in such non-U.S. jurisdictions. Revenues from the trading of non-U.S. securities may be subject to negative fluctuations as a result of the above factors. The impact of these fluctuations on our results could be magnified because generally non-U.S. trading markets, particularly in emerging market countries, are smaller, less liquid and more volatile than U.S. trading markets.
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Employee misconduct, fraud, miscommunication or error could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain customers and subjecting us to significant financial losses, legal liability, regulatory sanctions and penalties and reputational harm; moreover, misconduct is difficult to detect and deter, and error is difficult to prevent.
Employee misconduct, fraud or error could subject us to financial losses, legal liability, and regulatory sanctions and penalties and could seriously harm our reputation and negatively affect us. Misconduct or fraud by employees could include engaging in improper or unauthorized transactions or activities, failing to properly supervise other employees or improperly using confidential information.
Employee errors and miscommunication, including mistakes in executing, recording or processing transactions for customers, could cause us to enter into transactions that customers may disavow and refuse to settle, suffer liability, loss, sanction and/or reputational harm, which could expose us to the risk of material losses even if the errors and miscommunication are detected and the transactions are unwound or reversed. If our customers are not able to settle their transactions on a timely basis, the time in which employee errors and miscommunication are detected may be increased and our risk of material loss could be increased. The risk of employee error and miscommunication may be greater for products or services that are new or have non-standardized terms.
It is not always possible to deter and detect employee misconduct or fraud or prevent errors and miscommunications. While we have various supervisory systems and compliance processes and procedures in place, and seek to mitigate applicable risks, the precautions we take to deter and detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases.
See "-The financial services industry in general faces potential regulatory, litigation and/or criminal risks that may result in damages or fines or other penalties as well as costs, and we may face damage to our professional reputation and legal liability if our products and services are not regarded as satisfactory, our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, or for other reasons, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects."
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Although portions of our compensation structure are variable, significant parts of our cost structure are fixed, and if our revenues decline and we are unable to reduce our costs in the amount that our revenues decline, our profitability could be materially adversely affected.
Although portions of our compensation structure are variable, significant parts of our cost structure are fixed. We base our overall cost structure on historical and expected levels of demand for our products and services. If demand for these products and services and our resulting revenues decline, we may not be able to adjust our cost structure on a timely basis. If we are unable to reduce our costs in the amount that our revenues decline, our profitability could be materially adversely affected.
Increased scrutiny and changing expectations from stockholders with respect to the Company's ESG practices may result in additional costs or risks.

Companies across our industry are facing increasing scrutiny related to their ESG practices. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds and other influential investors are also increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the non-financial impacts of their investments. Further, customer bids, requests for proposals and other customer arrangements or opportunities may require disclosure of ESG metrics in order to compete for business. While we are focused on our ESG efforts and disclosures, if our ESG practices do not meet customer, investor or other industry stockholder expectations, which continue to evolve, we may not win or may lose customers, or may incur additional costs and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR CORPORATE AND PARTNERSHIP STRUCTURE
Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure
Because our voting control is concentrated among the holders of our Class B common stock, the market price of our Class A common stock may be materially adversely affected by its disparate voting rights.
As of February 27, 2023, Cantor (including CFGM) beneficially owned all of the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock, representing approximately 58.3% of our total voting power. In addition, Cantor has the right to exchange exchangeable partnership interests in BGC Holdings into additional shares of our Class B common stock, and pursuant to an exchange agreement with us, Cantor has the right to exchange shares of our Class A common stock for additional shares of our Class B common stock.
As long as Cantor beneficially owns a majority of our total voting power, it will have the ability, without the consent of the public holders of our Class A common stock, to elect all of the members of our Board and to control our management and affairs. In addition, it will be able to determine the outcome of matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders for approval and will be able to cause or prevent a change of control of us. In certain circumstances, such as when transferred to an entity controlled by Cantor or Mr. Lutnick, the shares of our Class B common stock issued to Cantor may be transferred without conversion to our Class A common stock.
The holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock have substantially identical rights, except that holders of Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common stock are entitled to 10 votes per share on all matters to be voted on by stockholders in general. BGC Class B common stock is controlled by Cantor and is not subject to conversion or termination by our Board or any committee thereof, or any other stockholder or third party. This differential in the voting rights of our Class B common stock could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
The possible restructuring of our partnership into a corporation is subject to various risks and uncertainties, may not be completed in the anticipated timeline, or at all, may not achieve the anticipated benefits, and will involve significant time and expense, potential tax or accounting charges and management attention, which could negatively impact our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
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We continue to explore a possible conversion into a simpler corporate structure. Our board and committees have hired advisors and are reviewing the potential structure and details of such conversion.
There can be no assurance as to whether management will make a proposal or whether the Board will accept management's proposal, whether the restructuring will be completed in accordance with the expected timeline or whether it will achieve its anticipated benefits. Other factors such as changes in legal, tax, regulatory, political or other regimes could impact the potential transaction. If such transaction is completed, there can be no assurance that (i) our brokers and other employees, the rating agencies, our lenders, our bondholders, our investors, our counterparties, our clients, or others will view our new structure favorably, (ii) that the new structure will have the expected retentive effect on said employees or (iii) it will have the expected impact on our GAAP or non-GAAP results, cash position, cash or non-cash accounting charges, or other factors. Furthermore, the restructuring will involve significant time, expense and management attention. Any of these factors or others could negatively affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Delaware law may protect decisions of our Board that have a different effect on holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Stockholders may not be able to challenge decisions that have an adverse effect upon holders of our Class A common stock compared to holders of our Class B common stock if our Board acts in a disinterested, informed manner with respect to these decisions, in good faith and in the belief that it is acting in the best interests of our stockholders. Delaware law generally provides that a Board owes an equal duty to all stockholders, regardless of class or series, and does not have separate or additional duties to different groups of stockholders, subject to applicable provisions set forth in a corporation's certificate of incorporation and general principles of corporate law and fiduciary duties.
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Delaware law, our corporate organizational documents and other requirements may impose various impediments to the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, which could deprive investors in our Class A common stock of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares.
We are a Delaware corporation, and the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law impose various impediments to the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our Class A stockholders. Some provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "DGCL"), our restated certificate of incorporation, and our amended and restated bylaws could make the following more difficult:
•acquisition of us by means of a tender offer;
•acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or
•removal of our incumbent officers and directors.
These provisions, summarized below, may discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions may also encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our Board. We believe that the benefits of increased protection give us the potential ability to negotiate with the initiator of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us and outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging those proposals because negotiation of them could result in an improvement of their terms.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of our Board, or in the event the Chairman of our Board is unavailable, by the Chief Executive Officer or by the holders of a majority of the voting power of our Class B common stock, which is held by Cantor and CFGM. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation permits us to issue "blank check" preferred stock.
Our amended and restated bylaws require advance written notice prior to a meeting of our stockholders of a proposal or director nomination which a stockholder desires to present at such a meeting, which generally must be received by our Secretary not later than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the date of our proxy statement for the preceding year's annual meeting. In the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not later than the close of business on the later of the 120th day prior to the date of such proxy statement or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by us. Our bylaws provide that all amendments to our bylaws must be approved by either the holders of a majority of the voting power of all of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote or by a majority of our Board.
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, Section 203 of the DGCL prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a period of three years following the date the person became an interested stockholder, unless the "business combination" or the transaction in which the person became an "interested stockholder" is approved in a prescribed manner. Generally, a "business combination" includes a merger, asset or stock sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the "interested stockholder." An "interested
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stockholder" is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns 15% or more of a corporation's outstanding voting stock, or was the owner of 15% or more of a corporation's outstanding voting stock at any time within the prior three years, other than "interested stockholders" prior to the time our Class A common stock was traded on Nasdaq. The existence of this provision would be expected to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by our Board, including discouraging takeover attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for shares of our Class A common stock.
In addition, our brokerage business is heavily regulated and some of our regulators require that they approve transactions which could result in a change of control, as defined by the then-applicable rules of our regulators. The requirement that this approval be obtained may prevent or delay transactions that would result in a change of control.
Further, our Equity Plan contains provisions pursuant to which grants that are unexercisable or unvested may automatically become exercisable or vested as of the date immediately prior to certain change of control events. Additionally, change in control and employment agreements between us and our named executive officers also provide for certain grants, payments, and grants of exchangeability, and exercisability in the event of certain change of control events.
The foregoing factors, as well as the significant common stock ownership by Cantor, including shares of our Class B common stock, and rights to acquire additional such shares, and the provisions of the indentures for our outstanding notes discussed above, could impede a merger, takeover or other business combination or discourage a potential investor from making a tender offer for our Class A common stock, which, under certain circumstances, could reduce the market value of the Class A common stock.
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The dual class structure of our common stock may adversely affect the trading market for our Class A common stock.
S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell previously announced changes to their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares of common stock from being added to such indices or limit their inclusion in them. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structures. As a result, the dual class structure of our common stock may prevent the inclusion of our Class A common stock in such indices and may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance practices or otherwise seek to cause us to change our capital structure. Any such exclusion from indices could result in a less active trading market for our Class A common stock. Any actions or publications by shareholder advisory firms critical of our corporate governance practices or capital structure could also adversely affect the value of our Class A common stock.
We are a holding company, and accordingly we are dependent upon distributions from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo to pay dividends, taxes and indebtedness and other expenses and to make repurchases.
We are a holding company with no direct operations and will be able to pay dividends, taxes and other expenses, and to make repurchases of shares our Class A common stock and purchases of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests or other equity interests in us or in our subsidiaries, only from our available cash on hand and funds received from distributions, loans or other payments, primarily from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo. As discussed above, regulatory, tax restrictions or elections, and other legal or contractual restrictions may limit our ability to transfer funds freely from our subsidiaries. In addition, any unanticipated accounting, tax or other charges against net income could adversely affect our ability to pay dividends and to make repurchases.
BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo intend to distribute to their limited partners, including us, on a pro rata and quarterly basis, cash that is not required to meet BGC U.S. OpCo's and BGC Global OpCo's anticipated business and regulatory needs. As a result, BGC U.S. OpCo's and BGC Global OpCo's ability, and in turn our ability, to pay dividends, taxes and indebtedness and other expenses and to make repurchases will depend upon the continuing profitability and strategic and operating needs of our business, including various capital adequacy and clearing capital requirements promulgated by federal, self-regulatory, and other authorities to which our subsidiaries are subject.
Traditionally, our dividend policy provides that we expect to pay a quarterly cash dividend to our common stockholders based on our post-tax Adjusted Earnings per fully diluted share. Please see below for a detailed definition of post-tax Adjusted Earnings per fully diluted share. Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, and for all of the quarterly periods following, the Board reduced the quarterly dividend to $0.01 per share out of an abundance of caution in order to strengthen the Company's balance sheet as the global capital markets faced difficult and unprecedented macroeconomic conditions related to the global pandemic. Additionally, during 2020, BGC Holdings, L.P. reduced its distributions to or on behalf of its partners. Historically, we were deeply dividend-centric; going forward we plan to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions. Investors seeking a high short-term dividend yield may find our Class a common stock less attractive than securities of issuers continuing to pay larger dividends.The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 provides for a new U.S. federal 1% excise tax on stock repurchases, which is effective January 1, 2023. We continue to analyze the impacts of the IR Act and related regulatory developments.
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Any dividends, if and when declared by our Board, will be paid on a quarterly basis. The dividend to our common stockholders is expected to be calculated based on post-tax Adjusted Earnings allocated to us and generated over the fiscal quarter ending prior to the record date for the dividend. No assurance can be made, however, that a dividend will be paid each quarter. The declaration, payment, timing, and amount of any future dividends payable by us will be at the sole discretion of our Board. With respect to any distributions which are declared, amounts paid to or on behalf of partners will at least cover their related tax payments. Whether any given post-tax amount is equivalent to the amount received by a stockholder also on an after-tax basis depends upon stockholders' and partners' domiciles and tax status.
We are a holding company, with no direct operations, and therefore we are able to pay dividends only from our available cash on hand and funds received from distributions from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited by regulatory considerations as well as by covenants contained in financing or other agreements. In addition, under Delaware law, dividends may be payable only out of surplus, which is our net assets minus our capital (as defined under Delaware law), or, if we have no surplus, out of our net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, any unanticipated accounting, tax, regulatory or other charges against net income may adversely affect our ability to declare and pay dividends. While we intend to declare and pay dividends quarterly, there can be no assurance that our Board will declare dividends at all or on a regular basis or that the amount of our dividends will not change.
Our Board and our Audit Committee have authorized repurchases of shares of BGC Class A common stock and purchases of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests or other equity interests in us or in subsidiaries, from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners and others. On November 4, 2022, the Company's Board and Audit Committee re-
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authorized our share repurchase and unit redemption authorization to $400.0 million, which may include purchases from Cantor, its partners or employees or other affiliated persons or entities. As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $376.4 million remaining under this authorization and may continue to actively make repurchases or purchases, or cease to make such repurchases or purchases, from time to time. In addition, from time to time, we may reinvest all or a portion of the distributions we receive from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo in our business. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that future dividends will be paid or that dividend amounts will be maintained or that repurchases and purchases will be made at current or future levels.
If our dividend policy is materially different than the distribution policy of BGC Holdings, upon the exchange of any BGC Holdings limited partnership interests such BGC Holdings limited partners could receive a disproportionate interest in the aggregate distributions by BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo that have not been distributed by us.
To the extent BGC Holdings distributes to its limited partners a greater share of that income that it receives from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo than we distribute to our stockholders, then as founding/working partners, limited partnership unit holders and/or Cantor exercise any exchange right to acquire our Class A common stock or Class B common stock, as applicable, exchanging partners may receive a disproportionate interest in the aggregate distributions by BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo that have not been distributed by us. The reason is that the exchanging partner could receive both (1) the benefit of the distribution that has not been distributed by us that we received from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo to BGC Holdings (in the form of a distribution by BGC Holdings to its limited partners) and (2) the benefit of the distribution from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo to us (in the form of a subsequent cash dividend paid by us, a greater percentage indirect interest in BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo following a repurchase of BGC Class A common stock by us or a greater value of assets following a purchase of assets by us with the cash that otherwise would be distributed to our stockholders). Consequently, if our dividend policy does not match the level of the distribution policy of BGC Holdings, other holders of BGC Class A common stock and BGC Class B common stock as of the date of an exchange could experience a reduction in their interest in the profits previously distributed by BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo that have not been distributed by us. Our current dividend policy could result in distributions to our common stockholders that are different from the distributions made by BGC Holdings to its unit holders.
If we or BGC Holdings were deemed an "investment company" under the Investment Company Act, the Investment Company Act's restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business and structure as contemplated and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Generally, an entity is deemed an "investment company" under Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the Investment Company Act if it is primarily engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities, and is deemed an "investment company" under Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act if it owns "investment securities" having a value exceeding 40% of the value of its total assets (exclusive of U.S. Government Securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. We believe that neither we nor BGC Holdings should be deemed an "investment company" as defined under Section 3(a)(1)(A)
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because neither of us is primarily engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities. Rather, through our operating subsidiaries, we and BGC Holdings are primarily engaged in the operation of various types of brokerage businesses as described in this report. Neither we nor BGC Holdings is an "investment company" under Section 3(a)(1)(C) because more than 60% of the value of our total assets on an unconsolidated basis are interests in majority-owned subsidiaries that are not themselves "investment companies." In particular, our BGC brokerage subsidiaries are entitled to rely on, among other things, the broker-dealer/market intermediary exemption in Section 3(c)(2) of the Investment Company Act.
To ensure that we and BGC Holdings are not deemed "investment companies" under the Investment Company Act, we need to be primarily engaged, directly or indirectly, in the non-investment company business of our operating subsidiaries. If we were to cease participation in the management of BGC Holdings, if BGC Holdings, in turn, were to cease participation in the management of the BGC OpCos, or if the BGC OpCos, in turn, were to cease participation in the management of our BGC operating subsidiaries, that would increase the possibility that we and BGC Holdings could be deemed "investment companies." Further, if we were deemed not to have a majority of the voting power of BGC Holdings (including through our ownership of the Special Voting Limited Partnership Interest), if BGC Holdings, in turn, were deemed not to have a majority of the voting power of the BGC OpCos (including through its ownership of Special Voting Limited Partnership Interests), or if the BGC OpCos, in turn, were deemed not to have a majority of the voting power of our BGC operating subsidiaries, that would increase the possibility that we and BGC Holdings could be deemed "investment companies," our interests in BGC Holdings and the BGC OpCos could be deemed "investment securities," and we and BGC Holdings could be deemed "investment companies."
We expect to take all legally permissible action to ensure that we and BGC Holdings are not deemed investment companies under the Investment Company Act, but no assurance can be given that this will not occur.
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The Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder contain detailed prescriptions for the organization and operations of investment companies. Among other things, the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder limit or prohibit transactions with affiliates, limit the issuance of debt and equity securities, prohibit the issuance of stock options, and impose certain governance requirements. If anything were to happen that would cause us or BGC Holdings to be deemed to be an "investment company" under the Investment Company Act, the Investment Company Act would limit our or its capital structure, ability to transact business with affiliates (including Cantor, BGC Holdings or the BGC OpCos as the case may be), and ability to compensate key employees. Therefore, if we or BGC Holdings became subject to the Investment Company Act, it could make it impractical to continue our business in this structure, impair agreements and arrangements, and impair the transactions contemplated by those agreements and arrangements, between and among us, BGC Holdings and the BGC OpCos, or any combination thereof, and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Risks Related to Our Partnership and Equity-Based Compensation Structure
Our equity-based compensation structure may adversely affect our ability to recruit, retain, compensate and motivate some employee partners.
While we believe that our emphasis on equity-based compensation promotes recruitment, motivation of our brokers and other employees and alignment of interest with stockholders, such employee may be more attracted to the benefits of working at a privately controlled partnership, or at a public company with a different compensation structure than our own, which may adversely affect our ability to recruit, retain, compensate and motivate these persons. While BGC Holdings limited partnership interests entitle founding/working and other limited partners to participate in distributions of income from the operations of our business, upon leaving BGC Holdings (or upon any other purchase of such limited partnership interests, as described below), any such founding/working or other limited partners are, unless Cantor, in the case of the founding partners, and us, as the general partner of BGC Holdings, otherwise determine, only entitled to receive over time, and provided he or she does not violate certain partner obligations, an amount for his or her BGC Holdings limited partnership interests that reflects such partner's capital account or post-termination amount, if any, and not any goodwill or going concern value of our businesses. Further, certain partner units have no right to a post-termination payment, receive a preferred but fixed distribution amount, and/or cannot be made exchangeable into shares of our Class A common stock. Moreover, unless and until units are made exchangeable, limited partners have no unilateral right to exchange their BGC Holdings limited partnership interests for shares of BGC Class A common stock.
The BGC Holdings limited partnership interests are also subject to redemption, and subject founding/working and other limited partners to non-competition and non-solicitation covenants, as well as other obligations. In addition, the exercise of Cantor's right to purchase from BGC Holdings exchangeable limited partnership interests generally when FPUs are redeemed or granted exchangeability will result in the share of distributions of income from the operations of our business on other outstanding BGC Holdings limited partnership interests, including those held by founding/working and other limited partners, to remain the same rather than increasing as would be the case if such interests were redeemed or granted exchangeability without such Cantor right to purchase. In addition, any purchase of exchangeable limited partnership units by
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Cantor from BGC Holdings following Cantor's decision to grant exchangeability on FPUs will result in additional dilution to the other partners of BGC Holdings.
The terms of the BGC Holdings limited partnership interests held by founding/working and limited partners also provide for the following:
•such units are not entitled to reinvest the distributions on their BGC Holdings limited partnership interests in additional BGC Holdings limited partnership interests at preferential or historical prices or at all; and
•Cantor is entitled to receive any amounts from selected extraordinary transactions that are withheld from distributions to certain partners and forfeited by partners leaving BGC Holdings prior to their interests in such withheld distributions fully vesting, rather than any such forfeited amounts accruing to the benefit of all BGC Holdings limited partners on a pro rata basis.
In addition, the ability to acquire shares of our Class A common stock underlying BGC Holdings exchangeable units is not dependent upon the partner's continued employment with us or compliance with partner obligations, and such partners are therefore not restricted from leaving us by the potential loss of such shares.In the event that we complete a transaction to
On November 15, 2022, we and BGC Holdings, along with certain other entities, entered into the Corporate Conversion Agreement in order to reorganize and simplify our organizational structure by restructuring our partnership into a corporation There is no assurance that the through the Corporate Conversion Transactions. There is no assurance that the equity compensation-based retention and motivation features of our new structure will be as beneficial as those of our partnership structure.effective as those of our current partnership structure.
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We may be required to pay Cantor for a significant portion of the tax benefit, if any, relating to any additional tax depreciation or amortization deductions we claim as a result of any step up in the tax basis of the assets of BGC U.S. OpCo or BGC Global OpCo resulting from Cantor's exchanges of interests in BGC Holdings (together with, prior to the Spin-Off, interests in Newmark Holdings) for our common stock.
Certain partnership interests in BGC Holdings may be exchanged for shares of BGC Partners common stock. In the vast majority of cases, the partnership units that become exchangeable for shares of BGC common stock are units that have been granted as compensation, and, therefore, the exchange of such units will not result in an increase in BGC's share of the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of BGC U.S. OpCo, BGC Global OpCo and/or Newmark OpCo. However, exchanges of other partnership units - including non-tax-free exchanges of units by Cantor - could result in an increase in the tax basis of such tangible and intangible assets that otherwise would not have been available, although the IRS may challenge all or part of that tax basis increase, and a court could sustain such a challenge by the IRS. These increases in tax basis, if sustained, may reduce the amount of tax that BGC would otherwise be required to pay in the future. In such circumstances, the tax receivable agreement that BGC entered into with Cantor provides for the payment by BGC to Cantor of 85% of the amount of cash savings, if any, in the U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that BGC actually realizes as a result of these increases in tax basis and certain other tax benefits related to its entering into the tax receivable agreement, including tax benefits attributable to payments under the tax receivable agreement. It is expected that BGC will benefit from the remaining 15% cash savings, if any, in income tax that we realize.
Risks Related to the Corporate Conversion
The expected benefits of the Corporate Conversion may not be obtained.
The Corporate Conversion is being undertaken in order to simplify the corporate structure of our business. We believe that, following the Corporate Conversion Transactions, the organizational structure of the BGC businesses will be more comprehensible to the marketplace, which may, in turn, increase demand for our shares and assist in the goal of maximizing long-term stockholder value. By simplifying the organizational structure, the Corporate Conversion is also intended to improve stockholder value by reducing administrative costs and increasing the efficiency of our regulated businesses and associated capital requirements. However, it is possible that these expected benefits are not achieved. There can be no assurance that (i) our brokers and other employees, the rating agencies, our lenders, our bondholders, our investors, our counterparties, our clients, or others will view our new structure favorably, (ii) that the new structure will have the expected retentive effect on said employees or (iii) that the new structure will have the expected impact on our GAAP or non-GAAP results, cash position, cash or non-cash accounting charges, tax rate, or other factors. Furthermore, the Corporate Conversion Transactions will involve significant time, expense and management attention. Any of these factors or others could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our equity-based compensation structure will be different following the Corporate Conversion because all of our equity-based compensation will be issued by BGC Group, Inc. This change in equity-based compensation structure could adversely affect our ability to recruit, retain, compensate and motivate some of its employees.
Currently, certain of our employees receive equity-based compensation at BGC Holdings, which is taxed as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and provides for distributions of income from the operations of our businesses. Following the closing of the Corporate Conversion Transactions, our employees will receive equity-based compensation at BGC Group, Inc., the new public entity. Some of our employees may be more attracted to the benefits of being compensated at a privately controlled partnership, and the change in structure could adversely affect our ability to recruit, retain, compensate and motivate these persons. In addition, the equity-based compensation structure following the Corporate Conversion will no longer have certain other benefits of BGC Holding's partnership structure, including certain duties owed by, and post-employment restrictive covenants applicable to, the limited partners in BGC Holdings.
We are currently controlled by Cantor, but the Corporate Conversion will have the effect of increasing the percentage of voting power held by Cantor as a result of the issuance of BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock in exchange for the BGC Holdings exchangeable units held by Cantor. The increase in voting power held by Cantor could result in Cantor exercising control over BGC Group, Inc. for a longer period of time than it would over us absent the Corporate Conversion.
As of December 31, 2022, Cantor (including its general partner) beneficially owned 45.9 million shares of our Class B common stock, representing approximately 58.5% of the total voting power of our common stock. In addition, as of December 31, 2022, Cantor (including its general partner) beneficially owned 57.6 million units of exchangeable limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings. If Cantor (including its general partner) were to exchange all of such units into our common stock
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absent the Corporate Conversion, it would receive 23.6 million shares of our Class B common stock and 34.0 million shares of our Class A common stock. These shares, when taken together with Cantor's existing shares of our Class B common stock, would represent approximately 69.1% of the total voting power of our common stock as of December 31, 2022 following such exchange. As a result of the Corporate Conversion, each share of our Class B common stock held by Cantor (including its general partner) will be converted into one share of our Class B common stock, and each unit of exchangeable limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings held by Cantor (including its general partner) will also be converted into one share of our Class B common stock. In addition, in connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, it is expected that Cantor will exercise certain purchase rights set forth in the BGC Holdings limited partnership agreement and as contemplated in the Corporate Conversion Agreement, resulting in the acquisition by Cantor of an additional approximately 6.8 million of exchangeable limited partnership units that will be converted in the Corporate Conversion Transactions as set forth in the Corporate Conversion Agreement. Therefore, following the Corporate Conversion, Cantor (including its general partner) is expected to beneficially own approximately 110 million shares of our Class B common stock, which as of December 31, 2022 is expected to represent approximately 74.6% of the total voting power of our common stock. Cantor's voting power over BGC Group, Inc. as of immediately following the Corporate Conversion will therefore be approximately 5.5 percentage points higher than its voting power over BGC Partners would be if Cantor had exchanged its exchangeable limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings for our common stock absent the Corporate Conversion. This increase in percentage voting power could result in Cantor exercising control over BGC Group, Inc. for a longer period of time than it would over us absent the Corporate Conversion.
The ability of Cantor and Howard W. Lutnick (indirectly through his control of Cantor) to exercise control over BGC Group, Inc. could create or appear to create potential conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest may arise between BGC Group, Inc. and Cantor in a number of areas relating to past and ongoing relationships, including:
•potential acquisitions and dispositions of businesses;
•the issuance, acquisition or disposition of securities by BGC Group, Inc.;
•the election of new or additional directors to the BGC Group, Inc. board of directors;
•the payment of dividends by BGC Group, Inc. (if any) and repurchases of shares of BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock;
•any loans to or from BGC Group, Inc. or Cantor;
•business operations or business opportunities of BGC Group, Inc. and Cantor that would compete with the other party's business opportunities, including Cantor's and BGC Partners' brokerage and financial services;
•intellectual property matters;
•business combinations involving BGC Group, Inc.; and
•competition between BGC Group, Inc.'s and Cantor's other businesses.
Under the terms of the Corporate Conversion agreement, a portion of the BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock that will be received by Cantor in the Corporate Conversion is subject to potential conversion into BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock if BGC Group, Inc. does not issue shares of BGC Group, Inc. common stock with an aggregate value of at least $75,000,000 (with the value of each issuance calculated based on the closing market price of BGC Group, Inc. common stock on the date of issuance), after the closing of the Corporate Conversion and on or prior to the seventh anniversary of the closing of the Corporate Conversion, in connection with mergers, acquisitions and business combinations undertaken by BGC Group, Inc. or any of its subsidiaries. If BGC Group, Inc. does not issue at least such amount of shares in such circumstances during such seven-year period, then approximately 40.4 million shares of BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock held by Cantor will be converted into an equivalent number of BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock at the end of such seven-year period (provided that such number will be decreased to the extent that Cantor has sold or transferred any BGC Group, Inc. Class B common stock to a third party and converted such shares into BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock during such seven-year period).
Delay in completing the Corporate Conversion Transactions could negatively impact the market price of shares of our Class A common stock and financial results of our business.
The completion of the Corporate Conversion Transactions is subject to certain closing conditions, including (i) the adoption of the Corporate Conversion Agreement by the requisite approval of our stockholders, (ii) the absence of any governmental injunction or order prohibiting the consummation of any merger or the other transactions contemplated by the Corporate Conversion Agreement, (iii) the BGC Group, Inc. Class A common stock issuable in connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions having been approved for listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, subject to official notice of
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issuance, (iv) the effectiveness of the registration statement to be filed with the SEC on Form S-4 in connection with the Corporate Conversion Transactions, (v) the accuracy of each party's respective representations and warranties, generally subject to a material adverse effect qualification, (vi) the performance by the parties of their respective obligations under the Corporate Conversion Agreement in all material respects, (vii) our receipt of a legal opinion as to the tax treatment of the Corporate Conversion Transactions, and (viii) Cantor's receipt of a legal opinion as to the tax treatment of the Corporate Conversion Transactions. In addition, each of Cantor and us have the right to terminate the Corporate Conversion Agreement if certain tax legislation is proposed or enacted that, if implemented, could materially increase the taxes directly or indirectly borne by the partners of Cantor or BGC Holdings or our stockholders (including, without limitation, as a result of an increase in the corporate income tax rate or as a result of an increase in the dividend tax rate) if the Corporate Conversion Transactions were completed versus if they were not. Any of these factors or others could delay the completion of the Corporate Conversion which may in turn negatively affect our business and impact the market price of share of our Class A common stock if such delay is not promptly remedied.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH CANTOR AND ITS AFFILIATES
We are controlled by Cantor and Mr. Lutnick, who have potential conflicts of interest with us and may exercise their control in a way that favors their interests to our detriment.
Cantor, and Mr. Lutnick, indirectly through his control of Cantor, are each able to exercise control over our management and affairs and all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of our directors and determinations with respect to acquisitions and dispositions, as well as material expansions or contractions of our business, entry into new lines of businesses and borrowings and issuances of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock or other securities. This control is subject to the approval of our Audit Committee on those matters requiring such approval. Cantor's voting power may also have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us.
Cantor's and Mr. Lutnick's ability to exercise control over us could create or appear to create potential conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest may arise between us and Cantor in a number of areas relating to our past and ongoing relationships, including:
•potential acquisitions and dispositions of businesses, mergers, joint ventures, investments or similar transactions;
•the issuance, acquisition or disposition of securities by us;
•the election of new or additional directors to our Board;
•the payment of dividends by us (if any), distribution of profits by BGC U.S. OpCo, BGC Global OpCo and/or BGC Holdings and repurchases of shares of our Class A common stock or purchases of BGC Holdings
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limited partnership interests or other equity interests in our subsidiaries, including from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners, and others;
•any loans to or from us or Cantor, or any financings or credit arrangements that relate to or depend on our relationship with Cantor or its relationship with us;
•business operations or business opportunities of ours and Cantor's that would compete with the other party's business opportunities, including Cantor's and our brokerage and financial services;
•intellectual property matters;
•business combinations involving us;
•conflicts between our agency trading for primary and secondary bond sales and Cantor's investment banking bond origination business;
•competition between our and Cantor's other equity derivatives and cash equity inter-dealer brokerage businesses;
•the nature, quality and pricing of administrative services to be provided to or by Cantor and/or Tower Bridge; and
•provision of clearing capital pursuant to the Clearing Agreement and potential and existing loan arrangements.
We also expect Cantor to manage its ownership of us so that it will not be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act, including by maintaining its voting power in us above a majority absent an applicable exemption from the Investment Company Act. This may result in conflicts with us, including those relating to acquisitions or offerings by
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us involving issuances of shares of our Class A common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into shares of our Class A common stock, which would dilute Cantor's voting power in us.
In addition, Cantor has from time to time in the past and may in the future consider possible strategic realignments of its own business and/or of the relationships that exist between and among Cantor and its other affiliates and us. Any related-party transaction or arrangement between Cantor and its other affiliates and us is subject to the prior approval by our Audit Committee, but generally does not otherwise require the separate approval of our stockholders, and if such stockholder approval is required, Cantor may retain sufficient voting power to provide any such requisite approval without the affirmative consent of the other stockholders. There is no assurance that such consolidation or restructuring would not result in a material expense or disruption to our business.
Moreover, the service of officers or partners of Cantor as our executive officers and directors, and those persons' ownership interests in and payments from Cantor and its affiliates, SPACs and similar investments or other entities, could create conflicts of interest when we and those directors or executive officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for us and Cantor. Our ability to retain our key employees and the ability of certain key employees to devote adequate time and attention to us are critical to the success of our business, and failure to do so may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our agreements and other arrangements with Cantor may be amended upon agreement of the parties to those agreements upon approval of our Audit Committee. During the time that we are controlled by Cantor, Cantor may be able to require us to agree to amendments to these agreements. We may not be able to resolve any potential conflicts, and, even if we do, the resolution may be less favorable to us than if we were dealing with an unaffiliated party.
In order to address potential conflicts of interest between Cantor and its representatives and us, our restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions regulating and defining the conduct of our affairs as they may involve Cantor and its representatives, and our powers, rights, duties and liabilities and those of our representatives in connection with our relationship with Cantor and its affiliates, officers, directors, general partners or employees. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that no Cantor Company, as defined in our restated certificate of incorporation, or any of the representatives, as defined in our restated certificate of incorporation, of a Cantor Company will owe any fiduciary duty to, nor will any Cantor Company or any of their respective representatives be liable for breach of fiduciary duty to, us or any of our stockholders, including with respect to corporate opportunities. In addition, Cantor and its respective representatives have no duty to refrain from engaging in the same or similar activities or lines of business as us or doing business with any of our customers. The corporate opportunity policy that is included in our restated certificate of incorporation is designed to resolve potential conflicts of interest between us and Cantor and its representatives.
If any Cantor Company or any its representatives acquires knowledge of a potential transaction or matter that may be a corporate opportunity (as defined in our restated certificate of incorporation) for any such person, on the one hand, and us or any of our representatives, on the other hand, such person will have no duty to communicate or offer such corporate opportunity to us or any of our representatives, and will not be liable to us, any of our stockholders or any of our representatives for breach
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of any fiduciary duty by reason of the fact that they pursue or acquire such corporate opportunity for themselves, direct such corporate opportunity to another person or do not present such corporate opportunity us or any of our representatives, subject to the requirement described in the following sentence. If a third party presents a corporate opportunity to a person who is both our representative and a representative of a Cantor Company, expressly and solely in such person's capacity as our representative, and such person acts in good faith in a manner consistent with the policy that such corporate opportunity belongs to us, then such person will be deemed to have fully satisfied and fulfilled any fiduciary duty that such person has to us as our representative with respect to such corporate opportunity, provided that any Cantor Company or any of its representatives may pursue such corporate opportunity if we decide not to pursue such corporate opportunity.
The BGC Holdings limited partnership agreement contains similar provisions with respect to us and/or Cantor and each of our respective representatives, and the BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo limited partnership agreements, contain similar provisions with respect to us and/or BGC Holdings and each of our respective representatives.
This policy, however, could make it easier for Cantor to compete with us. If Cantor competes with us, it could materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Agreements between us and Cantor are between related parties, and the terms of these agreements may be less favorable to us than those that we could have negotiated with third parties and may subject us to litigation.
Our relationship with Cantor results in agreements with Cantor that are between related parties. As a result, the prices charged to us or by us for services provided under agreements with Cantor or sales or purchases of assets or other similar transactions may be higher or lower than prices that may be charged by third parties, and the terms of these agreements may be less favorable to us than those that we could have negotiated with third parties. In addition, Cantor has an unlimited right to
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internally use market data from us without any cost. Any related-party transactions or arrangements between us and Cantor are subject to the prior approval by our Audit Committee, but generally do not otherwise require the separate approval of our stockholders, and if such stockholder approval were required, Cantor may retain sufficient voting power to provide any such requisite approval without the affirmative consent of the other stockholders.
These related-party relationships may from time to time subject us to litigation. For example, a purported derivative action was filed the Delaware Chancery Court on October 5, 2018 alleging the Berkeley Point Acquisition and our investment in Real Estate L.P. (the "Berkeley Transaction") were unfair to us. On August 19, 2022, the Court issued a post-trial memorandum opinion in favor of BGC, its directors, and controlling stockholders, ruling that the Berkeley Transaction was entirely fair to BGC's stockholders with respect to both process and price. While the Company believes any appeal of the Court's final judgement would be without merit and will continue to defend the case were unfair to us. While the Company believes that these allegations are without merit and is defending against them vigorously, as in any litigated matter, the outcome cannot be determined with certainty.
We are controlled by Cantor, which in turn controls its wholly owned subsidiary, CF&Co, which has acted and may continue to act as our sales agent in our CEO program from time to time and provides us with additional investment banking services. In addition, other affiliates of Cantor may provide us with advice and services from time to time.
We are controlled by Cantor, which in turn controls its wholly owned subsidiary, CF&Co, which has acted in the past and may continue to act acts as our sales agent in our CEO program is entitled to receive fees in connection therewith. We may enter into similar agreements in the future.
In addition, Cantor, CF&Co and their affiliates have provided investment banking services to us and our affiliates in the past, and may be expected to do so in the future, including acting as our financial advisor in connection with business combinations, dispositions, or other transactions, including the acquisition of GFI and the disposition of the Insurance brokerage business, and placing or recommending to us various investments, stock loans or cash management vehicles. They receive customary fees and commissions for these services in accordance with our investment banking engagement letter with CF&Co. They may also receive brokerage and market data and analytics products and services from us and our respective affiliates. From time to time, CF&Co may make a market in our notes. We also provide to and receive from Cantor and its affiliates various administrative services.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR CLASS A COMMON STOCK
Purchasers of our Class A common stock, as well as existing stockholders, may experience significant dilution as a result of offerings of shares of our Class A common stock, which may occur from time to time through our CEO Program or otherwise, as well as other potential forms of employee share monetization, including issuance of shares to employees and partners which may be sold through broker transactions. Our management will have broad discretion as to the timing and amount of sales of our Class A common stock, as well as the application of the net proceeds of any such sales.
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We have an effective registration statement on Form S-3 filed on March 8, 2021, with respect to the offer and sale of up to 300.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to a CEO program. As we have done in the past, on August 12, 2022 we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM
As we have done in the past, we may enter into a
sales agreement with CF&Co to assist us with partner and employee sales of shares of Class A common stock, which may occur from time to time, as well as other potential forms of employee share monetization including issuance of shares to employees and partners which may be sold through broker transactions. As of December 31, 2022, we have not issued any shares of BGC Class A common stock under the current CEO Program.
We have an effective registration statement on Form S-4 filed on September 3, 2010 (the "2010 Form S-4 Registration Statement"), with respect to the offer and sale of up to 20 million shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time in connection with business combination transactions, including acquisitions of other businesses, assets, properties or securities. As of December 31, 2022, we have issued an aggregate of 17.2 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the 2010 Form S-4 Registration Statement. Additionally, on September 13, 2019, we filed a registration statement on Form S-4 (the "2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement"), with respect to the offer and sale of up to 20 million shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time in connection with business combination transactions, including acquisitions of other businesses, assets, properties or securities. As of December 31, 2022, we have not issued any shares of BGC Class A common stock under the 2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement. We also have an effective shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 pursuant to which we can offer and sell up to 10 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the BGC Partners, Inc. Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan. As of December 31, 2022, we have issued 0.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan. We have filed a number of registration statements on Form
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S-8 pursuant to which we have registered the shares underlying our Equity Plan. As of December 31, 2022, there were 128.0 million shares remaining for sale under such registration statements.
Because future sales of our Class A common stock may be made in the markets at prevailing market prices or at prices related to such prevailing market prices, the prices at which these shares have been sold and may be sold in the future will vary, and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of these shares may suffer significant dilution if the price they pay is higher than the price paid by other purchasers of shares of our Class A common stock in any future offerings of shares of our Class A common stock.
Our management will have broad discretion as to the timing and amount of sales of our Class A common stock in any offering, as well as application of the net proceeds of any such sale. Accordingly, purchasers in any such offering will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of such net proceeds, and purchasers will not have the opportunity, as part of their investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us and cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of our Class A common stock, or the availability of shares for future sales, on the market price of our Class A common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock, or the perception that such sales could occur, could dilute existing holders of our Class A common stock and may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our Class A common stock.
In addition, the sale by us of any shares of our Class A common stock may decrease our existing Class A common stockholders' proportionate ownership interest in us, reduce the amount of cash available per share for dividends payable on shares of our Class A common stock and diminish the relative voting strength of each previously outstanding share of our Class A common stock.
Because we may use the net proceeds from future offerings of our Class A common stock, for general corporate purposes, which, among other things, may include repurchases of shares of our Class A common stock and purchases of BGC Holdings units or other equity interests in us or in our subsidiaries from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners, and others, and/or to replace cash used to effect such repurchases and purchases, investors should be aware that such net proceeds may not be available for other corporate purposes, and that, depending upon the timing and prices of such repurchases of shares and purchases of units and of the sales of our shares in future offerings and the liquidity and depth of our market, we may sell a greater aggregate number of shares, at a lower average price per share in future offerings than the number of shares or units repurchased or purchased, thereby increasing the aggregate number of shares and units outstanding and potentially decreasing our EPS.
In the event that we sell our Class A common stock, we may use the net proceeds from any future offering, for general corporate purposes, which among other things, may include repurchases of shares of our Class A common stock and purchases of BGC Holdings units or other equity interests in us or in our subsidiaries, from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners, and others, and/or to replace cash used to effect such repurchases and purchases. From January 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022, we repurchased an aggregate of 27.1 million shares of our Class A common stock at an aggregate purchase price of approximately $103.9 million, with a weighted-average repurchase price of $3.84 per share. During that period, we redeemed for cash an aggregate of 1.3 million limited partnership units at a weighted-average price of $3.87 per unit and an aggregate of 0.1 million founding/working partner units at a weighted-average price of $3.41 per unit. In the future, we
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may continue to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock and purchase partnership units from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners, and others, and these repurchases and purchases may be significant.
While we believe that we can successfully manage our issuance and repurchase strategy, and that our share price may in fact increase as we increase the amount of cash available for dividends and share repurchases and unit purchases by paying an increasing portion of the compensation of our employees in the form of partnership units and restricted stock, gradually lowering our compensation expenses for purposes of Adjusted Earnings, and lowering our long-term effective tax rate for Adjusted Earnings, there can be no assurance that our strategy will be successful or that we can achieve any or all of such objectives.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not Applicable
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We have offices in the United States, Canada, Europe, United Kingdom, Latin America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Our principal executive offices are located at 499 Park Avenue, New York, New York. We also occupy space at 199
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Water Street, New York, New York and space at 55 Water Street, New York, New York. Under the Administrative Services Agreement with Cantor, we are obligated to Cantor for our pro rata portion (based on square footage used) of rental expense during the terms of the leases for such spaces.
Our largest presence outside of the New York metropolitan area is in London, located at Five Churchill Place, London, E14 5RD.
We currently occupy concurrent computing centers in Weehawken, New Jersey, Secaucus, New Jersey and Trumbull, Connecticut. In addition, we occupy three data centers in the United Kingdom located in Canary Wharf, Romford and City of London, respectively. Our U.S. operations also have office space in Iselin, New Jersey, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, Garden City, New York, Sugar Land, Texas, Louisville, Kentucky and Chicago, Illinois.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Note 19-"Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees" to the Company's consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the section under the heading "Derivative Suit" included in Part I, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for a description of our legal proceedings, which are incorporated by reference herein.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not Applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our Class A common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "BGCP." There is no public trading market for our Class B common stock, which is held by Cantor and CFGM.
As of February 27, 2023, there were 886 holders of record of our Class A common stock and two holders of record of our Class B common stock.
Capital Deployment Priorities, Dividend Policy and Repurchase and Redemption Program
BGC's current capital allocation priorities are to use the remaining proceeds from the Insurance Business Disposition and other sources of our liquidity to return capital to stockholders and to continue investing in its high growth Fenics businesses. BGC plans to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions. We have repurchased or redeemed 28.5 million shares or units during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Traditionally, our dividend policy provides that we expect to pay a quarterly cash dividend to our common stockholders based on our post-tax Adjusted Earnings per fully diluted share. Please see below for a detailed definition of post-tax Adjusted Earnings per fully diluted share.Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, and for all of the quarterly periods in 2020 and 2021, the Board reduced the quarterly dividend to $0.01 per share out of an abundance of caution in order to strengthen the Company's balance sheet as the global capital markets faced difficult and unprecedented macroeconomic conditions related to the global pandemic. Additionally, during 2020 and 2021, BGC Holdings, L.P. reduced its distributions to or on behalf of its partners. We plan to continue to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions. The Board will reevaluate whether to increase the dividend in the first quarter of 2022. BGC believes that these steps will allow the Company to maintain its financial strength.
Any dividends, if and when declared by our Board, will be paid on a quarterly basis. The dividend to our common stockholders is expected to be calculated based on a number of factors, including post-tax Adjusted Earnings allocated to us and generated over the fiscal quarter ending prior to the record date for the dividend. No assurance can be made, however, that a dividend will be paid each quarter. The declaration, payment, timing, and amount of any future dividends payable by us will be at the sole discretion of our Board. With respect to any distributions which are declared, amounts paid to or on behalf of partners will at least cover their related tax payments. Whether any given post-tax amount is equivalent to the amount received by a stockholder also on an after-tax basis depends upon stockholders' and partners' domiciles and tax status.
We are a holding company, with no direct operations, and therefore we are able to pay dividends only from our available cash on hand and funds received from distributions from BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited by regulatory considerations as well as by covenants contained in financing or other agreements. In addition, under Delaware law, dividends may be payable only out of surplus, which is our net assets minus our capital (as defined under Delaware law), or, if we have no surplus, out of our net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. Accordingly, any unanticipated accounting, tax, regulatory or other charges against net income may adversely affect our ability to declare and pay dividends. While we intend to declare and pay dividends quarterly, there can be no assurance that our Board will declare dividends at all or on a regular basis or that the amount of our dividends will not change.
Stock and Unit Repurchase and Redemption Program and 2022 Activity
Our Board of Directors and our Audit Committee have authorized repurchases of our Class A common stock and redemptions of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests or other equity interests in our subsidiaries, including from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners and others, including Cantor employees and partners. On August 3, 2021, our Board of Directors and Audit Committee increased the authorized repurchases of stock or units, including from Cantor employees and partners, to $400.0 million. Again, on November 4, 2022, the Board and Audit Committee increased the BGC Partners share repurchase and unit redemption authorization to $400.0 million, which may include purchases from Cantor, its partners or employees or other affiliated persons or entities. As of December 31, 2022 we had approximately $376.4 million remaining under this authorization and may continue to actively make repurchases or purchases, or cease to make such repurchases or purchases, from time to time. We have not purchased shares in the open market in 2023 and have redeemed an immaterial amount of units in the normal course of business.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we repurchased 27.1 million shares of our Class A common stock at an aggregate price of $103.9 million for a weighted-average price of $3.84 per share. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we redeemed 1.4 million limited partnership interests at an aggregate price of $5.2 million for a weighted-average price of $3.84 per unit.
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During the fourth quarter of 2022, we repurchased 5.9 million shares of our Class A common stock at an aggregate price of $24.6 million for a weighted-average price of $4.14 per share. During the fourth quarter of 2022, we redeemed 99 thousand limited partnership interests at an aggregate price of $383 thousand for a weighted-average price of $3.88 per unit.

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Performance Graph

On November 30, 2018, all the shares of Newmark Group, Inc. (Nasdaq: NMRK) ("Newmark") held by BGC Partners, Inc. (Nasdaq: BGCP) ("BGC Partners" or "BGC" or the "Company") were distributed to stockholders of the Company (the "Spin-Off" or "Distribution"). The Spin-Off included the shares of Newmark Class A and Class B common stock owned by BGC, as well as the shares of Newmark common stock into which the limited partnership units of Newmark Holdings, L.P. and Newmark Partners, L.P. owned by BGC were exchanged prior to and in connection with the Spin-Off. Based on the number of shares of BGC common stock outstanding on the Record Date, BGC's stockholders as of the Record Date received 0.463895 of a share of Newmark Class A common stock for each share of BGC Class A common stock held as of the Record Date, and 0.463895 of a share of Newmark Class B common stock for each share of BGC Class B common stock held as of the Record Date (the "Distribution Ratio"). No fractional shares of Newmark common stock were distributed in the Spin-Off. Instead, BGC stockholders received cash in lieu of any fraction of a share of Newmark common stock that they otherwise would have received in the Spin-Off. For more information, see the press release titled "BGC Partners Announces Completion of Spin-Off of Newmark" dated November 30, 2018, and the related filing on Form 8-K filed before market open on December 6, 2018.

Following the Spin-Off, all historical prices for BGCP were restated using an adjustment factor based on the closing prices of BGCP and NMRK on November 18, 2018, with NMRK being the when-issued market for the additional shares of Newmark Group, Inc. Class A common stock that traded on Nasdaq from November 20, 2018 until November 30, 2018. This formula for calculating the adjustment factor was 1 - (NMRK Price on November 30, 2018 times the final Distribution Ratio)/(BGCP closing price on November 30, 2018). All historical BGCP prices have been multiplied by this factor to determine their adjusted historical prices as if BGC had owned only its former Financial Services segment during the entire 5-year period covered by the BGCP performance graph.
The performance graph below shows a comparison of the cumulative total stockholder return, on a net dividend reinvestment basis (other than the dividend that effected the Spin-Off), of $100 invested in shares of the Company (identified as "BGC Partners, Inc."), and the effects of the restatement of historical prices on December 31, 2017, measured on December 31, 2017, December 31, 2018, December 31, 2019, December 31, 2020, December 31, 2021, and December 31, 2022. The Peer Group consists of Compagnie Financière Tradition SA and TP ICAP plc. The returns of the Peer Group have been weighted at the beginning of the period according to their U.S. dollar stock market capitalizations for purposes of arriving at a Peer Group average.
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Total returns are shown on a "net dividend" basis, which reflects tax effects on dividend reinvestments from companies operating under certain U.K. and European tax jurisdictions, according to local tax laws.

Note: The above chart reflects $100 invested on 12/31/17 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.

An alternate scenario that is not depicted in the above chart represents a hypothetical situation in which BGC Partners, Inc. stockholders re-invested the dividends they received from both companies (the "Alternate Scenario"). In the Alternate Scenario, the total BGC Partners, Inc. return on $100 would have resulted in approximately $59 from 12/31/2017 - 12/31/2022.
In addition to the foregoing five-year returns, the 10-year total returns on $100 calculated using the same methodology described above are as follows:
•The 10-year total return for BGC Partners, Inc. from 12/31/2012 through 12/31/2022 would have resulted in approximately $296.
•The 10-year total return for BGC Partners, Inc. under the Alternate Scenario would have resulted in approximately $360 from 12/31/2012 through 12/31/2022.
•In comparison, the 10-year total return for $100 invested in the Peer Group, Russell 2000 Index, and S&P 500 Index from 12/31/2012 through 12/31/2022 would have resulted in approximately in $135, $237, and $327, respectively.
Note: Peer group indices use beginning of period market capitalization weighting. The above graph was prepared by Zacks Investment Research, Inc. and used with its permission. All rights reserved. Copyright 1980-2023. Index data provided by Copyright Standard and Poor's Inc. and Copyright Russell Investments. Used with permission. All rights reserved. The Alternate Scenario above was calculated by S&P Global.
Certain Definitions
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We use non-GAAP financial measures that differ from the most directly comparable measures calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP financial measures used by the Company include "Adjusted Earnings
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before noncontrolling interests and taxes", which is used interchangeably with "pre-tax Adjusted Earnings"; "Post-tax Adjusted Earnings to fully diluted shareholders", which is used interchangeably with "post-tax Adjusted Earnings"; "Adjusted EBITDA"; "Liquidity", and "Constant Currency". The definitions of these terms are below.
Adjusted Earnings Defined
BGC uses non-GAAP financial measures, including "Adjusted Earnings before noncontrolling interests and taxes" and "Post-tax Adjusted Earnings to fully diluted shareholders", which are supplemental measures of operating results used by management to evaluate the financial performance of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries. BGC believes that Adjusted Earnings best reflect the operating earnings generated by the Company on a consolidated basis and are the earnings which management considers when managing its business.

As compared with "Income (loss) from operations before income taxes" and "Net income (loss) for fully diluted shares", both prepared in accordance with GAAP, Adjusted Earnings calculations primarily exclude certain non-cash items and other expenses that generally do not involve the receipt or outlay of cash by the Company and/or which do not dilute existing stockholders. In addition, Adjusted Earnings calculations exclude certain gains and charges that management believes do not best reflect the ordinary results of BGC. Adjusted Earnings is calculated by taking the most comparable GAAP measures and adjusting for certain items with respect to compensation expenses, non-compensation expenses, and other income, as discussed below.
Calculations of Compensation Adjustments for Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted EBITDA
Treatment of Equity-Based Compensation Line Item for Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted EBITDA

The Company's Adjusted Earnings and Adjusted EBITDA measures exclude all GAAP charges included in the line item "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" (or "equity-based compensation" for purposes of defining the Company's non-GAAP results) as recorded on the Company's GAAP Consolidated Statements of Operations and GAAP Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. These GAAP equity-based compensation charges reflect the following items:

•Charges with respect to grants of exchangeability, which reflect the right of holders of limited partnership units with no capital accounts, such as LPUs and PSUs, to exchange these units into shares of common stock, or into partnership units with capital accounts, such as HDUs, as well as cash paid with respect to taxes withheld or expected to be owed by the unit holder upon such exchange. The withholding taxes related to the exchange of certain non-exchangeable units without a capital account into either common shares or units with a capital account may be funded by the redemption of preferred units such as PPSUs.

•Charges with respect to preferred units. Any preferred units would not be included in the Company's fully diluted share count because they cannot be made exchangeable into shares of common stock and are entitled only to a fixed distribution. Preferred units are granted in connection with the grant of certain limited partnership units that may be granted exchangeability or redeemed in connection with the grant of shares of common stock at ratios designed to cover any withholding taxes expected to be paid. This is an alternative to the common practice among public companies of issuing the gross amount of shares to employees, subject to cashless withholding of shares, to pay applicable withholding taxes.
•GAAP equity-based compensation charges with respect to the grant of an offsetting amount of common stock or partnership units with capital accounts in connection with the redemption of non-exchangeable units, including PSUs and LPUs.
•Charges related to amortization of RSUs and limited partnership units.
•Charges related to grants of equity awards, including common stock or partnership units with capital accounts.
•Allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs. Such allocations represent the pro-rata portion of post-tax GAAP earnings available to such unit holders.
The amounts of certain quarterly equity-based compensation charges are based upon the Company's estimate of such expected charges during the annual period, as described further below under "Methodology for Calculating Adjusted Earnings Taxes."
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Virtually all of BGC's key executives and producers have equity or partnership stakes in the Company and its subsidiaries and generally receive deferred equity or limited partnership units as part of their compensation. A significant percentage of BGC's fully diluted shares are owned by its executives, partners and employees. The Company issues limited partnership units as well as other forms of equity-based compensation, including grants of exchangeability into shares of common stock, to provide liquidity to its employees, to align the interests of its employees and management with those of common stockholders, to help motivate and retain key employees, and to encourage a collaborative culture that drives cross-selling and revenue growth.

All share equivalents that are part of the Company's equity-based compensation program, including REUs, PSUs, LPUs, HDUs, and other units that may be made exchangeable into common stock, as well as RSUs (which are recorded using the treasury stock method), are included in the fully diluted share count when issued or at the beginning of the subsequent quarter after the date of grant. Generally, limited partnership units other than preferred units are expected to be paid a pro-rata distribution based on BGC's calculation of Adjusted Earnings per fully diluted share. However, out of an abundance of caution and in order to strengthen the Company's balance sheet due the uncertain macroeconomic conditions with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic, BGC Holdings, L.P. has reduced its distributions of income from the operations of BGC's businesses to its partners.
Compensation charges are also adjusted for certain other cash and non-cash items.including those related to the amortization of GFI employee forgivable loans granted prior to the closing of the January 11, 2016 back-end merger with GFI.
Certain Other Compensation-Related Adjustments for Adjusted Earnings

BGC also excludes various other GAAP items that management views as not reflective of the Company's underlying performance in a given period from its calculation of Adjusted Earnings. These may include compensation-related items with respect to cost-saving initiatives, such as severance charges incurred in connection with headcount reductions as part of broad restructuring and/or cost savings plans.
Calculation of Non-Compensation Adjustments for Adjusted Earnings
Adjusted Earnings calculations may also exclude items such as:
•Non-cash GAAP charges related to the amortization of intangibles with respect to acquisitions;
•Acquisition related costs;
•Certain rent charges;
•Non-cash GAAP asset impairment charges; and
•Various other GAAP items that management views as not reflective of the Company's underlying performance in a given period, including non-compensation-related charges incurred as part of broad restructuring and/or cost savings plans. Such GAAP items may include charges for exiting leases and/or other long-term contracts as part of cost-saving initiatives, as well as non-cash impairment charges related to assets, goodwill and/or intangibles created from acquisitions.
Calculation of Adjustments for Other (income) losses for Adjusted Earnings
Adjusted Earnings calculations also exclude certain other non-cash, non-dilutive, and/or non-economic items, which may, in some periods, include:
•Gains or losses on divestitures;
•Fair value adjustment of investments;
•Certain other GAAP items, including gains or losses related to BGC's investments accounted for under the equity method; and
•Any unusual, one-time, non-ordinary, or non-recurring gains or losses.
Methodology for Calculating Adjusted Earnings Taxes
Although Adjusted Earnings are calculated on a pre-tax basis, BGC also reports post-tax Adjusted Earnings to fully diluted shareholders. The Company defines post-tax Adjusted Earnings to fully diluted shareholders as pre-tax Adjusted
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Earnings reduced by the non-GAAP tax provision described below and net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest for Adjusted Earnings.

The Company calculates its tax provision for post-tax Adjusted Earnings using an annual estimate similar to how it accounts for its income tax provision under GAAP. To calculate the quarterly tax provision under GAAP, BGC estimates its full fiscal year GAAP income (loss) from operations before income taxes and noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries and the expected inclusions and deductions for income tax purposes, including expected equity-based compensation during the annual period. The resulting annualized tax rate is applied to BGC's quarterly GAAP income (loss) from operations before income taxes and noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries. At the end of the annual period, the Company updates its estimate to reflect the actual tax amounts owed for the period.

To determine the non-GAAP tax provision, BGC first adjusts pre-tax Adjusted Earnings by recognizing any, and only, amounts for which a tax deduction applies under applicable law. The amounts include charges with respect to equity-based compensation; certain charges related to employee loan forgiveness; certain net operating loss carryforwards when taken for statutory purposes; and certain charges related to tax goodwill amortization. These adjustments may also reflect timing and measurement differences, including treatment of employee loans; changes in the value of units between the dates of grants of exchangeability and the date of actual unit exchange; variations in the value of certain deferred tax assets; and liabilities and the different timing of permitted deductions for tax under GAAP and statutory tax requirements.

After application of these adjustments, the result is the Company's taxable income for its pre-tax Adjusted Earnings, to which BGC then applies the statutory tax rates to determine its non-GAAP tax provision. BGC views the effective tax rate on pre-tax Adjusted Earnings as equal to the amount of its non-GAAP tax provision divided by the amount of pre-tax Adjusted Earnings.

Generally, the most significant factor affecting this non-GAAP tax provision is the amount of charges relating to equity-based compensation. Because the charges relating to equity-based compensation are deductible in accordance with applicable tax laws, increases in such charges have the effect of lowering the Company's non-GAAP effective tax rate and thereby increasing its post-tax Adjusted Earnings.

BGC incurs income tax expenses based on the location, legal structure and jurisdictional taxing authorities of each of its subsidiaries. Certain of the Company's entities are taxed as U.S. partnerships and are subject to the UBT in New York City. Any U.S. federal and state income tax liability or benefit related to the partnership income or loss, with the exception of UBT, rests with the unit holders rather than with the partnership entity. The Company's consolidated financial statements include U.S. federal, state, and local income taxes on the Company's allocable share of the U.S. results of operations. Outside of the U.S., BGC is expected to operate principally through subsidiary corporations subject to local income taxes. For these reasons, taxes for Adjusted Earnings are expected to be presented to show the tax provision the consolidated Company would expect to pay if 100% of earnings were taxed at global corporate rates.
Calculations of Pre- and Post-Tax Adjusted Earnings per Share
BGC's pre- and post-tax Adjusted Earnings per share calculations assume either that:
•The fully diluted share count includes the shares related to any dilutive instruments, but excludes the associated expense, net of tax, when the impact would be dilutive; or
•The fully diluted share count excludes the shares related to these instruments, but includes the associated expense, net of tax, when the impact would be anti-dilutive.

The share count for Adjusted Earnings excludes certain shares and share equivalents expected to be issued in future periods but not yet eligible to receive dividends and/or distributions. Each quarter, the dividend payable to BGC's stockholders, if any, is expected to be determined by the Company's Board of Directors with reference to a number of factors, including post-tax Adjusted Earnings per share. BGC may also pay a pro-rata distribution of net income to limited partnership units, as well as to Cantor for its noncontrolling interest. The amount of this net income, and therefore of these payments per unit, would be determined using the above definition of Adjusted Earnings per share on a pre-tax basis.

The declaration, payment, timing, and amount of any future dividends payable by the Company will be at the discretion of its Board of Directors using the fully diluted share count. For more information on any share count adjustments, see the table titled "Fully Diluted Weighted-Average Share Count under GAAP and for Adjusted Earnings" in the Company's most recent financial results press release.
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Management Rationale for Using Adjusted Earnings
BGC's calculation of Adjusted Earnings excludes the items discussed above because they are either non-cash in nature, because the anticipated benefits from the expenditures are not expected to be fully realized until future periods, or because the Company views results excluding these items as a better reflection of the underlying performance of BGC's ongoing operations. Management uses Adjusted Earnings in part to help it evaluate, among other things, the overall performance of the Company's business, to make decisions with respect to the Company's operations, and to determine the amount of dividends payable to common stockholders and distributions payable to holders of limited partnership units. Dividends payable to common stockholders and distributions payable to holders of limited partnership units are included within "Dividends to stockholders" and "Earnings distributions to limited partnership interests and noncontrolling interests," respectively, in our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

The term "Adjusted Earnings" should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to GAAP net income (loss). The Company views Adjusted Earnings as a metric that is not indicative of liquidity, or the cash available to fund its operations, but rather as a performance measure. Pre- and post-tax Adjusted Earnings, as well as related measures, are not intended to replace the Company's presentation of its GAAP financial results. However, management believes that these measures help provide investors with a clearer understanding of BGC's financial performance and offer useful information to both management and investors regarding certain financial and business trends related to the Company's financial condition and results of operations. Management believes that the GAAP and Adjusted Earnings measures of financial performance should be considered together.

For more information regarding Adjusted Earnings, see the section in the Company's most recent financial results press release titled "Reconciliation of GAAP Income (Loss) from Operations before Income Taxes to Adjusted Earnings and GAAP Fully Diluted EPS to Post-Tax Adjusted EPS", including the related footnotes, for details about how BGC's non-GAAP results are reconciled to those under GAAP.
Adjusted EBITDA Defined
BGC also provides an additional non-GAAP financial performance measure, "Adjusted EBITDA", which it defines as GAAP "Net income (loss) available to common stockholders", adjusted to add back the following items:
•Provision (benefit) for income taxes;
•Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries;
•Interest expense;
•Fixed asset depreciation and intangible asset amortization;
•Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs;
•Impairment of long-lived assets;
•(Gains) losses on equity method investments; and
•Certain other non-cash GAAP items, such as non-cash charges of amortized rents incurred by the Company for its new U.K. based headquarters.

The Company's management believes that its Adjusted EBITDA measure is useful in evaluating BGC's operating performance, because the calculation of this measure generally eliminates the effects of financing and income taxes and the accounting effects of capital spending and acquisitions, which would include impairment charges of goodwill and intangibles created from acquisitions. Such items may vary for different companies for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance. As a result, the Company's management uses this measure to evaluate operating performance and for other discretionary purposes. BGC believes that Adjusted EBITDA is useful to investors to assist them in getting a more complete picture of the Company's financial results and operations.

Since BGC's Adjusted EBITDA is not a recognized measurement under GAAP, investors should use this measure in addition to GAAP measures of net income when analyzing BGC's operating performance. Because not all companies use identical EBITDA calculations, the Company's presentation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Furthermore, Adjusted EBITDA is not intended to be a measure of free cash flow or GAAP cash flow from operations because the Company's Adjusted EBITDA does not consider certain cash requirements, such as tax and debt service payments.

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For more information regarding Adjusted EBITDA, see the section in the Company's most recent financial results press release titled "Reconciliation of GAAP Net Income (Loss) Available to Common Stockholders to Adjusted EBITDA", including the footnotes to the same, for details about how BGC's non-GAAP results are reconciled to those under GAAP.
Timing of Outlook for Certain GAAP and Non-GAAP Items
BGC anticipates providing forward-looking guidance for GAAP revenues and for certain non-GAAP measures from time to time. However, the Company does not anticipate providing an outlook for other GAAP results. This is because certain GAAP items, which are excluded from Adjusted Earnings and/or Adjusted EBITDA, are difficult to forecast with precision before the end of each period. The Company therefore believes that it is not possible for it to have the required information necessary to forecast GAAP results or to quantitatively reconcile GAAP forecasts to non-GAAP forecasts with sufficient precision without unreasonable efforts. For the same reasons, the Company is unable to address the probable significance of the unavailable information. The relevant items that are difficult to predict on a quarterly and/or annual basis with precision and may materially impact the Company's GAAP results include, but are not limited, to the following:
•Certain equity-based compensation charges that may be determined at the discretion of management throughout and up to the period-end;
•Unusual, one-time, non-ordinary, or non-recurring items;
•The impact of gains or losses on certain marketable securities, as well as any gains or losses related to associated mark-to-market movements and/or hedging. These items are calculated using period-end closing prices;
•Non-cash asset impairment charges, which are calculated and analyzed based on the period-end values of the underlying assets. These amounts may not be known until after period-end; and
•Acquisitions, dispositions and/or resolutions of litigation, which are fluid and unpredictable in nature.
Liquidity Defined
BGC may also use a non-GAAP measure called "liquidity". The Company considers liquidity to be comprised of the sum of Cash and cash equivalents, Reverse repurchase agreements (if any), securities owned, and marketable securities, and Financial instruments owned, at fair value, less securities lent out in Securities loaned transactions and Repurchase agreements (if any). The Company considers liquidity to be an important metric for determining the amount of cash that is available or that could be readily available to the Company on short notice.
For more information regarding Liquidity, see the section in the Company's most recent financial results press release titled "Liquidity Analysis", including any footnotes to the same, for details about how BGC's non-GAAP results are reconciled to those under GAAP.
Constant Currency Defined
BGC generates a significant amount of its revenues in non-U.S. dollar denominated currencies, particularly in the euro and pound sterling. In order to present a better comparison of the Company's revenues during the period, which exhibited highly volatile foreign exchange movements, BGC provides revenues year-over-year comparisons on a "Constant Currency" basis. BGC uses a Constant Currency financial metric to provide a better comparison of the Company's underlying operating performance by eliminating the impacts of foreign currency fluctuations between comparative periods. Since BGC's consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, fluctuations in non-U.S. dollar denominated currencies have an impact on the Company's GAAP results. The Company's Constant Currency metric, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, assumes the foreign exchange rates used to determine the Company's comparative prior period revenues, apply to the current period revenues. Constant Currency revenue percentage change is calculated by determining the change in current quarter non-GAAP Constant Currency revenues over prior period revenues. Non-GAAP Constant Currency revenues are total revenues excluding the effect of foreign exchange rate movements and are calculated by remeasuring and/or translating current quarter revenues using prior period exchange rates. BGC presents certain non-GAAP Constant Currency percentage changes in Constant Currency revenues as a supplementary measure because it facilitates the comparison of the Company's core operating results. This information should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, results reported in accordance with GAAP.
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of BGC Partners' financial condition and results of operations should be read together with BGC Partners' Inc.'s Consolidated Financial Statements and notes to those statements, as well as the cautionary statements relating to forward-looking statements included in this report. When used herein, the terms "BGC Partners," "BGC," the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to BGC Partners, Inc., including consolidated subsidiaries.
The objective of this Management's Discussion and Analysis is to allow investors to view the Company from management's perspective, considering items that have had and could have a material impact on future operations. This discussion summarizes the significant factors affecting our results of operations and financial condition as of and during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021, and 2020. This discussion is provided to increase the understanding of, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this report.
FORWARD-LOOKING CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS
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Our actual results and the outcome and timing of certain events may differ significantly from the expectations discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to such a discrepancy include, but are not limited to, the factors set forth below:
•the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including possible successive waves or variants of the virus, on our operations, including the continued ability of our executives, employees, customers, clients, third-party service providers, exchanges and other facilities to perform their functions at normal levels and the availability of the requisite technology to execute trades in certain Fully Electronic offerings while working remotely;
•macroeconomic and other challenges and uncertainties resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the distribution of effective vaccines, public acceptance of the vaccines, and governmental and public reactions thereto,Russia's Invasion of Ukraine, rising global interest rates, inflation and the Federal Reserve's responses thereto, including increasing interest rates, the strengthening U.S. dollar, changes in the U.S. and global economies and financial markets, and consumer and corporate clients and customers, including economic activity, employment levels, supply chain issues and market liquidity, and increasing energy costs, as well as the various actions taken in response to the challenges and uncertainties by governments, central banks and others, including us and consumer and corporate clients and customers;
•the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including possible successive waves or variants of the virus, the emergence of new viruses, the continued distribution of effective vaccines and governmental and public reactions thereto, the combined impact of the flu and other seasonal illnesses, and the impact of a return to office for our employees on our operations;
•market conditions, including trading volume,•market conditions, including rising interest rates, the strengthening U.S. dollar, trading volume, currency fluctuations and volatility in the demand for the products and services we provide, resulting from the effects of COVID-19 or otherwise, possible disruptions in trading, potential deterioration of equity and debt capital markets and cryptocurrency markets, the impact of significant changes in interest rates generally and on our ability to access the capital markets as needed or on reasonable terms and conditions;
•pricing, commissions and fees, and market position with respect to any of our products and services and those of our competitors;
•the effect of industry concentration and reorganization, reduction of customers, and consolidation;
•liquidity, regulatory, cash and clearing capital requirements and the impact of credit market events, including the impact of COVID-19, rising interest rates, the strengthening U.S. dollar, and market uncertainty, and political events and conflicts and actions taken by governments and businesses in response thereto on the credit markets and interest rates;
•our relationships and transactions with Cantor and its affiliates, including CF&Co, and CCRE, our structure, including BGC Holdings, which is owned by us, Cantor, our employee partners and other partners, and the BGC OpCos, which are owned jointly by us and BGC Holdings, the timing and impact of any possible changes to our structure, including the Corporate Conversion, any related transactions, conflicts of interest or litigation, including with respect to executive compensation matters, any impact of Cantor's results on our credit ratings and associated outlooks, any loans to or from us or Cantor, BGC Holdings, or the BGC OpCos, including the balances and interest rates thereof from time to time and any convertible or equity features of any such loans, CF&Co's acting as our sales agent or underwriter under our CEO Program or other offerings, Cantor's holdings of the Company's Debt Securities, CF&Co's acting as a market maker in the Company's Debt Securities, CF&Co's acting as our financial advisor in connection with potential acquisitions, dispositions, or other transactions, and our participation in various investments, stock loans or cash management vehicles placed by or recommended by CF&Co;
•the structural, financial, tax, employee retention and other impacts of our expected Corporate Conversion;
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•the integration of acquired businesses and their operations and back office functions with our other businesses;
•the effect on our businesses of any extraordinary transactions, including the Corporate Conversion, the timing and terms of any such transaction, including potential dilution, taxes, costs, and other impacts, and our ability to complete such transaction on our anticipated schedule;
•the rebranding of our current businesses or risks related to any potential dispositions of all or any portion of our existing or acquired businesses;
•market volatility as a result of the effects of COVID-19, which may not be sustainable or predictable in future periods;rising interest rates, the strengthening U.S. dollar, global inflation rates, potential economic downturns, including recessions, and similar effects, which may not be predictable in future periods;
•economic or geopolitical conditions or uncertainties, the actions of governments or central banks, including the impact of COVID-19 on the global markets and governmental responses, and restrictions on business and commercial activity, uncertainty regarding the nature, timing and consequences of Brexit following the withdrawal process, including potential reduction in investment in the U.K., and the pursuit of trade, border control or other related policies by the U.S. and/or other countries (including U.S.-China trade relations), recent economic and political volatility in the U.K., rising political and other tensions between the U.S. and China, political and labor unrest in France, Hong Kong, China and other jurisdictions, conflict in the Middle East, Russia, Ukraine or other jurisdictions, the impact of U.S. government shutdowns, elections, political unrest, boycotts, stalemates or other social and political responses to governmental mandates and other restrictions related to COVID-19 in the U.S. or abroad, and the impact of terrorist acts, acts of war or other violence or political unrest, as well as natural disasters or weather-related or similar events, including hurricanes and heat waves, as well as power failures, communication and transportation disruptions, and other interruptions of utilities or other essential services and the impacts of pandemics and other international health emergencies;
•risks inherent in doing business in international markets, and any failure to identify and manage those risks, as well as the impact of Russia's ongoing Invasion of Ukraine and additional sanctions and regulations imposed by governments and related counter-sanctions, including any related reserves;
•the effect on our businesses, our clients, the markets in which we operate, our Corporate Conversion, and the economy in general of changes in the U.S. and foreign tax and other laws, including changes in tax rates,
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repatriation rules, and deductibility of interest, potential policy and regulatory changes in Mexico and other countries, sequestrations, uncertainties regarding the debt ceiling and the federal budget, responses to rising global inflation rates, and other potential political policies;
•our dependence upon our key employees, our ability to build out successful succession plans, the impact of absence due to illness or leave of certain key executive officers or employees and our ability to attract, retain, motivate and integrate new employees, as well as the competing demands on the time of certain of our executive officers who also provide services to Cantor, Newmark and various other ventures and investments sponsored by Cantor;
•the effect on our businesses of changes in interest rates, changes in benchmarks, including the transition away from LIBOR, the transition to alternative benchmarks such as SOFR, the effect on our business and revenues of the strengthening U.S. dollar, rising interest rates and market uncertainty, the level of worldwide governmental debt issuances, austerity programs, government stimulus packages, increases and decreases in the federal funds interest rate and other actions to moderate inflation, increases or decreases in deficits and the impact of increased government tax rates, and other changes to monetary policy, and potential political impasses or regulatory requirements, including increased capital requirements for banks and other institutions or changes in legislation, regulations and priorities;
•extensive regulation of our businesses and customers, changes in regulations relating to financial services companies and other industries, and risks relating to compliance matters, including regulatory examinations, inspections, investigations and enforcement actions, and any resulting costs, increased financial and capital requirements, enhanced oversight, remediation, fines, penalties, sanctions, and changes to or restrictions or limitations on specific activities, including potential delays in accessing markets, including due to our regulatory status and actions, operations, compensatory arrangements, and growth opportunities, including acquisitions, hiring, and new businesses, products, or services;
•factors related to specific transactions or series of transactions, including credit, performance, and principal risk, trade failures, counterparty failures, and the impact of fraud and unauthorized trading;
•the effect on our businesses of any extraordinary transactions, including the possible restructuring of our partnership into a corporate structure, including potential dilution and other impacts;
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•costs and expenses of developing, maintaining, and protecting our intellectual property, as well as employment, regulatory, and other litigation and proceedings, and their related costs, including judgments, indemnities, fines, or settlements paid and the impact thereof on our financial results and cash flows in any given period;
•certain financial risks, including the possibility of future losses, indemnification obligations, assumed liabilities, reduced cash flows from operations, increased leverage, reduced availability under our credit agreements, and the need for short- or long-term borrowings, including from Cantor, our ability to refinance our indebtedness, and changes to interest rates and liquidity or our access to other sources of cash relating to acquisitions, dispositions, or other matters, potential liquidity and other risks relating to our ability to maintain continued access to credit and availability of financing necessary to support our ongoing business needs, on terms acceptable to us, if at all, and risks associated with the resulting leverage, including potentially causing a reduction in our credit ratings and the associated outlooks and increased borrowing costs as well as interest rate and foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
•risks associated with the temporary or longer-term investment of our available cash, including in the BGC OpCos, defaults or impairments on our investments, joint venture interests, stock loans or cash management vehicles and collectability of loan balances owed to us by partners, employees, the BGC OpCos or others;
•our ability to enter new markets or develop new products, offerings, trading desks, marketplaces, or services for existing or new clients, including our ability to expand our cryptocurrency offerings including the launch of additional cryptocurrency and digital asset trading offerings in 2022 develop new Fenics platforms and products, to successfully launch our FMX initiative and to attract investors thereto, the risks inherent in operating our cryptocurrency business and in safekeeping cryptocurrency assets, and efforts to convert certain existing products to a Fully Electronic trade execution, and to induce such clients to use these products, trading desks, marketplaces, or services and to secure and maintain market share;including changes to the likelihood or timing of such efforts due to COVID-19 or other measures;
•the impact of any restructuring or similar transactions, including the Corporate Conversion, on our ability to enter into marketing and strategic alliances and business combinations, attract investors or partners or engage in other transactions in the financial services and other industries, including acquisitions, tender offers, dispositions, reorganizations, partnering opportunities and joint ventures, the failure to realize the anticipated benefits of any such transactions, relationships or growth, and the future impact of any such transactions, relationships or growth on our other businesses and our financial results for current or future periods, the integration of any completed acquisitions and the use of proceeds of any completed dispositions, the impact of amendments and/or terminations of strategic arrangements, and the value of and any hedging entered into in connection with consideration received or to be received in connection with such dispositions and any transfers thereof;
•our estimates or determinations of potential value with respect to various assets or portions of our businesses, such as Fenics, including with respect to the accuracy of the assumptions or the valuation models or multiples used;
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•our ability to manage turnover and hire, train, integrate and retain personnel, including brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, back-office and support services, and departures of senior personnel;
•our ability to expand the use of technology and maintain access to the intellectual property of others for Hybrid and Fully Electronic trade execution in our product and service offerings, and otherwise;
•our ability to effectively manage any growth that may be achieved, including outside the U.S., while ensuring compliance with all applicable financial reporting, internal control, legal compliance, and regulatory requirements;
•our ability to identify and remediate any material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal controls which could affect our ability to properly maintain books and records, prepare financial statements and reports in a timely manner, control our policies, practices and procedures, operations and assets, assess and manage our operational, regulatory and financial risks, and integrate our acquired businesses and brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel;
•the impact of unexpected market moves and similar events;
•information technology risks, including capacity constraints, failures, or disruptions in our systems or those of the clients, counterparties, exchanges, clearing facilities, or other parties with which we interact, including increased demands on such systems and on the telecommunications infrastructure from remote working during the COVID-19 pandemic, cyber-security risks and incidents, compliance with regulations requiring
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data minimization and protection and preservation of records of access and transfers of data, privacy risk and exposure to potential liability and regulatory focus;
•the effectiveness of our governance, risk management, and oversight procedures and impact of any potential transactions or relationships with related parties;
•the impact of our ESG or "sustainability" ratings on the decisions by clients, investors, ratings agencies, potential clients and other parties with respect to our businesses, investments in us, our borrowing opportunities or the market for and trading price of BGC Class A common stock, Company Debt Securities, or other matters;
•the fact that the prices at which shares of our Class A common stock are or may be sold in offerings, acquisitions, or other transactions may vary significantly, and purchasers of shares in such offerings or other transactions, as well as existing stockholders, may suffer significant dilution if the price they paid for their shares is higher than the price paid by other purchasers in such offerings or transactions;
•the impact of reductions to our dividends and distributions and the timing and amounts of any future dividends or distributions, including our ability to meet expectations with respect to payments of dividends and distributions and repurchases of shares of our Class A common stock and purchases or redemptions of limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings, or other equity interests in us or any of our other subsidiaries, including the BGC OpCos, including from Cantor, our executive officers, other employees, partners, and others, and the net proceeds to be realized by us from offerings of shares of BGC Class A common stock and Company Debt Securities, and our ability to pay any excise tax that may be imposed on the repurchase of shares; and
•the effect on the markets for and trading prices of our Class A common stock and Company Debt Securities due to COVID-19 and other market factors as well as on various offerings and other transactions, including offerings of our Class A common stock and convertible or exchangeable debt or other securities, our repurchases of shares of our Class A common stock and purchases or redemptions of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests or other equity interests in us or in our subsidiaries, any exchanges by Cantor of shares of our Class A common stock for shares of our Class B common stock, any exchanges or redemptions of limited partnership units and issuances of shares of our Class A common stock in connection therewith, including in corporate or partnership restructurings, our payment of dividends on our Class A common stock and distributions on limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings and the BGC OpCos, convertible arbitrage, hedging, and other transactions engaged in by us or holders of our outstanding shares, Company Debt Securities or other securities, share sales and stock pledge, stock loans, and other financing transactions by holders of our shares (including by Cantor or others), including of shares acquired pursuant to our employee benefit plans, unit exchanges and redemptions, corporate or partnership restructurings, acquisitions, conversions of shares of our Class B common stock and our other convertible securities into shares of our Class A common stock, stock pledge, stock loan, or other financing transactions, and distributions of our Class A common stock by Cantor to its partners, including the April 2008 and February 2012 distribution rights shares.
The foregoing risks and uncertainties, as well as those risks and uncertainties discussed under the headings "Item 1A-Risk Factors," and "Item 7A-Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" and elsewhere in this Form 10-K, may cause actual results and events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.
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OVERVIEW AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
BGC is a leading global financial brokerage and technology company servicing the global financial markets.
Through brands including BGC®, Fenics®, GFI®, Sunrise Brokers™, Poten & Partners®, and RP Martin®, and Fenics®, among others, our businesses specialize in the brokerage of a broad range of products, including fixed income such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments, as well as related interest rate derivatives and credit derivatives. Additionally, we provide brokerage products across FX, we also broker products across FX, equity derivatives and cash Equities, Energy and Commodities, Shipping, and Futures and Options. We have also recently announced our plans to develop new and comprehensive cryptocurrency brokerage offerings. Our businesses also provide a wide variety of services, including trade execution, connectivity solutions, brokerage services, clearing, trade compression, and other post-trade services, information, and other back-office services to a broad assortment of financial and non-financial institutions.
Our integrated platform is designed to provide flexibility to customers with regard to price discovery, execution and processing of transactions, and enables them to use our Voice, Hybrid, or, in many markets, Fully Electronic brokerage services in connection with transactions executed either OTC or through an exchange. Through our Fenics® group of electronic brands, we offer a number of market infrastructure and connectivity services, including our Fully Electronic marketplaces, and the Fully
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Electronic brokerage of certain products that also may trade via our Voice and Hybrid execution platforms. The full suite of Fenics® offerings includes our Fully Electronic and Hybrid brokerage, market data and related information services, trade compression and other post-trade services, analytics related to financial instruments and markets, and other financial technology solutions. Fenics® brands also operate under the names Fenics®, FMX™, FMX Futures Exchange™, Fenics Markets Xchange™, Fenics Futures Exchange™, Fenics UST™, Fenics FX™, Fenics Repo™, Fenics Direct™, Fenics MID™, Fenics Market Data™, Fenics GO™, BGC Market Data™, kACE2®, Capitalab®, Swaptioniser®, CBID®, Lucera®.and LumeAlfa™.Fenics PortfolioMatch™, kACE2®, and Lucera®.
BGC, BGC Partners, BGC Trader, GFI, GFI Ginga, CreditMatch, Fenics, Fenics.com, FMX, Sunrise Brokers, Poten & Partners, RP Martin, kACE2, Capitalab, Swaptioniser, CBID, and Lucera are trademarks/service marks, and/or registered trademarks/service marks of BGC Partners, Inc. and/or its affiliates.
Our customers include many of the world's largest banks, broker-dealers, investment banks, trading firms, hedge funds, governments, corporations, and investment firms. We have dozens of offices globally in major markets including New York and London, as well as in Bahrain, Beijing, Bogotá, Brisbane, Cape Town, Chicago, Copenhagen, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hong Kong, Houston, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Monaco, Nyon, Paris, Perth, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Toronto, and Zurich.
As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 2,100 As of December 31, 2022, we had 1,985 brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel across our businesses.
Recent Developments / Strengthening U.S. Dollar
On July 30, 2021, The Company completed the purchase of the Futures Exchange Group for a purchase price of $4.9 million at closing, plus the cash held at closing by the Futures Exchange Group, and an earn-out, only payable out of our portion of the profits of the Futures Exchange Group, capped at the amount Cantor contributed to the Futures Exchange Group prior to closing.
The Company generates a significant amount of its revenues in non-U.S. dollar denominated currencies, particularly in the euro and pound sterling. The U.S. dollar remained at strong levels against both the euro and pound sterling, which were approximately 11% and 13% lower, respectively, for the quarter ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the quarter ended December 31, 2021. The Company's total revenue for the quarter would have been $13.7 million higher, but for the stronger U.S. dollar. The stronger U.S. dollar is expected to be less impactful on reported revenue throughout 2023.
The Futures Exchange Group acquisition has been determined to be a combination of entities under common control that resulted in a change in the reporting entity. Accordingly, the financial results of the Company have been recast to include The financial results of the Futures Exchange Group in the current and prior periods as if the Futures Exchange Group had always been consolidated. The assets and liabilities of the Futures Exchange Group have been recorded in the Company's consolidated statements of financial condition at the seller's historical carrying value. The purchase of the Futures Exchange Group was accounted for as an equity transaction for the period ended September 30, 2021 (the period in which The transaction occurred).
Recent Developments / Tax Policy Changes
On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 was signed into federal law. The IR Act provides for, among other things, a new corporate alternative minimum tax based on 15% of adjusted financial statement income for applicable corporations. The IR Act also provides for a new U.S. federal 1% excise tax on certain repurchases (including redemptions) of stock by publicly traded U.S. corporations and certain U.S. subsidiaries of publicly traded foreign corporations. The excise tax is imposed on the repurchasing corporation itself and not its stockholders from which the shares are repurchased. In addition, certain exceptions apply to the excise tax. These tax provisions of the IR Act are effective January 1, 2023. We continue to analyze the impacts of the IR Act and related regulatory developments; however, it is not expected to have a material impact on our financial statements in future periods.
the following tables summarize the impact of The Futures Exchange Group acquisition to the Company's consolidated statement of financial condition as of December 31, 2020, and to The Company's consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands, except per share amounts):

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2020 |
| | As Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted |
| Total assets | $ | 3,949,300 | | | $ | 3,942 | | | $ | 3,953,242 | |
| Total liabilities | $ | 3,120,397 | | | $ | 874 | | | $ | 3,121,271 | |
| Total equity | $ | 808,229 | | | $ | 3,068 | | | $ | 811,297 | |
| Total liabilities, redeemable partnership interest, and equity | $ | 3,949,300 | | | $ | 3,942 | | | $ | 3,953,242 | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | Year Ended December 31, 2020 | | Year Ended December 31, 2019 |
| | | As Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted | | As Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted |
| Income (loss) from operations before income taxes | | $ | 77,905 | | | $ | (5,684) | | | $ | 72,221 | | | $ | 122,064 | | | $ | (5,437) | | | $ | 116,627 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | | $ | 56,602 | | | $ | (5,684) | | | $ | 50,918 | | | $ | 72,253 | | | $ | (5,437) | | | $ | 66,816 | |
| Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest In subsidiaries | | $ | 7,694 | | | $ | (1,838) | | | $ | 5,856 | | | $ | 24,691 | | | $ | (1,776) | | | $ | 22,915 | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | | $ | 48,908 | | | $ | (3,846) | | | $ | 45,062 | | | $ | 47,562 | | | $ | (3,661) | | | $ | 43,901 | |
| Basic earnings (loss) per share | | $ | 0.14 | | | $ | (0.02) | | | $ | 0.12 | | | $ | 0.14 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.13 | |
| Diluted earnings (loss) per share | | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.12 | | | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.12 | |

Additionally, the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), consolidated statements of cash flows and consolidated statements of changes in equity have been adjusted to reflect these retrospective adjustments.
Fenics
For the purposes of this document and subsequent SEC filings, all of our higher margin, technology-driven businesses are referred to as Fenics. In the first quarter of 2021, we began to categorize our Fenics businesses as Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms and we have conformed our prior period comparisons of the components of our Fenics business to this new categorization. Fenics Markets includes the fully electronic portion of BGC's brokerage businesses, data, software and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues. Fenics Growth Platforms includes Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX, Portfolio Match and other newer standalone platforms. Revenue generated from data, software and post-trade attributable to Fenics Growth Platforms are included within their related businesses.
Historically, technology-based product growth has led to higher margins and greater profits over time for exchanges and wholesale financial intermediaries alike, even if overall Company revenues remain consistent. This is largely because automated and electronic trading efficiency allows the same number of employees to manage a greater volume of trades as the marginal cost of incremental trading activity falls. Over time, the conversion of exchange-traded and OTC markets to fully electronic trading has also typically led to an increase in volumes which offset lower commissions, and often lead to similar or higher overall revenues. We have been a pioneer in creating and encouraging hybrid and fully electronic execution, and we continually work with our customers to expand such trading across more asset classes and geographies.
Outside of U.S. Treasuries and spot FX, the banks and financial firms that dominate the OTC markets had, until recent years, been hesitant in adopting electronically traded products. However, banks, broker-dealers, and other professional trading firms are now much more active in hybrid and fully electronically traded markets across various OTC products including credit derivative indices, FX derivatives, non-U.S. sovereign bonds, corporate bonds, and interest rate derivatives. These electronic markets These electronic markets for OTC products have grown as a percentage of overall industry volumes over the past decade as firms like BGC have invested in the kinds of technology favored by our customers. Regulation across banking,
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capital markets, and OTC derivatives has accelerated the adoption of fully electronic execution, and we expect this demand to continue. We also believe that new clients, beyond our large bank customer base, will primarily transact electronically across our Fenics platforms.
The combination of wider adoption of hybrid and fully electronic execution and our competitive advantage in terms of technology and experience has contributed to our strong growth in electronically traded products. We continue to invest in our
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high-growth, high-margin, technology-driven businesses, including our standalone fully electronic Fenics Growth Platforms. Fenics has exhibited strong growth over the past several years, and we believe that this growth has outpaced the wholesale brokerage industry. We expect this trend to accelerate as we continue to convert more of our Voice/Hybrid execution into higher-margin, technology-driven execution across our Fenics platforms and continue to grow our Fenics Growth Platforms.
We expect to benefit from the trend towards electronic trading, increased demand for market data, and the need for increased connectivity, automation, and post-trade services. We continue to onboard new customers as the opportunities created by electronic and algorithmic trading continue to transform our industry. We continue to roll out our next-gen Fenics execution platforms across more products and geographies with the goal of seamlessly integrating the liquidity of voice transactions with customer electronic orders either by a GUI, API, or web-based interface. We expect to have continued success converting Voice/Hybrid desks over time as we roll out these platforms across more products and geographies.
Fenics Growth Platforms revenue grew 7.6% to $14.8 million in the fourth quarter of 2022. Collectively, our newer Fenics Growth Platform offerings, such as those listed above, are not yet fully up to scale, but continue to grow at a leading rate. Over time, we expect these new products and services to become profitable, high-margin businesses as their scale and revenues increase, all else equal.
We continue to invest in our Fenics Growth Platforms, which currently include:
•Fenics UST, one of the largest CLOB platforms for U.S. Treasuries, had ADV growth of 65% during the fourth quarter of 2021, outpacing the overall market. Fenics UST CLOB market share increased approximately 600 basis points from a year ago to over 20% in the fourth quarter and represented 21% of the CLOB market in December 2021. CLOB market share is from Greenwich Associates and BGC's internal estimates. From the third quarter, onward, Greenwich Associates updated its methodology for calculating CLOB market share to more accurately reflect CLOB-only trading volumes. Fenics UST is estimated to have saved our clients over $30 million in the fourth quarter and over $269 million from January 2019 through December 2021. Fenics UST's revenue growth was driven by new product offerings, more traders using the platform and higher volumes. Additionally, Fenics UST saw robust demand for its newer electronic T-bills offering, with a five-fold increase in ADV quarter-over-quarter, which represented as estimated 15% of the electronic U.S. Treasury Bill market.saw CLOB market share increase by nearly 200 basis points during the fourth quarter on ADV of approximately $30 billion. Fenics UST's streaming volume grew for the seventh consecutive quarter, with streaming ADV doubling compared to the fourth quarter a year ago. Streaming earns significantly higher fee capture and represented over 40% of total volume in the fourth quarter, an all-time high.
•Fenics GO, our global options electronic trading platform, provides live, real-time, and tradeable two-way electronic liquidity for exchange-listed futures and options, such as Eurex Euro Stoxx 50 Index Options, Euro Stoxx Banks Index Options, Nikkei 225 Index Options, Hang Seng Chinese Enterprise Index Options (HSCEI), DAX Index Options, and Korea Composite Stock Price Index Options (KOSPI). Fenics GO electronic liquidity providers include Susquehanna International Securities (SIG), which joined DRW, Lighthouse, Citadel Securities, IMC, Maven Securities, Optiver and Akuna Capital as electronic liquidity providers. Fenics GO has integrated Fenics' existing electronic platform MatchBox into its client offering. MatchBox is an online platform that automates the trading, booking, and lifecycle management of global equity derivatives contracts. The integration of these two electronic platforms provides Fenics GO's clients with a comprehensive electronic equity solution. Fenics GO is the only anonymous multilateral electronic platform for block-sized listed equity index options, giving it a unique advantage in helping clients satisfy their best execution requirements. Additionally, Fenics GO launched new MSCI index options products in January 2022, and expects to launch new cryptocurrency options later in the year.
•Lucera, our infrastructure and software business, offers the trading community direct connectivity to each other. Lucera has a fully built, scalable infrastructure that provides clients electronic trading connectivity with their counterparties within days, as opposed to months, and at a significantly lower cost. Lucera is comprised of two main business lines, LUMEMarkets and LuceraConnect. LUMEMarkets is our low latency aggregator, providing a single access point across multiple fragmented marketplaces and exchanges (FX, Rates, Futures and Credit markets). LuceraConnect provides on-demand connectivity to over one thousand endpoints across buy-side clients, trading firms, marketplaces, and exchanges. LuceraConnect has quickly become the industry standard for the FX market and is rapidly expanding in other asset classes. Lucera launched its cryptocurrency infrastructure business in the third quarter of 2021, offering clients access to cryptocurrency trading venues through LuceraConnect, leveraging its leading connectivity to exchanges, trading platforms, and custodians. Additionally, LUMEMarkets provides an aggregated view of prices from multiple cryptocurrency venues. Lucera's cryptocurrency solution is focused on providing clients with world-class infrastructure that offers fully compliant workflows. Lucera also supports the distribution of Fenics trading platforms, including Fenics UST, Fenics FX and Fenics MIDFX. In the fourth quarter, Lucera onboarded new institutional and large bank clients including in Lucera's cryptocurrency infrastructure business, which launched in the third quarter. Winning new clients and expanding existing relationships adds to Lucera's highly recurring and compounding subscription revenue model. Lucera is providing connectivity to the world's deepest crypto liquidity pools via its world-class infrastructure.Lucera had another record quarter, generating strong double-digit revenue growth of 19% versus last year. Lucera added new clients across both its LUMEMarkets platform and Compute hosting service and continues to grow its pipeline.
•Fenics Credit offering, Portfolio Match, our recently deployed session-based, matching platform, currently supports U.S. and European investment grade credit, as well as European high yield credit sessions.
•Fenics GO, our global options electronic trading platform, saw strong volume growth across its Asian and European businesses. HSCEI and KOSPI volumes were up over 470% and approximately 150% respectively, while Euro Stoxx 50 volumes were up over 400%. Fenics GO's newer MSCI index options offerings ranked first across five of fifteen MSCI Asian indices at Eurex, the largest clearer of these products.
•Fenics FX, our ultra-low latency electronic FX trading platform, generated strong double-digit volume and revenue growth during the quarter outpacing FX ECN peers and the overall market volume growth of 22%. Fenics FX had another record quarter and has grown at a market leading rate throughout 2022.
•Our expanded Fenics FX platforms, which has businesses included under both Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms, including MIDFX, Spot FX and FX Options, and non deliverable forwards.
•Portfolio Match, our credit matching platform, grew ADV over three-fold, capturing market share. Portfolio Match was launched in 2021 and has become one of the fastest growing businesses across the Fenics ecosystem.
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•Capitalab, which has businesses included under both Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms.
Fenics Markets revenue grew 7.4% to $94.1
Revenue growth from Fenics Growth Platforms continued to significantly outpace the overall business. Fenics Growth Platforms revenue grew 89.3% to $13.7 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 compared to the year prior and 60.2% to $45.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Collectively, our newer Fenics Growth Platform offerings, such as those listed above, are not yet fully up to scale, and are not yet generating significant revenues. Over time, we expect these new products and services to become profitable, high-margin businesses as their scale and revenues increase, all else equal.prior year period.
Fenics Markets notable highlights for the fourth quarter of 2022 include:
•Fenics MIDFX, our leading wholesale FX hedging platform, grew its revenue by 20% versus the prior year, driven by strong volumes across spot FX and Asian NDFs. Fenics MID technology provides a highly efficient fully electronic platform for large global broker-dealers to hedge risk in a neutral environment.
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•Fenics Market Data signed 48 new contracts during the fourth quarter and grew revenue 20% year-over-year. With market leading client retention rates, Fenics Market Data continues to see strong demand for its Rates, FX, and Energy data packages. With the total contracted value more than doubling compared to last year. Fenics market Data has seen continued success in its new Regulatory Services offering, with a robust pipeline leading into 2022. Fenics Market Data which has a highly recurring and compounding subscription revenue model, continues to grow at a solid double-digit pace.
•Capitalab's NDF Match business, our advanced web-based matching platform, that helps clients reduce foreign exchange exposure, more than doubled its ADV and revenue in the fourth quarter.versus the prior year.
•Fenics Direct, our web-delivered multi-dealer FX options platform, generated ADV growth of 22% in the quarter.
Fenics Markets revenue grew 13.7% to $87.7 million in the fourth quarter of 2021 compared to the year prior and 22.6% to $355.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
•Fenics MIDFX, our leading wholesale FX hedging platform, continued to see strong growth across its Asian NDF business with ADV improving by 83%.
Net Revenues in our Fenics businesses increased 7.4% to $108.9 million in the fourth quarter and 12.0% to $449.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year period. Within our Fenics businesses, Fenics Markets revenue grew 7.4% to $94.1 million, and Fenics Growth Platforms revenue increased 7.6% to $14.8 million. Fenics Markets had a pre-tax margin of 30.6% in the fourth quarter of 2022. Fenics revenue comprised 23.0% and 21.8% of overall revenue excluding Insurance brokerage, for the fourth quarter of 2021 and for the year ended December 31, 2021, respectively.
Fenics has generated strong growth through the first 35 trading days of 2023 with revenue up 11% over the same period last year. This strong electronic momentum has been driven by Rates, Credit, Foreign Exchange, Data and Software. Fenics Markets revenue was up 10%. This growth reflects the strength of our comprehensive Fenics offerings that provide access to the deepest wholesale liquidity pools using state-of-the-art technology. Fenics Growth Platforms revenue was up 22%. This growth has been led by our broad range of Fully Electronic platforms such as Fenics UST, Lucera, Fenics GO and Portfolio Match.
Total revenues from our high-margin data, software, and post-trade business, which is predominately comprised of recurring revenue, were up 3.8% to $25.1 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 and 7.1% to $96.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 over the prior year period. Fenics brokerage revenues increased by 8.6% to $83.8 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 and 13.4% to $352.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Going forward, we expect Fenics to become an even more valuable part of BGC as it continues to grow. 2022 over the prior year period. Fenics represented 25.0% of BGC's overall revenue in the fourth quarter and is expected to become an ever larger part of our overall business going forward. We continue to analyze how to optimally configure our Voice/Hybrid and Fully Electronic businesses. further, we continue to navigate the volatile interest rate environment experienced over the last year and the impact of high interest rates on our trading volumes and spreads.
FMX
On November 3, 2021, we announced FMX, which combines Fenics UST's leading cash U.S. Treasury business with a state-of-the-art U.S. Rates futures platform, in development. Following the announcement and consultation with our global clients and potential strategic partners, FMX has expanded the scope of its futures product offering to cover the entire U.S. Rates Futures complex. This includes launching U.S. Treasury, Eurodollar, and SOFR futures contracts, concurrently, in the fourth quarter of 2022.
FMX, our electronic U.S. Treasury and Rates futures platform, is expected to complete all regulatory filings and submissions by the end of the first quarter. We remain on track for a soft launch of our futures platform and we expect to announce its strategic investors prior to the launch.
The FMX partnership brings together LCH, the largest holder of interest rate collateral, strategic investors, representing the largest users of U.S. interest rate products, and Fenics' industry-leading technology and distribution, creating enormous value for BGC as it competes in the world's most valuable futures markets.
Futures Exchange Group
We continued to expand our cryptocurrency offerings during the quarter. Lucera onboarded new clients to its cryptocurrency connectivity and trade aggregation software. kACE, leveraging its award-winning Analytics, Pricing and Distribution software, onboarded new clients to its new cryptocurrency options offering. Furthermore, we will be launching additional cryptocurrency and digital asset trading products throughout 2022, which will be underpinned by Fenics' state-of-the-art technology. our Futures Exchange was among the first exchanges to be permitted to list cryptocurrency derivative contracts. We are uniquely positioned to capitalize on the significant and growing cryptocurrency opportunity.
On July 30, 2021, the Company completed the purchase of the Futures Exchange Group for a purchase price of $4.9 million at closing, plus the cash held at closing by the Futures Exchange Group, and an earn-out, only payable out of our portion of the profits of the Futures Exchange Group, capped at the amount Cantor contributed to the Futures Exchange Group prior to closing.
Possible Corporate Conversion
The Company continues to explore a possible conversion into a simpler corporate structure. Our board and committees have hired advisors and are reviewing The potential structure and details of such conversion.
The Futures Exchange Group acquisition has been determined to be a combination of entities under common control that resulted in a change in the reporting entity. Accordingly, the financial results of the Company have been recast to include the financial results of the Futures Exchange Group in the current and prior periods as if the Futures Exchange Group had always been consolidated. The assets and liabilities of the Futures Exchange Group have been recorded in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition at the seller's historical carrying value. The purchase of the Futures Exchange Group was accounted for as an equity transaction for the period ended September 30, 2021 (the period in which the transaction occurred).
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Corporate Conversion
The Company is continuing to examine how best to operate our business with the goal of creating efficiencies and reducing expenses. During the first quarter of 2020, We implemented a $35.0 million cost reduction program to reduce our compensation-related cost base and streamline our operations, which resulted in $33.5 million of U.S. GAAP compensation charges recorded under this program for the year ended December 31, 2020. In addition, the Company incurred $32.1 million of U.S. GAAP compensation charges in the year ended December 31, 2021, as a result of continuing to examine how best to operate our business and working to further streamline our operations. U.S. GAAP items recorded include:
We expect to file a Form S-4 Registration Statement in connection with the Corporate Conversion in the second quarter of 2023. We also expect to provide additional information with respect to our expected tax rates going forward as soon as practicable.
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On November 15, 2022, BGC Partners, Inc. and BGC Holdings, along with certain other affiliated entities, entered into a Corporate Conversion Agreement in order to reorganize and simplify BGC's organizational structure by converting from an Up-C to a "Full C-Corporation." Upon completion of the Corporate Conversion Transactions, the stockholders of BGC Partners and the limited partners of BGC Holdings will participate in the economics of the BGC businesses through the same publicly traded corporate entity, BGC Group, Inc. By simplifying the organizational structure, the Corporate Conversion Transactions are intended to improve transparency and reduce operational complexity.
•Certain severance charges incurred In connection with headcount reductions as part of a broad cost reduction program; and

The Corporate Conversion Agreement has been approved by BGC's Board of Directors, at the unanimous recommendation of the Joint Committee.
In the first quarter of 2023, BGC received preliminary approvals from various U.S. and international regulatory authorities relating to the Corporate Conversion Transactions. BGC continues to seek regulatory approvals where required. Following receipt of such approvals, and subject to other customary closing conditions, including approval of BGC's shareholders, which are expected to be satisfied, the Company expects to close the Corporate Conversion in the third quarter of 2023.
•Certain compensation and non-compensation-related charges incurred as part of a broad cost reduction program. such U.S. GAAP items may include charges for exiting leases and/or other long-term contracts as part of cost-saving initiatives.
Insurance Disposition
On November 1, 2021, the Company successfully completed the Insurance Business Disposition and, after closing adjustments, received $534.9 million in gross cash proceeds, subject to limited post-closing adjustments. The investment in the Insurance brokerage business generated an internal rate of return of 21.2% for our shareholders. As of December 31, 2021, we have repurchased and redeemed 71.5 million shares and units since announcing the sale on May 26, 2021. The sale of the business did not represent a strategic shift that would have a major effect on the Company's operations and financial results and was, therefore, not classified as discontinued operations. CF&Co served as advisor to the Company in connection with the transaction, and as a result, $4.4 million of banking fees was paid to Cantor upon closing of the transaction. For further information regarding the sale of our Insurance brokerage business, please see our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on November 1, 2021, as well as Note 5-"Divestitures" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The Insurance brokerage business contributed $19.9 million and $178.3 million in total revenues for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021, respectively. No impairment charge was recorded for the sale of the Insurance brokerage business for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021 as the carrying amount of the net assets was less than the fair value less costs to sell.
Unvested equity and other awards previously granted by BGC to employees of its Insurance brokerage business were converted into the right to receive a cash payment from BGC; a significant portion of these awards was 50% vested and paid in cash at closing, with the remaining 50% vesting and to be paid in cash two years after closing. The remaining portion of these awards will have been 100% vested and paid in cash by two years after the closing. The payments after closing are only made if the applicable employee remains an employee of the Insurance brokerage business.
Other Matters
In February 2022, the U.S., U.K., EU, and other countries imposed sanctions on Russian counterparties, and as a result BGC has ceased trading with those clients. The Company derived less than one percent of total revenue from its Moscow branch and sanctioned Russian counterparties. During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company has reserved $11.4 million in connection with unsettled trades and receivables with sanctioned Russian entities.
Financial Services Industry
The financial services industry has grown historically due to several factors. One factor was the increasing use of derivatives to manage risk or to take advantage of the anticipated direction of a market by allowing users to protect gains and/or guard against losses in the price of underlying assets without having to buy or sell the underlying assets. Derivatives are often used to mitigate the risks associated with interest rates, equity ownership, changes in the value of FX, credit defaults by corporate and sovereign debtors, and changes in the prices of commodity products. Over this same timeframe, demand from financial institutions, large corporations and other end-users of financial products have increased volumes in the wholesale derivatives market, thereby increasing the business opportunity for financial intermediaries.
Another key factor in the historical growth of the financial services industry has been the increase in the number of new financial products. As market participants and their customers strive to mitigate risk, new types of equity and fixed income securities, futures, options and other financial instruments have been developed. Most of these new securities and derivatives were not immediately ready for more liquid and standardized electronic markets, and generally increased the need for trading and required broker-assisted execution.
Due largely to the impacts of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, our businesses had faced more challenging market conditions from 2009 until the second half of 2016. Accommodative monetary policies were enacted by several major central banks, including the Federal Reserve, Bank of England, Bank of Japan and the European Central Bank, in response to the global financial crises. These policies resulted in historically low levels of volatility and interest rates across many of the
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financial markets in which we operate. The global credit markets also faced structural issues, such as increased bank capital
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requirements under Basel III. Consequently, these factors contributed to lower trading volumes in our Rates and Credit asset classes across most geographies in which we operated.
From mid-2016 until the first quarter of 2020, the overall financial services industry benefited from sustained economic growth, lower unemployment rates in most major economies, higher consumer spending, the modification or repeal of certain U.S. regulations, and higher overall corporate profitability. The trend towards digitization and electronification within the industry contributed to higher overall volumes and transaction count in fully electronic execution. From the second quarter of 2020 onward, concerns about the future trade relationship between the U.K. and the EU after Brexit, a slowdown in global growth driven by the outbreak of COVID-19, inflation expectation impact on U.S. rates volumes, and an increase in trade protectionism were tempered by monetary and fiscal stimulus. In addition, During 2021, as the global economy recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic, higher inflation across the U.S. and other G8 countries led many central banks to begin and/or announce tapering and unwinding of asset purchases under quantitative easing programs, as well as drive market expectations of future central bank rate hikes.implement multiple interest rate hikes.
Impact of COVID-19
In recent years, we have been adversely affected as a result of COVID-19 and its impact on the macroeconomic environment. For example, surges in global COVID-19 cases caused market-wide disruptions, particularly across our Voice/Hybrid business in December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, our fully electronic businesses have been a key growth driver and competitive advantage as many of our brokers and clients have adapted to working remotely. Additional information with respect to the impact of COVID-19 on our businesses, results of operations and human capital resources is contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
This recent change in central bank monetary policies away from zero interest rates, following the highest inflation in decades, together with rising interest rates and the strengthening of the U.S. dollar, has set the stage for a resurgence in secondary market trading volumes for rates, credit and foreign exchange. For more than fourteen years, BGC and the entire financial service industry's trading volumes have been constrained by low interest rates and quantitative easing. Throughout 2023, the Company expects sustained levels of
Impact of COVID-19 on Employees
As a global intermediary to financial markets, BGC is considered an essential business in many of its various global locations where key employees are thus able to operate out of its primary offices around the world. We have nonetheless taken proactive measures intended to protect our employees and clients during this global pandemic. These policies and practices seek to protect the health, safety and welfare of our workforce while enabling employees to maintain a high level of performance. Certain of these items are summarized below:
•We activated our Business Continuity Plan in the first quarter of 2020. The vast majority of front-office personnel are working in a firm office and most BGC staff members are attending work in the office several days a week, while working remotely the other part of the week. We follow all applicable laws and regulations to ensure both compliance with the COVID-19 requirements and the safety of our employees.
•We provide ongoing informational COVID-19-related messages and notices. We disseminated our COVID-19 policies and FAQs on a regular basis; they are also posted on the Company's intranet sites.
•Where applicable, we are applying more frequent and vigorous cleaning and sanitation measures and providing personal protective equipment (PPE).
•Internal and external meetings are sometimes held in person, as well as conducted virtually and via phone calls.
•We have deferred some corporate events and participation in industry conferences.
•Our medical plans have waived applicable member cost sharing for all medically necessary diagnostic testing related to COVID-19.
•We have reminded employees about our Employee Assistance Program and the ways it can assist them during this challenging time.
•We provide paid leave in accordance with its policies and applicable COVID-19-related laws and regulations.
We continue to take significant steps to protect our employees and encourage them all to get vaccinated.
Impact of COVID-19 on the Company's Results
Revenues
Voice/Hybrid and/or Higher-Margin, Technology-Driven Fenics Businesses
We recorded total revenue of $2,015.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, 2.0% lower than a year ago.
for the year ended December 31, 2021, Fenics net revenues of $401.3 million, increased 25.9% driven by a $65.5 million, or 22.6%, increase in Fenics Markets and a $17.1 million, or 60.2%, increase in Fenics Growth Platforms.

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Certain key items are summarized below:
•Revenues across rates, credit FX, Equity derivatives and cash equities, Energy and commodities are generally correlated with corresponding industry volumes
•Rates benefited from strong growth across BGC's U.S. government bonds, inflation products, listed rates, and emerging market rates.

•Energy & Commodities generated revenue growth, driven by strong performance in BGC's environmental brokerage business and heightened volatility across the energy markets.
•Concerns around U.S. inflation and the ease of asset purchases in the fourth quarter by the Federal Reserve, drove interest rate volatility higher and supported global Rates trading volumes.
•Conversely, quantitative easing. measures taken by central banks around the world have lowered market volumes.
•Uncertainty around global energy supplies led to large price rallies and volatility in these products, which increased secondary market trading volumes
We expect record levels of global debt issuance, interest rate volatility, tapering of central bank asset purchases, and an improving U.S. and global economy to provide tailwinds to our Rates, business going forward.
in Rates, Credit and Foreign Exchange, where BGC is a market leader.
Overall Fenics
•BGC's Fenics net revenues increased 25.9% for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the prior year.
•Fenics has benefited and is expected to continue to benefit from trends towards electronic execution and opportunities created by algorithmic trading and automation.
•The dislocations caused by COVID-19 have resulted in an even greater demand for the Company's electronic execution. We believe that the driver of this demand is the best-in-class market liquidity that only integrated global firms like BGC can provide.
•This benefit may be tempered by temporary shifts by traders toward voice execution In certain markets during periods of extreme market turbulence.
In December of 2022, our brokerage revenue grew 7%. The momentum has continued into 2023 with revenue up 8% for the first 35 trading days of the first quarter of 2023. This growth is consistent with our previously reported expectation for strong growth to return in 2023. We have seen revenue growth across all of our asset classes with Rates, Foreign Exchange and Credit increasing by 6%, 6% and 4%, respectively. Additionally, Energy and Commodities has increased by 15% and Equities is up by 14%.
•BGC's data, software, and post-trade businesses are predominantly comprised of recurring revenues.
Expenses
BGC's compensation expenses increased for the year ended December 31, 2021, due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business, which included one-off compensation charges and sale-related expenses totaling $168.6 million, the majority of which was non-cash. BGC's non-compensation expenses decreased due to lower interest expense, professional and consulting fees, and other expenses. These expense reductions were partially offset by higher selling and promotion charges, as COVID-19 restrictions have relaxed across many of The major geographies in which BGC operates.
BGC has recorded or may potentially record amounts for certain expenses that are higher than they otherwise would have been due to the overall impact of the pandemic. Some of these items include:
•Non-cash impairment charges with respect to assets;
•Non-cash mark-to-market adjustments for non-marketable investments;
•Certain severance charges incurred in connection with headcount reductions as part of a broad cost reduction program;
•Certain compensation and non-compensation-related charges incurred as part of a broad cost reduction program. Such U.S. GAAP items may include charges for exiting leases and/or other long-term contracts as part of cost-saving initiatives;
•Expenses relating to setting up and maintaining remote and/or back-up locations; and
•Communication expenses related to additional voice and data connections.
Manufactured zero and near-zero interest rates over the last fourteen years has caused the break down and disappearance of the historic correlation between issuance and trading volume growth. With meaningful interest rates and issuance that is multiples above 2008 levels, we believe the return of this strong positive correlation will drive our trading volumes significantly higher. This has set the stage for broad-based growth across BGC's businesses and asset classes. We expect continued growth throughout 2023 and for the foreseeable future.
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Some of the above items may be partially offset by certain tax benefits. It is difficult to predict the amounts of any these items or when they might be recorded because they may depend on the duration, severity, and overall impact of the pandemic.
Capital and Liquidity
On February 15, 2022, our Board declared a $0.01 dividend for the fourth quarter of 2021. Additionally, BGC Holdings continues to have reduced distributions to or on behalf of its partners. the distributions to or on behalf of partners will at least cover their related tax payments. Whether any given post-tax amount is equivalent to the amount received by a stockholder also on an after-tax basis depends upon stockholders' and partners' domiciles and tax status. Our 2022 capital allocation priorities are to return capital to stockholders and to continue investing in our high growth Fenics businesses Previously, we were deeply dividend-centric; going forward, We plan to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions. The Board will reevaluate whether to increase the dividend in the first quarter of 2022.

for further information on the balance sheet, liquidity and capital, see "Liquidity and Capital Resources" herein.

Brexit
On January 1, 2021, the U.K. formally left the EU and U.K.-EU trade became subject to a new agreement that was concluded in December of 2020. The exit from the EU is commonly referred to as Brexit. Financial services fall outside of the scope of this trade agreement. At the time the relationship was expected to be determined by a series of "equivalence decisions," each of which would grant mutual market access for a limited subset of financial services where either party finds the other party has a regulatory regime that achieves similar outcomes to its own. It is currently unknown if or when equivalence decisions will be taken. In March 2021, the U.K. and EU agreed a Memorandum of Understanding on Financial Services Regulatory Cooperation which creates a structure for dialogue but does not include commitments on equivalence.
In light of ongoing uncertainties, market participants are still adjusting the way in which they conduct business between the U.K. and EU. The impact of Brexit on the U.K.-EU flow of financial services therefore remains unknown. This same uncertainty applies to the consequences for the and economies of the U.K. and the EU member states as a result of the U.K.'s withdrawal from the EU.continues to evolve.
We implemented plans to ensure continuity of service in Europe and continue to have regulated offices in place in many of the major European markets. As part of our ongoing Brexit strategy, ownership of BGC Madrid, Copenhagen and Frankfurt & GFI Paris, Madrid and Dublin branches was transferred to Aurel BGC SAS (a French-based operation and therefore based in the EU) in July 2020. We have been generally increasing our footprint in the EU which includes the establishment of a new branch office of Aurel BGC SAS in Milan and a new office in Monaco under a new local Monaco subsidiary.
Regardless of these and other mitigating measures, our European headquarters and largest operations are in London, and market access risks and uncertainties have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our customers, counterparties, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, in the future the U.K. and EU's regulation may diverge, which could disrupt and increase the costs of our operations, and result in a loss of existing levels of cross-border market access.
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Industry Consolidation
Over the past decade, there has been significant consolidation among the interdealer-brokers and wholesale brokers with which we compete. We expect to continue to compete with the electronic markets, post-trade and information businesses of NEX, that are part of CME now, through the various offerings on our Fenics platform. We will also continue to compete with TP ICAP and Tradition across various Voice/Hybrid brokerage marketplaces as well as via Fenics.
Additionally, there has been an increase in acquisitions of OTC trading platforms by exchanges and electronic marketplaces such as ICE buying BondPoint and TMC Bonds, Deutsche Börse buying 360T, and CBOE buying Hotspot, MarketAxess buying LiquidityEdge, Tradeweb buying Nasdaq U.S. Fixed Income Electronic Trading Platform, LSEG acquiring Quantile, etc. We view the recent consolidation in the industry favorably, as we expect it to provide additional operating leverage to our businesses in the future.
Growth Drivers
As a wholesale intermediary in the financial services industry, our businesses are driven primarily by secondary trading volumes in the markets in which we broker, the size and productivity of our front-office headcount including brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, regulatory issues, and the percentage of our revenues we are able to generate by Fully Electronic means. BGC's revenues tend to have low correlation in the short- and medium-term with global bank and broker-dealer sales and trading revenues, which reflect bid-ask spreads and mark-to-market movements, as well as industry volumes in both the primary and secondary markets.
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Below is a brief analysis of the market and industry volumes for some of our products, including our overall Hybrid and Fully Electronic execution activities.
Overall Market Volumes and Volatility
Volume is driven by a number of factors, including the level of issuance for financial instruments, price volatility of financial instruments, macro-economic conditions, creation and adoption of new products, regulatory environment, and the introduction and adoption of new trading technologies. Historically, increased price volatility has often increased the demand for hedging instruments, including many of the cash and derivative products that we broker.
Rates volumes in particular are influenced by market volumes and, in certain instances, volatility. Historically low and negative interest rates, as well as central bank quantitative easing programs, across the globe have significantly reduced the overall trading appetite for rates products. As a result of central bank policies and actions, many sovereign bonds continue to trade at or close to negative yields, especially in real terms. Also, weighing on yields and rates volumes are global central bank quantitative easing programs The programs depress Such programs have depressed rates volumes because they entail central banks buying government securities or other securities in the open market in an effort to promote increased lending and liquidity and bring down long-term interest rates. When central banks hold these instruments, they tend not to trade or hedge, thus lowering rates volumes across cash and derivatives markets industry-wide. Following the market dislocation and ongoing pandemic, major central banks such as the U.S. Federal Reserve, ECB, Bank of Japan, Bank of England, and Swiss National Bank restarted quantitative easing programs in 2020. and continue to maintain historically low interest rates keep key short-term interest rates low, or a combination of both. Recent heightened levels of inflation in 2020, meant major central banks have begun and/or expect to begin tapering asset purchases.and plan to hike interest rates, which historically has led to an increase in rates volumes.However, inflationary concerns have resulted in rising interest rates and tapering and/or unwinding of central bank asset purchases.
Management continues to expect a robust macro trading environment in 2023, leading to broad-based growth in most products BGC brokers. This improved backdrop is expected to support both BGC's Fenics and Voice / Hybrid businesses for the foreseeable future.

Additional factors have weighed on market volumes in the products we broker. For example, the Basel III accord, implemented in late 2010 by the G-20 central banks, is a global regulatory framework on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk that was developed with the intention of making banks more stable in the wake of the financial crisis by increasing bank liquidity and reducing bank leverage. The accord, which will take effect on January 1, 2023, has already required most large banks in G-20 nations to hold approximately three times as much Tier 1 capital as was required under the previous set of rules. These capital rules have made it more expensive for banks to hold non-sovereign debt assets on their balance sheets, and as a result, analysts say that banks have reduced their proprietary trading activity in corporate and asset-backed fixed income securities as well as in various other OTC cash and derivative instruments. We believe that this has further reduced overall market exposure and industry volumes in many of the products we broker, particularly in Credit.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, industry volumes were higher year-over-year across short-term Rates, Foreign Exchange, and Equities, particularly equity derivatives. Secondary trading volumes were mixed across Credit and generally lower across medium- and long-term Rates. Energy and Commodities volumes were generally down due to ongoing challenges in oil and UK and European power markets. Rates, and Energy and Commodities, mixed across Equity derivatives and cash equities and generally lower across FX and Credit. BGC's brokerage revenues, excluding Insurance, were down by 2.6% year-on-year. Below is an expanded discussion of the volume and growth drivers of our various brokerage product categories.
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Rates Volumes and Volatility
Our Rates business is influenced by a number of factors, including global sovereign issuances, interest rate, central bank policies, secondary trading and the hedging of these sovereign debt instruments. The amount of global sovereign debt outstanding remains at historically high levels; the level of secondary trading and related hedging activity was higher during 2021, as the prior year was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which led to the dislocations of traders and lower risk appetites. In addition, According to SIFMA mixed during 2022, compared to the prior year period. According to Bloomberg and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the average daily volume of various U.S. Treasuries and Treasury bills, among primary dealers was 3% higher in 2021 as compared to a year earlier. Additionally, interest rate derivative volumes were up 13% and 15% at ICE and the CME, respectively, all according to company press releases. In comparison, our revenue from Fenics Rates increased 43.7%, whileU.S. Treasuries with maturities less than three years was up 14%, while volumes for maturities six years and greater decreased by 11%. IRS volumes traded on SEF were down 39% compared to 2021, according to Clarus. In comparison, our overall Rates revenues were down 1.6% as compared to a year earlier to $549.5 million.
Our Rates revenues, like the revenues for most of our products, are not fully dependent on market volumes and, therefore, do not always fluctuate consistently with industry metrics. This is largely because our Voice, Hybrid, and Fully Electronic Rates desks often have volume discounts built into their price structure, which results in our Rates revenues being less volatile than the overall industry volumes.
Overall, analysts and economists expect the absolute level of sovereign debt outstanding to remain at elevated levels for the foreseeable future as governments finance their future deficits and roll over their sizable existing debt. Additionally, yields on benchmark U.S. Treasuries exhibited volatility during the fourth quarter of 2021 on inflation concerns and central bank tapering plans. While most economists expect that the effects of various forms of quantitative easing being undertaken by the various major central banks. will continue to negatively impact financial market volumes, The tapering 2022 on rising interest rates, inflation concerns and quantitative tightening by central banks. The tapering and/or unwinding of asset purchases by central banks, interest rate hikes, along with elevated levels of government debt issuance, are expected to provide tailwinds to our Rates business.
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FX Volumes and Volatility
Global FX volumes were generally lower during 2021. Global FX volumes were higher during 2022. Volumes for CME FX futures and options and CME EBS spot FX were up 24%, and 7%, respectively, and Refinitiv was up 2%. In comparison, revenue from our Fenics FX platforms increased 39%, while our overall FX revenues decreased by 0.5% to $299.7 million.
Insurance Brokerage
The overall Insurance brokerage business, which we sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021, included Ed Broking and Besso, as well as our aviation and space insurance brokerage business, Piiq. The pre-tax loss relating to Insurance was $53.9 million and $25.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Insurance posted total revenues of $19.9 million and $178.3 million, respectively, for both the fourth quarter and full year 2021.
Equities Volumes
Global equity volumes were higher during 2021. Research from Raymond James indicated that Global equity volumes were generally higher during 2022. According to SIFMA and the OCC, the average daily volumes of U.S. cash equities and U.S. options were up 4% and 15%, respectively, as compared to a year earlier. while average daily volume of European cash equities shares were down 6% (in notional value). Over the same timeframe, Eurex average daily volumes of equity derivatives were up 12%, while Euronext equity derivative index volumes were up 19%. BGC's equity business primarily consists of equity derivatives, particularly European equity derivatives. Our overall revenues from Equities decreased by 5.3% to $234.5 million. Our overall revenues from Equity derivatives and cash Equities decreased by 2.8% to $247.7 million.
Credit Volumes
Our Credit business is impacted by the level of global corporate bond issuance and the direction of interest rates. Global credit derivative market turnover has declined over the last few years due to the introduction of rules and regulations around the clearing of credit derivatives in the U.S. and elsewhere, along with non-uniform regulation across different geographies. In addition, many of our large bank customers continue to reduce their inventory of bonds and other credit products in order to comply with Basel III and other international financial regulations. Credit volumes were mixed during 2022. Primary dealer average daily volume for corporate bonds (excluding commercial paper) U.S. Investment Grade was up 8% and U.S. High Yield was down by 6% according to Bloomberg and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Total notional traded credit derivatives as reported by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association - a reflection of the OTC derivatives market - were down by 2%, from a year earlier. In comparison, our overall Credit revenues decreased by 5.6% to $271.4 million.
Energy and Commodities Volumes
Energy and commodities volumes were generally down during 2022 compared with the year earlier. CME and ICE energy futures and options volumes were up 16% and 7%, respectively, driven by heightened volatility across the energy markets. down 7% and 3%, respectively, as higher prices and volatility weighed on certain energy products. In comparison, BGC's energy and commodities revenues decreased by 1.6% to $291.7 million.
FINANCIAL OVERVIEW
Revenues
Our revenues are derived primarily from brokerage commissions charged for either agency or matched principal transactions, fees from related parties, fees charged for market data, analytics and post-trade products, fees from software solutions, and interest income.
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Brokerage
We earn revenues from our brokerage services on both an agency and matched principal basis. In agency transactions, we charge a commission for connecting buyers and sellers and assisting in the negotiation of the price and other material terms of the transaction. After all material terms of a transaction are agreed upon, we identify the buyer and seller to each other and leave them to settle the trade directly. Principal transaction revenues are primarily derived from matched principal transactions, whereby revenues are earned on the spread between the buy and the sell price of the brokered security, commodity or derivative. Customers either see the buy or sell price on a screen or are given this information over the phone. The brokerage fee is then added to the buy or sell price, which represents the spread we earn as principal transactions revenues. On a limited basis, we enter into unmatched principal transactions to facilitate a customer's execution needs for transactions initiated by such customers. We also provide market data products for selected financial institutions.
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We offer our brokerage services in five broad product categories: Rates, FX, Credit, Energy & commodities, Equity derivatives and cash and commodities, and Equities classes. We previously offered Insurance brokerage services; however, we sold our Insurance brokerage business to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021. The chart below details brokerage revenues by product category and by Voice/Hybrid versus Fully Electronic (in thousands):
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | For the Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| Brokerage revenue by product: | | | | | |
| Rates | $ | 558,507 | | | $ | 544,094 | | | $ | 594,884 | |
| Rates | $ | 549,503 | | | $ | 558,507 | | | $ | 544,094 | |
| FX | 301,328 | | | 315,253 | | | 370,318 | |
| FX | 299,721 | | | 301,328 | | | 315,253 | |
| Energy and commodities | 296,458 | | | 292,641 | | | 288,697 | |
| Energy and commodities | 291,665 | | | 296,458 | | | 292,641 | |
| Credit | 287,608 | | | 329,904 | | | 306,713 | |
| Credit | 271,419 | | | 287,608 | | | 329,904 | |
| Equity derivatives and cash Equities | 247,673 | | | 254,702 | | | 251,339 | |
| Equities | 234,493 | | | 247,673 | | | 254,702 | |
| Insurance | 178,087 | | | 182,707 | | | 155,790 | |
| Insurance | - | | | 178,087 | | | 182,707 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | $ | 1,869,661 | | | $ | 1,919,301 | | | $ | 1,967,741 | |1,646,801 | | | $ | 1,869,661 | | | $ | 1,919,301 | |
| Brokerage revenue by product (percentage): | | | | | |
| Rates | 33.4 | % | | 29.9 | % | | 28.3 | % |
| FX | 18.2 | | | 16.1 | | | 16.4 | |
| Energy and commodities | 15.9 | | | 15.2 | | | 14.7 | |
| Energy and commodities | 17.7 | | | 15.9 | | | 15.2 | |
| Credit | 15.4 | | | 17.2 | | | 15.6 | |
| Credit | 16.5 | | | 15.4 | | | 17.2 | |
| Equity derivatives and cash Equities | 13.2 | | | 13.3 | | | 12.8 | |
| Equities | 14.2 | | | 13.2 | | | 13.3 | |
| Insurance | - | | | 9.5 | | | 9.6 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % |
| Brokerage revenue by type: | | | | | |
| Voice/Hybrid | $ | 1,558,503 | | | $ | 1,682,521 | | | $ | 1,763,114 | |
| Voice/Hybrid | $ | 1,293,929 | | | $ | 1,558,503 | | | $ | 1,682,521 | |
| Fully Electronic | 311,158 | | | 236,780 | | | 204,627 | |
| Fully Electronic | 352,872 | | | 311,158 | | | 236,780 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | $ | 1,869,661 | | | $ | 1,919,301 | | | $ | 1,967,741 | |1,646,801 | | | $ | 1,869,661 | | | $ | 1,919,301 | |
| Brokerage revenue by type (percentage): | | | | | |
| Voice/Hybrid | 78.6 | % | | 83.4 | % | | 87.7 | % |
| Fully Electronic | 16.6 | | | 12.3 | | | 10.4 | |
| Fully Electronic | 21.4 | | | 16.6 | | | 12.3 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % |
Our position as a leading wholesale financial broker is enhanced by our Hybrid brokerage platform. We believe that the more complex, less liquid markets on which we focus often require significant amounts of personal and attentive service from our brokers. In more mature markets, we offer Fully Electronic execution capabilities to our customers through our platforms, including Fenics and BGC Trader. Our Hybrid platform allows our customers to trade on a Voice, Hybrid or, where available, Fully Electronic basis, regardless of whether the trade is OTC or exchange-based, and to benefit from the experience and market intelligence of our worldwide brokerage network. Our electronic capabilities include clearing, settlement, post-trade, and other back-office services as well as straight-through processing for our customers across several products. Furthermore, we benefit from the operational leverage in our Fully Electronic platform. We believe our Hybrid brokerage approach provides a competitive advantage over competitors who do not offer this full range of technology.
Rates
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Our Rates business is focused on government debt, futures and currency, and both listed and OTC interest rate derivatives, which are among the largest, most global and most actively traded markets. The main drivers of these markets are global macroeconomic forces such as growth, inflation, government budget policies and new issuances.
FX
The FX market is one of the largest financial markets in the world. FX transactions can either be undertaken in the spot market, in which one currency is sold and another is bought, or in the derivative market in which future settlement of the identical underlying currencies are traded. We provide full execution OTC brokerage services in most major currencies, including all G8 currencies, emerging market, cross and exotic options currencies.
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Credit
We provide our brokerage services in a wide range of credit instruments, including asset-backed securities, convertible bonds, corporate bonds, credit derivatives and high yield bonds.
Energy and Commodities
We provide brokerage services for most widely traded energy and commodities products, including futures and OTC products covering, refined and crude oil, liquid natural gas, coal, electricity, gold and other precious metals, base metals, emissions, and soft commodities. We also provide brokerage services associated with the shipping of certain energy and commodities products.
Insurance
We provided wholesale insurance and reinsurance broking solutions and underwriting services across the global marketplace, operating through the brands Ed Broking, Besso, Piiq Risk Partners and Junge, as well as the group's managing general agents Cooper Gay, Globe Underwriting and Epsilon. We sold our Insurance brokerage business on November 1, 2021 (see Note 5-"Divestitures" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information).
Equity Derivatives and Cash Equities
We provide brokerage services in a range of markets for equity products, including cash equities, equity derivatives (both listed and OTC), equity index futures and options on equity products.
Fees from Related Parties
We earn fees from related parties for technology services and software licenses and for certain administrative and back-office services we provide to affiliates, particularly from Cantor. These administrative and back-office services include office space, utilization of fixed assets, accounting services, operational support, human resources, legal services and information technology.
Data, software and post-trade
Fenics Market Data is a supplier of real-time, tradable, indicative, end-of-day and historical market data. Our market data product suite includes fixed income, interest rate derivatives, credit derivatives, FX, FX options, money markets, energy and equity derivatives and structured market data products and services. The data are sourced from the Voice/Hybrid and fully electronic broking operations, as well as the market data operations, including BGC, GFI and RP Martin, among others. It is made available to financial professionals, research analysts and other market participants via direct data feeds and BGC-hosted FTP environments, as well as via information vendors such as Bloomberg, Thomson Reuters, ICE Data Services, QUICK Corp., and other select specialist vendors.
Through our software solutions business, we provide customized software to broaden distribution capabilities and provide electronic solutions to financial market participants. The software solutions business leverages our global infrastructure, software, systems, portfolio of intellectual property, and electronic trading expertise to provide customers with electronic marketplaces and exchanges and real-time auctions to enhance debt issuance and to customize trading interfaces. We take advantage of the scalability, flexibility and functionality of our electronic trading system to enable our customers to distribute products to their customers through online offerings and auctions, including private and reverse auctions, via our trading
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platform and global network. Using screen-based market solutions, customers are able to develop a marketplace, trade with their customers, issue debt, trade odd lots, access program trading interfaces and access our network and intellectual property. We provide option pricing and analysis tools that deliver price discovery that is supported with market data sourced from both our BGC, GFI, and Fenics trading systems.
Our Capitalab NDF Match business is an advanced matching platform that helps clients offset their fixing risk in non-deliverable forward portfolios. Additionally, Capitalab provides compression services that are designed to bring greater capital and operational efficiency to the global derivatives market. It assists clients in managing the growing cost of holding derivatives, while helping them to meet their regulatory mandates. Through the Swaptioniser service for portfolio compression of Bilateral and Cleared Interest Rate Swaptions, Interest Rate Swaps, Caps and Floors and FX Products, Capitalab looks to simplify the complexities of managing large quantities of derivatives, to help promote sustainable growth, lower systemic risk and improve resiliency in the industry. Furthermore, as an approved compression services provider at LCH, a combined
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multiproduct Rates solution is provided across the entire cleared and non-cleared portfolio, increasing the overall efficiency, where delta offsets can be leveraged across Rates products and desks. Additionally, Capitalab's Initial Margin Optimization service allows participants to reduce their bilateral initial margin and CCP IM with the efficiency of automated trade processing.
Interest Income
We generate interest income primarily from the investment of our daily cash balances, interest earned on securities owned and reverse repurchase agreements. These investments and transactions are generally short-term in nature. We also earn interest income from employee loans, and we earn dividend income on certain marketable securities.
Other Revenues
We earn other revenues from various sources, including underwriting and advisory fees.
Expenses
Compensation and Employee Benefits
The majority of our operating costs consist of cash and non-cash compensation expenses, which include base salaries, broker bonuses based on broker production, guaranteed bonuses, other discretionary bonuses, and all related employee benefits and taxes. Our employees consist of brokers, salespeople, executives and other administrative support. The majority of our brokers receive a base salary and a formula bonus based primarily on a pool of brokers' production for a particular product or sales desk, as well as on the individual broker's performance. Members of our sales force receive either a base salary or a draw on commissions. Less experienced salespeople typically receive base salaries and bonuses.
As part of our compensation plans, certain employees are granted LPUs in BGC Holdings which generally receive quarterly allocations of net income, that are cash distributed on a quarterly basis and generally contingent upon services being provided by the unit holders. As prescribed in U.S. GAAP guidance, the quarterly allocations of net income on such LPUs are reflected as a component of compensation expense under "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our consolidated statements of operations.
Certain of these LPUs entitle the holders to receive post-termination payments equal to the notional amount in four equal yearly installments after the holder's termination. These limited partnership units are accounted for as post-termination liability awards under U.S. GAAP guidance, which requires that we record an expense for such awards based on the change in value at each reporting period and include the expense in our consolidated statements of operations as part of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs." The liability for LPUs with a post-termination payout amount is included in "Accrued compensation" on our consolidated statements of financial condition.
Certain LPUs are granted exchangeability or are redeemed in connection with the grant of shares of our Class A common stock on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment). At the time exchangeability or redemption is granted, the Company recognizes an expense based on the fair value of the award on that date, which is included in "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our consolidated statements of operations.
Certain LPUs have a stated vesting schedule and do not receive quarterly allocations of net income. The grant-date fair value of these LPUs is amortized to expense ratably over the awards' expected vesting periods. The non-cash equity-based amortization expense is reflected as a component of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our consolidated statements of operations.
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In addition, Preferred Units are granted in connection with the grant of certain LPUs, such as PSUs, which may be granted exchangeability or redemption in connection with the grant of shares of common stock to cover the withholding taxes owed by the unit holder upon such exchange or redemption. This is an acceptable alternative to the common practice among public companies of issuing the gross amount of shares to employees, subject to cashless withholding of shares to pay applicable withholding taxes. Each quarter, the net profits of BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings are allocated to Preferred Units at a rate of either 0.6875% (which is 2.75% per calendar year) or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation. The Preferred Distribution is deducted before the calculation and distribution of the quarterly partnership distribution for the remaining partnership interests. The Preferred Units are not entitled to participate in partnership distributions other than with respect to the Preferred Distribution. Preferred Units may not be made exchangeable into our Class A common stock and are only entitled to the Preferred Distribution, and accordingly they are not included in our fully diluted share count. The quarterly allocations of net income on Preferred Units are reflected in compensation expense under "Equity-based
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compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our consolidated statements of operations.
In addition, as part of our compensation plan, certain employees are granted RSUs. The grant-date fair value of RSUs is amortized to expense ratably over the awards' stated vesting periods. The non-cash equity-based amortization expense is reflected as a component of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our consolidated statements of operations.
We have entered into various agreements with certain of our employees and partners, whereby these individuals receive loans which may be either wholly or in part repaid from the distribution earnings that the individual receives on some or all of their LPUs and from proceeds of the sale of the employees' shares of BGC Class A common stock, or may be forgiven over a period of time. The forgivable portion of these loans is recognized as compensation expense over the life of the loan. From time to time, we may also enter into agreements with employees and partners to grant bonus and salary advances or other types of loans. These advances and loans are repayable in the timeframes outlined in the underlying agreements.
In addition, we also enter into deferred compensation agreements with employees providing services to us. The costs associated with such plans are generally amortized over the period in which they vest. See Note 18-"Compensation" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
Other Operating Expenses
We have various other operating expenses. We incur leasing, equipment and maintenance expenses for our businesses worldwide. We also incur selling and promotion expenses, which include entertainment, marketing and travel-related expenses. We incur communication expenses for voice and data connections with our clients, clearing agents and general usage; professional and consulting fees for legal, audit and other special projects; and interest expense related to short-term operational funding needs, and notes payable and collateralized borrowings.
Primarily in the U.S., we pay fees to Cantor for performing certain administrative and other support services, including charges for occupancy of office space, utilization of fixed assets and accounting, operations, human resources, legal services and technology infrastructure support. Management believes that these charges are a reasonable reflection of the utilization of services rendered. However, the expenses for these services are not necessarily indicative of the expenses that would have been incurred if we had not obtained these services from Cantor. In addition, these charges may not reflect the costs of services we may receive from Cantor in the future. We incur commissions and floor brokerage fees for clearing, brokerage and other transactional expenses for clearing and settlement services. We also incur various other normal operating expenses.
Other Income (Losses), Net
Gain (Loss) on Divestiture and Sale of Investments
Gain (loss) on divestiture and sale of investments represents the gain or loss we recognize for the divestiture or sale of our investments.
Gains (Losses) on Equity Method Investments
Gains (losses) on equity method investments represent our pro-rata share of the net gains (losses) on investments over which we have significant influence but which we do not control.
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Other Income (Loss)
Other Income (loss) is primarily comprised of gains or losses related to fair value adjustments on investments carried under the alternative method. Other Income (loss) also includes realized and unrealized gains or losses related to sales and mark-to-market adjustments on Marketable securities and any related hedging transactions when applicable. Acquisition-related fair value adjustments of contingent consideration and miscellaneous recoveries are also included in Other Income (loss).
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
We incur income tax expenses or benefit based on the location, legal structure and jurisdictional taxing authorities of each of our subsidiaries. Certain of the Company's entities are taxed as U.S. partnerships and are subject to the UBT in New York City. U.S. federal and state income tax liability or benefit related to the partnership income or loss, with the exception of UBT, rests with the partners (see Note 2-"Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings" in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for discussion of partnership interests), rather than the partnership entity. The Company's consolidated financial statements include
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U.S. federal, state and local income taxes on the Company's allocable share of the U.S. results of operations. Outside of the U.S., we operate principally through subsidiary corporations subject to local income taxes.
REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
See "Regulation" in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our regulatory environment.
LIQUIDITY
See "Liquidity and Capital Resources" herein for information related to our liquidity and capital resources.
HIRING AND ACQUISITIONS
Key drivers of our revenue are front-office producer headcount and average revenue per producer. We believe that our strong technology platform and unique compensation structure have enabled us to use both acquisitions and recruiting to profitably grow at a faster rate than our largest competitors since our formation in 2004. We reduced front office headcount with a focus on underperforming or less profitable brokers, which helped improve our average revenue per producer.
We have invested significantly through acquisitions and the hiring of new brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel. The business climate for these acquisitions has been competitive, and it is expected that these conditions will persist for the foreseeable future. We have been able to attract businesses and brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel to our platform as we believe they recognize that we have the scale, technology, experience and expertise to succeed.
Our average revenue per front-office employee has historically declined year-over-year for the period immediately following significant headcount increases, and the additional brokers and salespeople generally achieve significantly higher productivity levels in their second or third year with the Company. Excluding Insurance brokerage, As of December 31, 2022, our front-office headcount was 1,985 brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, down 6.0% from 2,100 a year ago. Compared to the prior year, average revenue per front-office employee for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by 6.1% to $861 thousand from $811 thousand compared to the prior period.
The laws and regulations passed or proposed on both sides of the Atlantic concerning OTC trading seem likely to favor increased use of technology by all market participants, and are likely to accelerate the adoption of both Hybrid and Fully Electronic execution. We believe these developments will favor the larger inter-dealer brokers over smaller, non-public local competitors, as the smaller players generally do not have the financial resources to invest the necessary amounts in technology. We believe this will lead to further consolidation across the wholesale financial brokerage industry, and thus allow us to grow profitably.
Since 2020, our acquisitions have included Ed Broking, Ginga Petroleum, Algomi and the Futures Exchange Group.
On July 30, 2021, we completed the purchase of the Futures Exchange Group from Cantor, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse.
On March 6, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Algomi, a software company operating under a SaaS model that provides technology to bond market participants to improve their workflow and liquidity by data aggregation, pre-trade information analysis and execution facilitation.
On March 12, 2019, we completed the acquisition of Ginga Petroleum. Ginga Petroleum provides a comprehensive range of broking services for physical and derivative energy products, including naphtha, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel oil, biofuels, middle distillates, petrochemicals and gasoline.
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On January 31, 2019, we completed the acquisition of Ed Broking, an independent Lloyd's of London insurance broker with a strong reputation across accident and health, aerospace, cargo, energy, financial and political risks, marine, professional and executive risks, property and casualty, specialty and reinsurance. Ed Broking became part of the overall Insurance brokerage business and was subsequently sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 as part of the Insurance Business Disposition.
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FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS
For the year ended December 31, 2021:Full year 2022 compared to full year 2021:
Income from operations before income taxes increased by $104.3 million or 144.4%, to $176.5 million compared to the prior year period.primarily due to a $312.9 million gain on the sale of the Insurance brokerage business in the fourth quarter of 2021. Total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021 decreased
was $97.5 million compared to $176.5 million in the prior year period.
Total revenues decreased $220.1 million, or 10.9%, to $1,795.3 million. This decrease was largely as a result of
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$41.4 million, or 2.0%, to $2,015.4 million. compared to the prior year period. The first quarter of 2020 was unique in that it reflected record market volatility and volumes driven by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We continued to make excellent progress This year with respect to our investments in Fenics. Our Fenics growth accelerated during the year ended December 31, 2021, with revenues increasing by 25.9%, to $401.3 million and represented a record 21.8% of our total revenues, excluding the Insurance brokerage business, increasing from 17.0% for the year ended December 31, 2020. The growth in our Fenics platforms continued to significantly outpace the overall business as we added new clients and expanded our product offerings. As we continue to grow our higher margin businesses, we are well positioned for increased profitability.
Brokerage revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021 decreased by $49.6 million, or 2.6%, to $1,869.7 million compared to the prior year period, which was primarily driven by Credit revenues, which decreased by $42.3 million, to $287.6 million, for the year ended December 31, 2021, due to significantly lower industry-wide trading volumes. For the year ended December 31, 2021, our FX revenues decreased $13.9 million, to $301.3 million, and revenues from Equity derivatives and cash equities decreased by $7.0 million, to $247.7 million. The Insurance brokerage business revenues decreased by $4.6 million, or 2.5%, to $178.1 million, for the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, Rates revenues increased by $14.4 million, to $558.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the prior year period. driven by favorable trading environment across many of the Rates products BGC brokers, and revenues, from Energy and commodities increased by $3.8 million, to $296.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, led by BGC's leading environmental brokerage business, and heightened volatility across the energy complex. Revenues in our Fenics business increased 25.9% to $401.3 million, for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to the prior year period, driven by strong growth across both Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms.which generated $178.3 million in revenues in the prior year period. Brokerage revenues, excluding the Insurance brokerage business, decreased $44.8 million, or 2.6%, to $1,646.8 million, which was driven by a decrease across all products.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2021, BGC categorized its Fenics businesses as Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms. Fenics Markets includes the Fully Electronic portions of BGC's brokerage businesses, data, software and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues. Fenics Growth Platforms includes Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX and other newer standalone platforms. Revenues generated from data, software and post-trade attributable to Fenics Growth Platforms are included within their related businesses. Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms compete with companies such as CME, Tradeweb and MarketAxess. Fenics Markets revenues comprised $355.8 million, an improvement of $65.5 million, or 22.6%, which reflected higher conversion of Voice and Hybrid execution to Fenics brokerage, increased contribution from Fenics Integrated, and strong growth across Rates, FX and Market Data. Fenics Growth Platforms revenues comprised $45.5 million, an increase of $17.1 million, or 60.2%, driven by strong growth in Fenics UST, Lucera and Fenics GO. During the second quarter of 2020, we introduced Fenics Integrated, which seamlessly integrates hybrid liquidity with customer electronic orders. We believe that Fenics Integrated will enhance profit margins by further incentivizing the Company's brokers and clients to automate execution. We believe that Fenics Integrated will create superior real-time information, improving the robustness and value of Fenics Market Data, which will accelerate our growth. As we expand our product offerings, optimize our commercial agreements, and add new clients across our electronic platforms, we continue to expect profitability in our newer Fenics Growth Platforms, which includes Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX and other newer standalone platforms. During the quarter we announced FMX, which combines Fenics UST's leading U.S. Treasury business with a state-of-the-art U.S. Rates futures platform in development. Following the announcement and consultation with our global clients and strategic partners, FMX will expand the scope of its futures product offering to cover the entire U.S. Rates Futures complex. This includes launching U.S. Treasury, Eurodollar, and SOFR futures contracts, concurrently, in the fourth quarter of 2022.
Total expenses for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $186.7 million, to $2,178.2 Total expenses decreased $461.1 million, or 21.2%, to $1,717.1 million compared to the prior year period, primarily driven by a $211.4 million increase in total compensation expenses, Within total compensation, our Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs increased by $72.6 million due to an increase in charges related to grants of exchangeability and issuance of shares of BGC Class A common stock, while expenses for Compensation and employee benefits increased by $138.8 million, primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage businessdue to a $423.3 million decrease in total compensation expenses, primarily driven by the sale of the Insurance business during the fourth quarter of 2021, which included one-off compensation charges and sale-related expenses totaling $168.6 million. The majority of which was non-cash, partially offset by the impact of lower commission revenues on variable compensation. Our non-compensation expenses decreased by $24.7 million, or 3.7%, primarily driven by a continued focus on tighter cost management as well as the impact of COVID-19, including lower occupancy and equipment expenses and reduced professional and consulting fees. There was also a decrease in other expenses related to a decrease in amortization expense on intangible assets, a decrease in other provisions, and a decrease in expenses $37.8 million decrease in non-compensation expenses was primarily driven by lower occupancy and equipment expense primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business, partially offset by an increase in legal settlement and litigation costs, as well as an increase related to Charity Day contributions. Further, there was a decrease in interest expense related to the 5.125% Senior Notes which were repaid in May 2021, lower interest expense, related to the borrowings on the Revolving Credit Agreement, partially offset by interest expense related to the 4.375% Senior Notes issued in July 2020.lower interest expense due to the repayment in full of the 5.125% Senior Notes on May 27, 2021, as well as lower communications expense, and lower commissions and floor brokerage expense which was primarily due to lower revenues. These expense reductions were partially offset by higher selling and promotion charges, as COVID-19 restrictions have relaxed across many of the major geographies in which we operate, as well as an increase in other expenses which was primarily driven by reserves recorded in the year ended December 31, 2022 for potential losses associated with Russia's Invasion of Ukraine, and an increase in settlements and other provisions.
Total other income (losses), net for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased $332.4 million, to $339.4 million decreased $320.1 million, or 94.3%, to $19.3 compared to the prior year period, primarily related to a $312.9 million gain on the sale of the Insurance brokerage business in the fourth quarter of 2021, a decrease related to mark-to-market movements on other assets, and a decrease related to income from other recoveries, partially offset by
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resolution in the first quarter of 2021, an increase due to an impairment of an equity-method investment recorded in the first quarter of 2020 compared to no impairment recorded in the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase in other recoveries, related to a settlement recognized in the fourth quarter of 2021, an increase related to gains on equity method investments.and an increase related to fair value adjustments on investments held recorded in the year ended December 31, 2020, partially offset by a decrease related to COVID-19 recoveries in the year ended December 31, 2020.
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On February 15, 2022, our Board declared a 0.01 dividend for the fourth quarter. Effective with the first quarter of 2020 dividend, and for all quarterly periods in 2020 and 2021, the Board reduced the quarterly dividend out of an abundance of caution in order to strengthen the Company's balance sheet as the global capital markets faced difficult and unprecedented macroeconomic conditions related to the global pandemic. Additionally, BGC Holdings continues to have reduced distributions to or on behalf of its partners. The distributions to or on behalf of partners will at least cover their related tax payments. Whether any given post-tax amount is equivalent to the amount received by a stockholder also on an after-tax basis depends upon stockholders' and partners' domiciles and tax status. BGC believes that these steps will allow the Company to prioritize its financial strength. Our 2022 capital allocation priorities are to use the remaining proceeds from the Insurance Business Disposition and other sources of liquidity to return capital to stockholders and to continue investing in its high growth Fenics businesses. We plan to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions.
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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated (in thousands):
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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| | Actual | | Percentage | | Actual | | Percentage | | Actual | | Percentage |
| | Results | | of Total | | Results | | of Total | | Results | | of Total |
| | | | Revenues | | | | Revenues | | | | Revenues |
| Revenues: | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Commissions | $ | 1,541,900 | | | 76.5 | % | | $ | 1,567,668 | | | 76.2 | % | | $ | 1,645,818 | | | 78.2 | % |
| Commissions | $ | 1,281,294 | | | 71.4 | % | | $ | 1,541,900 | | | 76.5 | % | | $ | 1,567,668 | | | 76.2 | % |
| Principal transactions | 327,761 | | | 16.3 | | | 351,633 | | | 17.1 | | | 321,923 | | | 15.3 | |
| Principal transactions | 365,507 | | | 20.3 | | | 327,761 | | | 16.3 | | | 351,633 | | | 17.1 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 1,869,661 | | | 92.8 | | | 1,919,301 | | | 93.3 | | | 1,967,741 | | | 93.5 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 1,646,801 | | | 91.7 | | | 1,869,661 | | | 92.8 | | | 1,919,301 | | | 93.3 | |
| Fees from related parties | 14,856 | | | 0.7 | | | 25,754 | | | 1.3 | | | 29,442 | | | 1.4 | |
| Fees from related parties | 14,734 | | | 0.8 | | | 14,856 | | | 0.7 | | | 25,754 | | | 1.3 | |
| Data, software and post-trade | 89,963 | | | 4.5 | | | 81,920 | | | 4.0 | | | 73,166 | | | 3.5 | |96,389 | | | 5.4 | | | 89,963 | | | 4.5 | | | 81,920 | | | 4.0 | |
| Interest and dividend income | 21,977 | | | 1.1 | | | 12,332 | | | 0.6 | | | 18,319 | | | 0.9 | |21,007 | | | 1.2 | | | 21,977 | | | 1.1 | | | 12,332 | | | 0.6 | |
| Other revenues | 16,371 | | | 0.9 | | | 17,454 | | | 0.8 | | | 15,938 | | | 0.7 | |18,907 | | | 0.9 | | | 17,454 | | | 0.8 | |
| Total revenues | 1,795,302 | | | 100.0 | | | 2,015,364 | | | 100.0 | | | 2,056,761 | | | 100.0 | |
| Expenses: | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Compensation and employee benefits | 1,271,340 | | | 63.1 | | | 1,132,557 | | | 55.1 | | | 1,127,041 | | | 53.6 | |853,165 | | | 47.5 | | | 1,271,340 | | | 63.1 | | | 1,132,557 | | | 55.1 | |
| Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs¹ | 256,164 | | | 12.7 | | | 183,545 | | | 8.9 | | | 170,625 | | | 8.1 | |251,071 | | | 14.0 | | | 256,164 | | | 12.7 | | | 183,545 | | | 8.9 | |
| Total compensation and employee benefits | 1,527,504 | | | 75.8 | | | 1,316,102 | | | 64.0 | | | 1,297,666 | | | 61.7 | |1,104,236 | | | 61.5 | | | 1,527,504 | | | 75.8 | | | 1,316,102 | | | 64.0 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 188,322 | | | 9.3 | | | 192,837 | | | 9.4 | | | 186,111 | | | 8.8 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 157,491 | | | 8.8 | | | 188,322 | | | 9.3 | | | 192,837 | | | 9.4 | |
| Fees to related parties | 24,030 | | | 1.2 | | | 23,618 | | | 1.1 | | | 19,778 | | | 0.9 | |
| Fees to related parties | 25,662 | | | 1.4 | | | 24,030 | | | 1.2 | | | 23,618 | | | 1.1 | |
| Professional and consulting fees | 67,884 | | | 3.4 | | | 74,072 | | | 3.6 | | | 93,071 | | | 4.4 | |68,775 | | | 3.8 | | | 67,884 | | | 3.4 | | | 74,072 | | | 3.6 | |
| Communications | 117,502 | | | 5.8 | | | 121,646 | | | 5.9 | | | 120,037 | | | 5.7 | |
| Communications | 108,096 | | | 6.0 | | | 117,502 | | | 5.8 | | | 121,646 | | | 5.9 | |
| Selling and promotion | 38,048 | | | 1.9 | | | 38,234 | | | 1.9 | | | 81,829 | | | 3.9 | |
| Selling and promotion | 49,215 | | | 2.7 | | | 38,048 | | | 1.9 | | | 38,234 | | | 1.9 | |
| Commissions and floor brokerage | 58,277 | | | 3.3 | | | 64,708 | | | 3.2 | | | 59,376 | | | 2.9 | |
| Interest expense | 57,932 | | | 3.2 | |
| 63,617 | | | 3.0 | |
| Interest expense
| 69,329 | | | 3.5 | | | 76,607 | | | 3.7 | |
| Other expenses | 87,431 | | | 4.9 | |
| 60,246 | | | 2.9 | |
| Other expenses
| 80,888 | | | 4.0 | | | 89,045 | | | 4.3 | |
| Total expenses | 1,717,115 | | | 95.6 | |
| 118,671 | | | 5.7 | |
| Total expenses
| 2,178,215 | | | 108.1 | | | 1,991,537 | | | 96.8 | || 2,041,026 | | | 97.0 | |
| Other income (losses), net: | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Gains (losses) on divestitures and | 312,941 | | | 15.5 | | | 394 | | | 0.0 | | | 18,421 | | | 0.9 | |(1,029) | | | (0.1) | | | 312,941 | | | 15.5 | | | 394 | | | 0.0 | |
| sale of investments | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Gains (losses) on equity method investments | 6,706 | | | 0.3 | | | 5,023 | | | 0.2 | | | 4,115 | | | 0.2 | |10,920 | | | 0.7 | | | 6,706 | | | 0.3 | | | 5,023 | | | 0.2 | |
| Other income (loss) | 19,705 | | | 1.0 | | | 1,580 | | | 0.1 | | | 30,511 | | | 1.4 | |
| Other income (loss) | 9,373 | | | 0.5 | | | 19,705 | | | 1.0 | | | 1,580 | | | 0.1 | |
| Total other income (losses), net | 339,352 | | | 16.8 | | | 6,997 | | | 0.3 | | | 53,047 | | | 2.5 | |19,264 | | | 1.1 | | | 339,352 | | | 16.8 | | | 6,997 | | | 0.3 | |
| Income (loss) from operations before income taxes | 176,501 | | | 8.7 | | | 72,221 | | | 3.5 | | | 116,627 | | | 5.5 | |97,451 | | | 5.5 | | | 176,501 | | | 8.7 | | | 72,221 | | | 3.5 | |
| Provision (benefit) for income taxes | 23,013 | | | 1.1 | | | 21,303 | | | 1.0 | | | 49,811 | | | 2.3 | |38,584 | | | 2.2 | | | 23,013 | | | 1.1 | | | 21,303 | | | 1.0 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | $ | 153,488 | | | 7.6 | % | | $ | 50,918 | | | 2.5 | % | | $ | 66,816 | | | 3.2 | % |58,867 | | | 3.3 | % | | $ | 153,488 | | | 7.6 | % | | $ | 50,918 | | | 2.5 | % |
| Less: Net income (loss) operations attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries | 29,481 | | | 1.4 | | | 5,856 | | | 0.3 | | | 22,915 | | | 1.1 | |10,155 | | | 0.6 | | | 29,481 | | | 1.4 | | | 5,856 | | | 0.3 | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | $ | 124,007 | | | 6.2 | % | | $ | 45,062 | | | 2.2 | % | | $ | 43,901 | | | 2.1 | % |48,712 | | | 2.7 | % | | $ | 124,007 | | | 6.2 | % | | $ | 45,062 | | | 2.2 | % |
________________________
1The components of Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs are as follows (in thousands):
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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| | Actual | | Percentage | | Actual | | Percentage | | Actual | | Percentage |
| | Results | | of Total | | Results | | of Total | | Results | | of Total |
| | | | Revenues | | | | Revenues | | | | Revenues |
| Issuance of common stock and grants of exchangeability | $ | 128,107 | | | 6.4 | % | | $ | 84,966 | | | 4.1 | % | | $ | 100,948 | | | 4.8 | % |147,480 | | | 8.2 | % | | $ | 128,107 | | | 6.4 | % | | $ | 84,966 | | | 4.1 | % |
| Allocations of net income | 13,298 | | | 0.8 | | | 34,335 | | | 1.7 | | | 14,006 | | | 0.7 | |
| LPU amortization | 73,734 | | | 4.1 | |
| 20,491 | | | 1.0 | |
| LPU amortization
| 78,596 | | | 3.9 | | | 74,282 | | | 3.6 | |
| RSU amortization | 16,559 | | | 0.9 | |
| 41,721 | | | 2.0 | |
| RSU amortization
| 15,126 | | | 0.7 | | | 10,291 | | | 0.5 | | | 7,465 | | | 0.3 | |
| Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs | $ | 256,164 | | | 12.7 | % | | $ | 183,545 | | | 8.9 | % | | $ | 170,625 | | | 8.1 | % |251,071 | | | 14.0 | % | | $ | 256,164 | | | 12.7 | % | | $ | 183,545 | | | 8.9 | % |
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021
Revenues
Brokerage Revenues
Total brokerage revenues decreased by $222.9 million, or 11.9%, to $1,646.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, and FX headwinds. Commission revenues decreased by $260.6 million, or 16.9%, to $1,281.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Principal transactions revenues decreased by $23.9 million, or 6.8%, to $327.8 increased by $37.7 million, or 11.5%, to $365.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.
The decrease in total brokerage revenues was primarily driven by decreases in Credit, FX, Equity derivatives and cash equities, and Insurance partially offset by an increase in revenues from Rates, and Energy and commodities.
We had no brokerage revenues from Insurance in the year ended December 31, 2022 as a result of the sale during the fourth quarter of 2021, compared to $178.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Our Credit revenues decreased by $42.3 million, or 12.8%, to $287.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was mainly due to lower industry wide volumes.
Our FX revenues decreased by $13.9 million, or 4.4%, to $301.3 Our Credit revenues decreased by $16.2 million, or 5.6%, to $271.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower industry volumes.2021. This was primarily driven by lower activity across structured products and FX headwinds.
Our brokerage revenues from Equity derivatives and cash Equities decreased by $7.0 million, or 2.8%, to $247.7 Our brokerage revenues from Equities decreased by $13.2 million, or 5.3%, to $234.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower volumes across European equity derivatives.2021, primarily driven by FX headwinds and lower volumes due to market volatility in the year ended December 31, 2022.
Our brokerage revenues from Insurance decreased by $4.6 million, or 2.5%, to $178.1 Our brokerage revenues from Rates decreased by $9.0 million, or 1.6%, to $549.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business on November 1, 2021.2021. The decrease in Rates revenue was primarily driven by FX headwinds, challenging market conditions across medium-term Rates products and lower market volumes.
Our brokerage revenues from Rates increased by $14.4 million, or 2.6%, to $558.5 Our brokerage revenues from Energy and commodities decreased by $4.8 million, or 1.6%, to $291.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in Rates revenues was primarily driven by improved activity across U.S. government bonds, inflation products, listed rates, and emerging market rates.2021, which was primarily led by lower volumes across global oil trading as higher prices and volatility weighed on certain energy products, such as gas, oil, and base metals.
Our brokerage revenues from Energy and commodities increased by $3.8 million, or 1.3%, to $296.5 Our FX revenues decreased by $1.6 million, or 0.5%, to $299.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by BGC's leading environmental brokerage business and heightened volatility across the energy complex.2021.
Fees from Related Parties
Fees from related parties decreased by $0.1 million, or 0.8% to $14.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This was primarily driven by a decrease in technology service revenues in connection with services provided to Cantor.2021.
Data, Software and Post-Trade
Data, software and post-trade revenues increased by $6.4 million, or 7.1%, to $96.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was primarily driven by new business contracts in Fenics Market Data and Lucera expanding its client base, partially offset by a decrease in revenues from post-trade services.
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Interest and Dividend Income
Interest and dividend income increased by $9.6 million, or 78.2%, to $22.0 Interest and dividend income decreased by $1.0 million, or 4.4%, to $21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by an increase 2021. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in dividend income and lower interest income earned on employee loans, partially offset by an increase in interest income on government bonds and bank deposits driven by higher interest rates.
Other Revenues
Other revenues increased by $1.5 million, or 8.3% to $18.9 Other revenues decreased by $2.5 million, or 13.4% to $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in revenues from underwriting fees, partially offset by a decrease in both consulting and sublease income for Poten & Partners.2021. This was primarily driven by a decrease in revenues from underwriting fees and placement fees, partially offset by an increase in consulting income for Poten & Partners.
Expenses
Compensation and Employee Benefits
Compensation and employee benefits expense increased by $138.8 million, or 12.3%, to $1,271.3 decreased by $418.2 million, or 32.9%, to $853.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. The primary driver of the decrease was due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, which included one-off compensation charges and sale-related expenses totaling $168.6 million, the majority of which was non-cash, partially offset by the impact of as well as lower commission revenues on variable compensation, increased automation related to the transition to Fully Electronic brokerage services, and the positive FX impact on our U.K. and European operations.
Equity-Based Compensation and Allocations of Net Income to Limited Partnership Units and FPUs
Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs increased by $72.6 million, or 39.6%, to $256.2 decreased by $5.1 million, or 2.0%, to $251.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This was driven by a decrease in allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs and a decrease in LPU amortization expense, partially offset by an increase in grants of exchangeability and issuance of Class A common stock.and an increase in allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs due to the gain on sale of the Insurance brokerage business.
Occupancy and Equipment
Occupancy and equipment expense decreased by $30.8 million, or 16.4%, to $157.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in rent and occupancy expenses.software licenses and maintenance, and decreases in office and utilities expenses, partially offset by an increase in fixed asset impairments and an increase in amortization expense on developed software.due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, as well as a decrease in other rent and occupancy expenses.
Fees to Related Parties
Fees to related parties increased by $1.6 million, or 6.8%, to $25.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Fees to related parties are allocations paid to Cantor for administrative and support services, such as accounting, occupancy, and legal.
Professional and Consulting Fees
Professional and consulting fees decreased by $6.2 million, or 8.4%, to $67.9 increased by $0.9 million, or 1.3%, to $68.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in 2021, primarily driven by an increase in legal and consulting fees, partially offset by a decrease related to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021.
Communications
Communications expense decreased by $9.4 million, or 8.0%, to $108.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. As a percentage of total revenues, communications.expense remained relatively unchanged from the prior year period.2021, which was primarily driven by decreases in various terminal and line service costs across market data and communications.
Selling and Promotion
Selling and promotion expense decreased by $0.2 million, or 0.5%, to $38.0 Selling and promotion expense increased by $11.2 million, or 29.3%, to $49.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, as COVID-19 restrictions have relaxed across many of the major geographies in which BGC operates.
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Commissions and Floor Brokerage
Commissions and floor brokerage expense increased by $5.3 million, or 9.0%, to $64.7 decreased by $6.4 million, or 9.9%, to $58.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by higher exchange fees in the year ended December 31, 2021. and an increase in trades executed compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. 2021. Commissions and floor brokerage expense tends to move in line with brokerage revenues.
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased by $7.3 million, or 9.5%, to $69.3 Interest expense decreased by $11.4 million, or 16.4%, to $57.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower interest expense related to 2021, primarily driven by the fact that the 5.125% Senior Notes which were repaid in May 2021, a decrease in interest expense related to the borrowings on the Revolving Credit Agreement, partially offset by interest expense related to the 4.375% Senior Notes issued in July 2020.and a decrease in interest expense due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021.
Other Expenses
Other expenses decreased by $8.2 million, or 9.2%, to $80.9 Other expenses increased by $6.5 million, or 8.1%, to $87.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021, which was primarily related to a decrease in amortization expense on intangible assets, a decrease in other provisions, and an increase in legal settlements, reserves recorded in the year ended December 31, 2022 for potential losses associated with Russia's Invasion of Ukraine, an increase in other provisions, and an increase in revaluation expense. This was partially offset by a decrease in expenses related to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, partially offset by an increase in settlements and an increase related to a decrease in amortization expense on intangible assets and a decrease in Charity Day contributions expense.
Other Income (Losses), Net
Gains (Losses) on Divestitures and Sale of Investments
For the year ended December 31, 2022 we had a loss of $1.0 million on divestitures. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we had a gain of $312.9 million as a result of the sale of the Insurance brokerage business.For the year ended December 31, 2020, we had a gain of $394 thousand on divestitures.
Gains (Losses) on Equity Method Investments
Gains (losses) on equity method investments increased by $4.2 million, to a gain of $10.9 million, for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to a gain of $6.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Gains (losses) on equity method investments represent our pro-rata share of the net gains or losses on investments over which we have significant influence, but which we do not control.2021.
Other Income (Loss)
Other income (loss) increased by $18.1 million, to $19.7 Other income (loss) decreased by $10.3 million, or 52.4%, to $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This was primarily driven by an increase 2021, primarily driven by a decrease related to mark-to-market movements on other assets a gain recognized on a litigation resolution during the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase due to an impairment of an equity method investment recorded in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to no impairment recorded in the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase in recoveries related to a settlement recognized in the fourth quarter of 2021, and and investments, and no income for the year ended December 31, 2022 related to the Insurance brokerage business due to the sale in the fourth quarter of 2021, partially offset by an increase related to fair value adjustments on investments carried under the measurement alternative. These increases were partially offset by a decrease related to COVID-19 recoveries in the year ended December 31, 2020.acquisition earn-outs.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
Provision (benefit) for income taxes increased by $15.6 million, or 67.7%, to $38.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily driven by: an increase in both pre-tax earnings and the ownership interest in the operating partnership, partially offset by the (i) the non-recurring nontaxable gain on the 2021 disposition of the Insurance brokerage business; as well as the release of historical tax positions related to periods for which the statute of limitations has expired. in addition, the (ii) a benefit in the prior year from the revaluation of deferred taxes due to enacted rate changes in the U.K. and the ownership interest change in the operating partnership; and (iii) a change in the geographical and business mix of earnings, which can impact our consolidated effective tax rate from period-to-period.
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest in Subsidiaries
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries decreased by $19.3 million, or 65.6%, to $10.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021.
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Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020
Revenues
Brokerage Revenues
Total brokerage revenues decreased by $49.6 million, or 2.6%, to $1,869.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. Commission revenues decreased by $25.8 million, or 1.6%, to $1,541.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. Principal transactions revenues increased by $29.7 million, or 9.2%, to $351.6 decreased by $23.9 million, or 6.8%, to $327.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020.
The decrease in total brokerage revenues was primarily driven by decreases in Credit, FX, Equities, and Insurance, partially offset by an increase in revenues from Insurance, Credit, Energy and commodities.and Equity derivatives and cash equities.Rates, and Energy and commodities.
Our FX revenues decreased by $55.1 million, or 14.9%, to $315.3 Our Credit revenues decreased by $42.3 million, or 12.8%, to $287.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was mainly due to lower industry wide volumes. 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower industry volumes.due to quantitative easing undertaken by several major central banks and uniformly lower global interest rates.
Our brokerage revenues from Rates decreased by $50.8 million, or 8.5%, to $544.1 Our FX revenues decreased by $13.9 million, or 4.4%, to $301.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower industry volumes.in certain markets due to quantitative easing undertaken by several major central banks and uniformly lower global interest rates.
Our brokerage revenues from Insurance increased by $26.9 million, or 17.3%, to $182.7 Our brokerage revenues from Equities decreased by $7.0 million, or 2.8%, to $247.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower volumes across European equity derivatives. 2020. This increase was primarily due to organic growth, as previously hired brokers and salespeople ramped up production and benefited from favorable pricing trends for insurance renewals.
Our Credit revenues increased by $23.2 million, or 7.6%, to $329.9 Our brokerage revenues from Insurance decreased by $4.6 million, or 2.5%, to $178.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business on November 1, 2021. 2020. This increase was mainly due to greater trading volumes.
Our brokerage revenues from Energy and commodities increased by $3.9 million, or 1.4%, to $292.6 Our brokerage revenues from Rates increased by $14.4 million, or 2.6%, to $558.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in Rates revenues was primarily driven by improved activity across U.S. government bonds, inflation products, listed rates, and emerging market rates. 2020. This increase was primarily driven by organic growth.
Our brokerage revenues from equity derivatives and cash equities Our brokerage revenues from Energy and commodities increased by $3.8 million, or 1.3%, to $296.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by BGC's leading environmental brokerage business and heightened volatility across the energy complex. 2020. This was primarily driven by organic growth.
Fees from Related Parties
Fees from related parties decreased by $10.9 million, or 42.3% to $14.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This was primarily driven by a decrease in technology service revenues in connection with services provided to Cantor.
Data, Software and Post-Trade
Data, software and post-trade revenues increased by $8.0 million, or 9.8%, to $90.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by Lucera's Connect platform winning new SaaS client contracts the acquisition of Algomi, as well as an increase in revenues from post-trade services.new business contracts and Lucera expanding its client base.
Interest and Dividend Income
Interest and dividend income decreased by $6.0 million, or 32.7%, to $12.3 Interest and dividend income increased by $9.6 million, or 78.2%, to $22.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in dividend income and lower interest earned on deposits.2020. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in dividend income and higher interest income earned on employee loans.
Other Revenues
Other revenues increased by $1.5 million, or 8.3% to $18.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in revenues from underwriting fees, partially offset by a decrease in both consulting and sublease income for Poten & Partners.
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Expenses
Compensation and Employee Benefits
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Compensation and employee benefits expense increased by $138.8 million, or 12.3%, to $1,271.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. The main drivers of This increase were costs associated with the implementation of a cost reduction program designed to reduce future expenses and streamline operations, 2020. This increase was primarily due to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business, which included one-off compensation charges and sale related expenses totaling $168.6 million, the majority of which was non-cash, partially offset by the impact of lower commission revenues on variable compensation.
Equity-Based Compensation and Allocations of Net Income to Limited Partnership Units and FPUs
Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs increased by $72.6 million, or 39.6%, to $256.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This was primarily driven by an increase in grants of exchangeability and issuance of Class A common stock and an increase in allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs due to the gain on sale of the Insurance brokerage business.
Occupancy and Equipment
Occupancy and equipment expense increased by $6.7 million, or 3.6%, to $192.8 Occupancy and equipment expense decreased by $4.5 million, or 2.3%, to $188.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This increase was primarily driven by higher software license costs, amortization expense on developed software, and fixed asset impairments. This was partially offset by a decrease in rent expense related to the build-out phase of BGC's new U.K. - based headquarters in the prior year period.2020. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in rent and occupancy expenses, software licenses and maintenance, and decreases in office and utilities expenses, partially offset by an increase in fixed asset impairments and an increase in amortization expense on developed software.
Fees to Related Parties
Fees to related parties increased by $0.4 million, or 1.7%, to $24.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. Fees to related parties are allocations paid to Cantor for administrative and support services.such as accounting, occupancy, and legal.
Professional and Consulting Fees
Professional and consulting fees decreased by $6.2 million, or 8.4%, to $67.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by a decrease in consulting fees, partially offset by an increase in legal fees.
Communications
Communications expense increased by $1.6 million, or 1.3%, to $121.6 Communications expense decreased by $4.1 million, or 3.4%, to $117.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. As a percentage of total revenues, communications expense remained relatively unchanged from the prior year period.
Selling and Promotion
Selling and promotion expense decreased by $0.2 million, or 0.5%, to $38.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily a result of a reduction in travel and entertainment expenses due to a continued focus on tighter cost management as well as the impact of COVID-19.2020.
Commissions and Floor Brokerage
Commissions and floor brokerage expense decreased by $4.2 million, or 6.7%, to $59.4 increased by $5.3 million, or 9.0%, to $64.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. Commissions and floor brokerage expense tends to move in line with brokerage revenues.2020. This increase was primarily driven by higher exchange fees in the year ended December 31, 2021 and an increase in trades executed compared to the year ended December 31, 2020.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased by $16.4 million, or 27.2%, to $76.6 Interest expense decreased by $7.3 million, or 9.5%, to $69.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This decrease was primarily driven by lower interest expense related to the 3.750% Senior Notes, issued in September 2019 and interest expense on the 4.375% Senior Notes issued in July 2020, 5.125% Senior Notes, which were repaid in May 2021, lower interest expense related to borrowings on the Revolving Credit Agreement, partially offset by lower interest expense related to the borrowings on BGC's Revolving Credit Agreement.4.375% Senior Notes issued in July 2020.
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Other Expenses
Other expenses decreased by $29.6 million, or 25.0%, to $89.0 Other expenses decreased by $8.2 million, or 9.2%, to $80.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020, which was primarily related to a decrease in amortization expense on intangible assets, a decrease in other provisions, and a decrease in expenses related to the sale of the Insurance brokerage business during the fourth quarter of 2021, partially offset by an increase in other provisions.
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settlements and an increase related to Charity Day contributions.
Other Income (Losses), Net
Gains (Losses) on Divestitures and Sale of Investments
For the year ended December 31, 2021 we had a gain of $394 thousand on divestitures. For the year ended December 31, 2019, there was a gain of $18.4 million as a result of the sale of CSC Commodities.$312.9 million as a result of the sale of the Insurance brokerage business. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we had a gain of $394 thousand on divestitures.
Gains (Losses) on Equity Method Investments
Gains (losses) on equity method investments increased by $1.7 million, to a gain of $6.7 million, for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to a gain of $5.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Gains (losses) on equity method investments represent our pro-rata share of the net gains or losses on investments over which we have significant influence, but which we do not control.
Other Income (Loss)
Other income (loss) decreased by $28.9 million, or 94.8%, to $1.6 Other income (loss) increased by $18.1 million, to $19.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2020. This was primarily driven by an increase related to mark-to-market movements on other assets, a gain recognized on a litigation resolution during the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase due to an impairment of an equity method investment recorded in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to no impairment recorded in the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase in recoveries related to a settlement recognized in the fourth quarter of 2021, and an increase related to fair value adjustments on investments carried under the measurement alternative. There was also a decrease related the mark-to-market and/or hedging on the Nasdaq shares.These increases were partially offset by a decrease related to COVID-19 recoveries in the year ended December 31, 2020.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
Provision (benefit) for income taxes decreased by $28.5 million, or 57.2%, to $21.3 increased by $1.7 million, or 8.0%, to $23.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily driven by lower pre-tax earnings as well as a 2020. This increase was primarily driven by an increase in both pre-tax earnings and the ownership interest in the operating partnership, partially offset by the nontaxable gain on the disposition of the Insurance brokerage business as well as the release of historical tax positions related to periods for which the statute of limitations has expired. In addition, the change in the geographical and business mix of earnings can impact our consolidated effective tax rate can vary from period-to-period.depending on, among other factors, the geographic and business mix of our earnings.from period-to-period.
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest in Subsidiaries
Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries decreased by $17.1 million, or 74.4%, to $5.9 increased by $23.6 million, to $29.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, which was primarily driven by a decrease in earnings.2020.
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QUARTERLY RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following table sets forth our unaudited quarterly results of operations for the indicated periods (in thousands). Results of any period are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year and may, in certain periods, be affected by seasonal fluctuations in our business. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current period's presentation.
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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December | | September | | June 30, | | March 31, | | December | | September | | June 30, | | March 31, |
| | 31, 2021 | | 30, 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 31, 2020 | | 30, 2020 | | 2020 | | 2020 |
| | 31, 2022 | | 30, 2022 | | 2022 | | 2022 | | 31, 2021 | | 30, 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 |
| Revenues: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Commissions | $ | 349,896 | | | $ | 367,016 | | | $ | 389,768 | | | $ | 435,220 | | | $ | 377,146 | | | $ | 352,027 | | | $ | 382,640 | | | $ | 455,855 | |
| Commissions | $ | 315,658 | | | $ | 299,430 | | | $ | 309,542 | | | $ | 356,664 | | | $ | 349,896 | | | $ | 367,016 | | | $ | 389,768 | | | $ | 435,220 | |
| Principal transactions | 73,004 | | | 73,997 | | | 81,997 | | | 98,763 | | | 73,687 | | | 65,182 | | | 99,453 | | | 113,311 | |
| Principal transactions | 82,169 | | | 79,568 | | | 88,169 | | | 115,601 | | | 73,004 | | | 73,997 | | | 81,997 | | | 98,763 | |
| Fees from related parties | 3,356 | | | 3,470 | | | 4,245 | | | 3,785 | | | 4,857 | | | 8,814 | | | 6,562 | | | 5,521 | |
| Fees from related parties | 3,896 | | | 3,896 | | | 3,625 | | | 3,317 | | | 3,356 | | | 3,470 | | | 4,245 | | | 3,785 | |
| Data, software and post-trade | 24,137 | | | 22,238 | | | 21,602 | | | 21,986 | | | 20,860 | | | 21,523 | | | 20,139 | | | 19,398 | |25,063 | | | 23,808 | | | 23,391 | | | 24,127 | | | 24,137 | | | 22,238 | | | 21,602 | | | 21,986 | |
| Interest and dividend income | 4,442 | | | 3,042 | | | 11,455 | | | 3,038 | | | (783) | | | 2,418 | | | 6,536 | | | 4,161 | |5,501 | | | 4,110 | | | 8,961 | | | 2,435 | | | 4,442 | | | 3,042 | | | 11,455 | | | 3,038 | |
| Other revenues | 6,756 | | | 3,984 | | | 3,383 | | | 4,784 | | | 3,659 | | | 5,078 | | | 3,776 | | | 4,941 | |
| Other revenues | 4,228 | | | 5,755 | | | 2,068 | | | 4,320 | | | 6,756 | | | 3,984 | | | 3,383 | | | 4,784 | |
| Total revenues | 461,591 | | | 473,747 | | | 512,450 | | | 567,576 | | | 479,426 | | | 455,042 | | | 519,106 | | | 603,187 | |
| Total revenues | 436,515 | | | 416,567 | | | 435,756 | | | 506,464 | | | 461,591 | | | 473,747 | | | 512,450 | | | 567,576 | |
| Expenses: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Compensation and employee benefits | 434,807 | | | 257,604 | | | 270,586 | | | 308,343 | | | 258,866 | | | 244,648 | | | 283,949 | | | 345,094 | |181,671 | | | 202,353 | | | 211,873 | | | 257,268 | | | 434,807 | | | 257,604 | | | 270,586 | | | 308,343 | |
| Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs | 85,889 | | | 78,490 | | | 58,290 | | | 33,495 | | | 80,515 | | | 33,007 | | | 27,819 | | | 42,204 | |89,332 | | | 57,730 | | | 46,133 | | | 57,876 | | | 85,889 | | | 78,490 | | | 58,290 | | | 33,495 | |
| Total compensation and employee benefits | 520,696 | | | 336,094 | | | 328,876 | | | 341,838 | | | 339,381 | | | 277,655 | | | 311,768 | | | 387,298 | |271,003 | | | 260,083 | | | 258,006 | | | 315,144 | | | 520,696 | | | 336,094 | | | 328,876 | | | 341,838 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 46,724 | | | 46,049 | | | 47,159 | | | 48,390 | | | 47,763 | | | 45,924 | | | 47,652 | | | 51,498 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 40,197 | | | 38,710 | | | 39,921 | | | 38,663 | | | 46,724 | | | 46,049 | | | 47,159 | | | 48,390 | |
| Fees to related parties | 8,456 | | | 5,674 | | | 4,518 | | | 5,382 | | | 5,028 | | | 7,728 | | | 5,335 | | | 5,527 | |
| Fees to related parties | 7,377 | | | 6,551 | | | 6,009 | | | 5,725 | | | 8,456 | | | 5,674 | | | 4,518 | | | 5,382 | |
| Professional and consulting fees | 14,813 | | | 16,836 | | | 20,029 | | | 16,206 | | | 18,233 | | | 15,755 | | | 19,994 | | | 20,090 | |24,286 | | | 15,048 | | | 13,810 | | | 15,631 | | | 14,813 | | | 16,836 | | | 20,029 | | | 16,206 | |
| Communications | 27,611 | | | 29,305 | | | 30,776 | | | 29,810 | | | 30,481 | | | 30,097 | | | 30,538 | | | 30,530 | |
| Communications | 26,237 | | | 26,802 | | | 27,166 | | | 27,891 | | | 27,611 | | | 29,305 | | | 30,776 | | | 29,810 | |
| Selling and promotion | 12,356 | | | 9,586 | | | 8,618 | | | 7,488 | | | 6,896 | | | 5,942 | | | 6,673 | | | 18,723 | |
| Selling and promotion | 14,461 | | | 11,373 | | | 12,443 | | | 10,938 | | | 12,356 | | | 9,586 | | | 8,618 | | | 7,488 | |
| Commissions and floor brokerage | 16,563 | | | 15,908 | | | 14,308 | | | 17,929 | | | 13,646 | | | 12,933 | | | 13,520 | | | 19,277 | |13,591 | | | 13,104 | | | 14,239 | | | 17,343 | | | 16,563 | | | 15,908 | | | 14,308 | | | 17,929 | |
| Interest expense | 16,061 | | | 16,735 | | | 18,680 | | | 17,853 | | | 21,811 | | | 19,665 | | | 17,625 | | | 17,506 | |
| Interest expense | 14,788 | | | 14,499 | | | 14,342 | | | 14,303 | | | 16,061 | | | 16,735 | | | 18,680 | | | 17,853 | |
| Other expenses | 16,465 | | | 24,614 | | | 23,772 | | | 16,037 | | | 21,600 | | | 28,367 | | | 21,508 | | | 17,570 | |
| Other expenses | 26,695 | | | 19,951 | | | 23,010 | | | 17,775 | | | 16,465 | | | 24,614 | | | 23,772 | | | 16,037 | |
| Total expenses | 679,745 | | | 500,801 | | | 496,736 | | | 500,933 | | | 504,839 | | | 444,066 | | | 474,613 | | | 568,019 | |
| Total expenses | 438,635 | | | 406,121 | | | 408,946 | | | 463,413 | | | 679,745 | | | 500,801 | | | 496,736 | | | 500,933 | |
| Other income (losses), net: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Gain (loss) on divestiture and sale of investments | 312,941 | | | 92 | | | (92) | | | - | | | 403 | | | (9) | | | - | | | - | |(846) | | | (183) | | | - | | | - | | | 312,941 | | | 92 | | | (92) | | | - | |
| Gains (losses) on equity method investments | 2,101 | | | 1,816 | | | 1,323 | | | 1,466 | | | 1,354 | | | 1,527 | | | 1,119 | | | 1,023 | |2,158 | | | 3,230 | | | 2,729 | | | 2,803 | | | 2,101 | | | 1,816 | | | 1,323 | | | 1,466 | |
| Other income (loss) | 7,862 | | | 4,513 | | | 1,924 | | | 5,406 | | | 1,687 | | | 4,779 | | | 1,129 | | | (6,015) | |
| Other income (loss) | 2,415 | | | 5,545 | | | 1,909 | | | (496) | | | 7,862 | | | 4,513 | | | 1,924 | | | 5,406 | |
| Total other income (losses), net | 322,904 | | | 6,421 | | | 3,155 | | | 6,872 | | | 3,444 | | | 6,297 | | | 2,248 | | | (4,992) | |3,727 | | | 8,592 | | | 4,638 | | | 2,307 | | | 322,904 | | | 6,421 | | | 3,155 | | | 6,872 | |
| Income (loss) from operations before income taxes | 104,750 | | | (20,633) | | | 18,869 | | | 73,515 | | | (21,969) | | | 17,273 | | | 46,741 | | | 30,176 | |1,607 | | | 19,038 | | | 31,448 | | | 45,358 | | | 104,750 | | | (20,633) | | | 18,869 | | | 73,515 | |
| Provision (benefit) for income taxes | 15,957 | | | (6,692) | | | (1,191) | | | 14,939 | | | (6,729) | | | 8,558 | | | 8,599 | | | 10,875 | |(1,991) | | | 10,813 | | | 15,105 | | | 14,657 | | | 15,957 | | | (6,692) | | | (1,191) | | | 14,939 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | $ | 88,793 | | | $ | (13,941) | | | $ | 20,060 | | | $ | 58,576 | | | $ | (15,240) | | | $ | 8,715 | | | $ | 38,142 | | | $ | 19,301 | |3,598 | | | $ | 8,225 | | | $ | 16,343 | | | $ | 30,701 | | | $ | 88,793 | | | $ | (13,941) | | | $ | 20,060 | | | $ | 58,576 | |
| Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries | 12,340 | | | (2,539) | | | 3,820 | | | 15,860 | | | (11,211) | | | (135) | | | 10,986 | | | 6,216 | |1,382 | | | 2,463 | | | 1,581 | | | 4,729 | | | 12,340 | | | (2,539) | | | 3,820 | | | 15,860 | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | $ | 76,453 | | | $ | (11,402) | | | $ | 16,240 | | | $ | 42,716 | | | $ | (4,029) | | | $ | 8,850 | | | $ | 27,156 | | | $ | 13,085 | |2,216 | | | $ | 5,762 | | | $ | 14,762 | | | $ | 25,972 | | | $ | 76,453 | | | $ | (11,402) | | | $ | 16,240 | | | $ | 42,716 | |
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The table below details our brokerage revenues by product category for the indicated periods (in thousands):
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, | | September 30, | | June 30, | | March 31, | | December 31, | | September 30, | | June 30, | | March 31, |
| | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2020 | | 2020 | | 2020 | | 2020 |
| | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 |
| Brokerage revenue by product: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Rates | $ | 131,732 | | | $ | 128,508 | | | $ | 136,474 | | | $ | 161,793 | | | $ | 124,495 | | | $ | 119,325 | | | $ | 133,034 | | | $ | 167,240 | |
| Rates | $ | 123,594 | | | $ | 129,971 | | | $ | 137,129 | | | $ | 158,809 | | | $ | 131,732 | | | $ | 128,508 | | | $ | 136,474 | | | $ | 161,793 | |
| FX | 72,112 | | | 72,976 | | | 72,807 | | | 83,433 | | | 73,213 | | | 73,281 | | | 74,393 | | | 94,366 | |
| FX | 71,868 | | | 73,481 | | | 74,347 | | | 80,025 | | | 72,112 | | | 72,976 | | | 72,807 | | | 83,433 | |
| Energy and commodities | 71,527 | | | 74,328 | | | 74,735 | | | 75,868 | | | 71,706 | | | 65,871 | | | 71,326 | | | 83,738 | |
| Energy and commodities | 73,608 | | | 68,975 | | | 66,687 | | | 82,395 | | | 71,527 | | | 74,328 | | | 74,735 | | | 75,868 | |
| Credit | 65,969 | | | 58,983 | | | 72,609 | | | 90,047 | | | 68,882 | | | 68,053 | | | 95,780 | | | 97,189 | |
| Credit | 68,067 | | | 58,187 | | | 61,257 | | | 83,908 | | | 65,969 | | | 58,983 | | | 72,609 | | | 90,047 | |
| Equity derivatives and | 61,671 | | | 54,715 | | | 60,825 | | | 70,462 | | | 63,718 | | | 47,410 | | | 61,777 | | | 81,797 | |
| Equities | 60,690 | | | 48,384 | | | 58,291 | | | 67,128 | | | 61,671 | | | 54,715 | | | 60,825 | | | 70,462 | |
| Insurance | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | |
| Insurance | 19,889 | | | 51,503 | | | 54,315 | | | 52,380 | || 48,819 | | | 43,269 | | | 45,783 | | | 44,836 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | $ | 422,900 | | | $ | 441,013 | | | $ | 471,765 | | | $ | 533,983 | | | $ | 450,833 | | | $ | 417,209 | | | $ | 482,093 | | | $ | 569,166 | |397,827 | | | $ | 378,998 | | | $ | 397,711 | | | $ | 472,265 | | | $ | 422,900 | | | $ | 441,013 | | | $ | 471,765 | | | $ | 533,983 | |
| Brokerage revenue by | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| product (percentage): | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Rates | 31.0 | % | | 34.3 | % | | 34.5 | % | | 33.6 | % | | 31.1 | % | | 29.1 | % | | 28.9 | % | | 30.3 | % |
| FX | 17.1 | | | 16.5 | | | 15.4 | | | 15.6 | | | 16.2 | | | 17.6 | FX | 18.1 | | | 19.4 | | | 18.7 | | | 17.0 | | | 17.1 | | | 16.5 | | | 15.4 | | | 15.6 | |
| Energy and commodities | 16.9 | | | 16.9 | | | 15.8 | | | 14.2 | | | 15.9 | | | 15.8 | | | 14.8 | | | 14.6 | |
| Energy and commodities | 18.5 | | | 18.2 | | | 16.8 | | | 17.4 | | | 16.9 | | | 16.9 | | | 15.8 | | | 14.2 | |
| Credit | 15.6 | | | 13.4 | | | 15.4 | | | 16.9 | | | 15.3 | | | 16.3 | | | 19.9 | | | 17.1 | |
| Credit | 17.1 | | | 15.3 | | | 15.4 | | | 17.8 | | | 15.6 | | | 13.4 | | | 15.4 | | | 16.9 | |
| Equity derivatives and | 14.6 | | | 12.4 | | | 12.9 | | | 13.2 | | | 14.2 | | | 11.3 | | | 12.8 | | | 14.4 | |
| Equities | 15.3 | | | 12.8 | | | 14.6 | | | 14.2 | | | 14.6 | | | 12.4 | | | 12.9 | | | 13.2 | |
| Insurance | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | | | | | | | | |
| Insurance | 4.7 | | | 11.7 | | | 11.6 | | | 9.8 | || 10.8 | | | 10.4 | | | 9.5 | | | 7.9 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % |
| Brokerage revenue by type: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Voice/Hybrid | $ | 345,681 | | | $ | 367,992 | | | $ | 396,480 | | | $ | 448,350 | | | $ | 387,305 | | | $ | 358,418 | | | $ | 423,697 | | | $ | 513,101 | |
| Voice/Hybrid | $ | 313,994 | | | $ | 297,316 | | | $ | 311,541 | | | $ | 371,078 | | | $ | 345,681 | | | $ | 367,992 | | | $ | 396,480 | | | $ | 448,350 | |
| Fully Electronic | 77,219 | | | 73,021 | | | 75,285 | | | 85,633 | | | 63,528 | | | 58,791 | | | 58,396 | | | 56,065 | |
| Fully Electronic | 83,833 | | | 81,682 | | | 86,170 | | | 101,187 | | | 77,219 | | | 73,021 | | | 75,285 | | | 85,633 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | $ | 422,900 | | | $ | 441,013 | | | $ | 471,765 | | | $ | 533,983 | | | $ | 450,833 | | | $ | 417,209 | | | $ | 482,093 | | | $ | 569,166 | |397,827 | | | $ | 378,998 | | | $ | 397,711 | | | $ | 472,265 | | | $ | 422,900 | | | $ | 441,013 | | | $ | 471,765 | | | $ | 533,983 | |
| Brokerage revenue by | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| type (percentage): | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Voice/Hybrid | 78.9 | % | | 78.4 | % | | 78.3 | % | | 78.3 | % | | 81.7 | % | | 83.4 | % | | 84.0 | % | | 84.0 | % |
| Fully Electronic | 18.3 | | | 16.6 | | | 16.0 | | | 16.0 | | | 14.1 | | | 14.1 | | | 12.1 | | | 9.9 | |
| Fully Electronic | 21.1 | | | 21.6 | | | 21.7 | | | 21.7 | | | 18.3 | | | 16.6 | | | 16.0 | | | 16.0 | |
| Total brokerage revenues | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % | | 100.0 | % |

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Balance Sheet
Our balance sheet and business model are not capital intensive. Our assets consist largely of cash and cash equivalents, collateralized and uncollateralized short-dated receivables and less liquid assets needed to support our business. Longer-term capital (equity and notes payable) is held to support the less liquid assets and potential capital investment opportunities. Total assets as of December 31, 2022 were $3.1 billion, a decrease of 8.0% as compared to December 31, 2021. The decrease in total assets was driven by a decrease in Receivables from broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers, Cash and cash equivalents, as well as Other intangible assets, net. Cash segregated under regulatory requirements as well as Accrued commissions and Other receivables, net. primarily due to the Insurance Business Disposition. We maintain a significant portion of our assets in Cash and cash equivalents and Financial instruments owned, at fair value, with Cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2022 of $485.0 million, and our liquidity (which we define as Cash and cash equivalents, Reverse repurchase agreements, Marketable securities and Securities owned, and Financial instruments owned, at fair value, less Securities loaned and Repurchase Agreements) as of December 31, 2022 of $524.3 million. See "Liquidity Analysis" below for a further discussion of our liquidity. Our Securities owned, were $40.8 million as of December 31, 2021, compared to $58.6 million as of December 31, 2020. Our Marketable securities were $0.4 Financial instruments owned, at fair value were $39.3 million as of December 31, 2022, compared to $41.2 million as of December 31, 2021. compared to $0.3 million as of December 31, 2020. We had no Repurchase agreements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. Further, we did not have any Securities loaned or Reverse repurchase agreements as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.
As part of our cash management process, we may enter into tri-party reverse repurchase agreements and other short-term investments, some of which may be with Cantor. As of both December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were no reverse repurchase agreements outstanding.
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Additionally, in August 2013, the Audit Committee authorized us to invest up to $350 million in an asset-backed commercial paper program for which certain Cantor entities serve as placement agent and referral agent. The program issues short-term notes to money market investors and is expected to be used from time to time as a liquidity management vehicle. The notes are backed by assets of highly rated banks. We are entitled to invest in the program so long as the program meets
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investment policy guidelines, including policies relating to ratings. Cantor will earn a spread between the rate it receives from the short-term note issuer and the rate it pays to us on any investments in this program. This spread will be no greater than the spread earned by Cantor for placement of any other commercial paper note in the program. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had no investments in the program.
Funding
Our funding base consists of longer-term capital (equity and notes payable), collateralized financings, shorter-term liabilities and accruals that are a natural outgrowth of specific assets and/or our business model, such as matched fails and accrued compensation. We have limited need for short-term unsecured funding in our regulated entities for their brokerage business. Contingent liquidity needs are largely limited to potential cash collateral that may be needed to meet clearing bank, clearinghouse, and exchange margins and/or to fund fails. Current cash and cash equivalent balances exceed our potential normal course contingent liquidity needs. We believe that cash and cash equivalents in and available to our largest regulated entities, inclusive of financing provided by clearing banks and cash segregated under regulatory requirements, is adequate for potential cash demands of normal operations, such as margin or financing of fails. We expect our operating activities going forward to generate adequate cash flows to fund normal operations, share and unit repurchases and redemptions, and any dividends paid pursuant to our dividend policy. However, we continually evaluate opportunities for growth and to further enhance our strategic position, including, among other things, acquisitions, strategic alliances and joint ventures potentially involving all types and combinations of equity, debt and acquisition alternatives. As a result, we may need to raise additional funds to:
•increase the regulatory net capital necessary to support operations;
•support continued growth in our businesses;
•effect acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and other transactions;
•develop new or enhanced products, services and markets; and
•respond to competitive pressures.
Acquisitions and financial reporting obligations related thereto may impact our ability to access longer term capital markets funding on a timely basis and may necessitate greater short-term borrowings in the interim. This may impact our credit rating or our costs of borrowing. We may need to access short-term capital sources to meet business needs from time to time, including, but not limited to, conducting operations; hiring or retaining brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel; financing acquisitions; and providing liquidity, including in situations where we may not be able to access the capital markets in a timely manner when desired by us. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain additional financing when needed on terms that are acceptable to us, if at all. In addition, as a result of regulatory actions, our registration statements under the Securities Act will be subject to SEC review prior to effectiveness, which may lengthen the time required for us to raise capital, potentially reducing our access to the capital markets or increasing our cost of capital.
As discussed above, our liquidity remains strong at $524.3 million as of December 31, 2021, which reflects, gross cash proceeds received for the Insurance Business Disposition, 2022, which can be used for share and unit repurchases and redemptions, dividends and distributions, new hires, tax payments, ordinary movements in working capital, repurchases of BGC Class A common stock and LPUs, cash paid with respect to employee bonuses, tax payments, and our continued investment in Fenics Growth Platforms.and the maturity of the 5.125% Senior Notes paid in full.
On November 1, 2021, BGC closed the sale of its Insurance brokerage business to the Ardonagh Group for gross proceeds of $534.9 million, subject to limited post-closing adjustments. The investment in the Insurance brokerage business generated an internal rate of return of 21.2% for our shareholders. The proceeds from the Insurance Business Disposition provided us with significant resources to continue repurchasing shares and to accelerate Fenics growth. Since the announced sale of the Insurance brokerage business in May 2021, BGC has repurchased and redeemed 99.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock and LPUs as of December 31, 2022. In addition, a portion of these proceeds was used to fully repay the $300.0 million outstanding borrowings under the Company's Revolving Credit Agreement on November 1, 2021, which had been borrowed earlier in 2021. This repayment along with the maturity of the 5.125% Senior Notes, which were paid in full on May 27, 2021, reduced our outstanding Notes payable and other borrowings.by $263.1 million as of December 31, 2021 compared to the prior year.
On February 24, 2023, our Board declared a $0.01 dividend for the fourth quarter of 2022. Additionally, BGC Holdings continues to have reduced distributions to or on behalf of its partners. The distributions to or on behalf of partners will
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at least cover their related tax payments. Whether any given post-tax amount is equivalent to the amount received by a stockholder also on an after-tax basis depends upon stockholders' and partners' domiciles and tax status. BGC believes that these steps will allow the Company to prioritize its financial strength. Our 2022 Our current capital allocation priorities are to return capital to stockholders and to continue investing in our high growth Fenics businesses. Historically, we were deeply dividend-centric; going forward, we plan to prioritize share and unit repurchases over dividends and distributions.The Board will reevaluate whether to increase the dividend in the first quarter of 2022.
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Notes Payable, Other and Short-term Borrowings
Unsecured Senior Revolving Credit Agreement
On November 28, 2018, we entered into the Revolving Credit Agreement with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, which replaced the existing committed unsecured senior revolving credit agreement. The maturity date of the Revolving Credit Agreement was November 28, 2020 and the maximum revolving loan balance was $350.0 million. Borrowings under this Revolving Credit Agreement bore interest at either LIBOR or a defined base rate plus additional margin. On December 11, 2019, we entered into an amendment to the new unsecured Revolving Credit Agreement. Pursuant to the amendment, the maturity date was extended to February 26, 2021. On February 26, 2020, the Company entered into a second amendment to the unsecured Revolving Credit Agreement, pursuant to which, the maturity date was extended by two years to February 26, 2023. The size of the Revolving Credit Agreement, along with the interest rate on the borrowings therefrom, remained unchanged. On November 1, 2021, the Company repaid in full the $300.0 million borrowings outstanding under the Revolving Credit Agreement, which had been borrowed during the year. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, earlier in 2021. On March 10, 2022, we entered into an amendment and restatement of the senior unsecured revolving credit agreement, pursuant to which, the maturity date was extended to March 10, 2025, the size of the credit facility was increased to $375.0 million, and borrowings under this agreement will bear interest based on either SOFR or a defined base rate plus additional margin. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were no borrowings outstanding under the new unsecured Revolving Credit Agreement. The average interest rate on the outstanding borrowings was 2.09% and 2.88% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We may draw down on the Revolving Credit Agreement. to provide flexibility in the normal course to meet ongoing operational cash needs, and other general corporate purposes including as necessary to manage through the current extraordinary macroeconomic/business environment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Revolving Credit Agreement. From January 1, 2023 through March 1, 2023, the Company drew down $70.0 million from its Revolving Credit Agreement. This amount currently carries an interest rate of 6.4%. Our liquidity remains strong, and was $524.3 million as of December 31, 2022, as discussed below.
5.125% Senior Notes
On May 27, 2016, we issued an aggregate of $300.0 million principal amount of 5.125% Senior Notes, which matured on May 27, 2021. The 5.125% Senior Notes were general senior unsecured obligations of the Company. The 5.125% Senior Notes bore interest at a rate of 5.125% per year, payable in cash on May 27 and November 27 of each year, commencing November 27, 2016 and ending on the maturity date. Prior to maturity, on August 5, 2020, the Company commenced a cash tender offer for any and all $300.0 million outstanding aggregate principal amount of its 5.125% Senior Notes. On August 11, 2020, the Company's cash tender offer expired at 5:00 p.m., New York City time. As of the expiration time, $44.0 million aggregate principal amount of the 5.125% Senior Notes were validly tendered. These notes were redeemed on the settlement date of August 14, 2020. The Company retained CF&Co as one of the dealer managers for the tender offer. As a result of this transaction, $14 thousand in dealer management fees were paid to CF&Co. Cantor tendered $15.0 million of such senior notes in the tender offer.and did not hold such notes as of December 31, 2021.
The initial carrying value of the 5.125% Senior Notes was $295.8 million, net of the discount and debt issuance costs of $4.2 million, of which $0.5 million were underwriting fees payable to CF&Co.
On August 16, 2016, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-4 which was declared effective by the SEC on September 13, 2016. On September 15, 2016, BGC launched an exchange offer in which holders of the 5.125% Senior Notes, issued in a private placement on May 27, 2016, could exchange such notes for new registered notes with substantially identical terms. The exchange offer closed on October 12, 2016, at which point the initial 5.125% Senior Notes were exchanged for new registered notes with substantially identical terms. On May 27, 2021, we repaid the remaining $256.0 million principal plus accrued interest on our 5.125% Senior Notes.
5.375% Senior Notes
On July 24, 2018, we issued an aggregate of $450.0 million principal amount of 5.375% Senior Notes. The 5.375% Senior Notes are general senior unsecured obligations of the Company. The 5.375% Senior Notes bear interest at a rate of 5.375% per year, payable in cash on January 24 and July 24 of each year, commencing January 24, 2019. The 5.375% Senior Notes will mature on July 24, 2023. We may redeem some or all of the 5.375% Senior Notes at any time or from time to time for cash at certain "make-whole" redemption prices (as set forth in the indenture related to the 5.375% Senior Notes). If a "Change of Control Triggering Event" (as defined in the indenture related to the 5.375% Senior Notes) occurs, holders may
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require the Company to purchase all or a portion of their notes for cash at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the notes to be purchased plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the purchase date. The initial carrying value of the 5.375% Senior Notes was $444.2 million, net of the discount and debt issuance costs of $5.8 million, of which $0.3 million were underwriting fees paid to CF&Co. We also paid CF&Co an advisory fee of $0.2 million in connection with the issuance. The issuance costs are amortized as interest expense and the carrying value of the 5.375% Senior Notes will accrete up to the face amount over the term of the notes. The carrying value of the 5.375% Senior Notes as of December 31, 2022 was $449.2 million. We intend to either refinance the 5.375% Senior Notes prior to maturity, or use cash on hand, cash flow from operations or the Revolving Credit Agreement to settle such amounts.
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On July 31, 2018, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-4 which was declared effective by the SEC on August 10, 2018. On August 10, 2018, BGC launched an exchange offer in which holders of the 5.375% Senior Notes, , issued in a private placement on July 24, 2018, could exchange such notes for new registered notes with substantially identical terms. The exchange offer closed on September 17, 2018, at which point the initial 5.375% Senior Notes were exchanged for new registered notes with substantially identical terms.
3.750% Senior Notes
On September 27, 2019, we issued an aggregate of $300.0 million principal amount of 3.750% Senior Notes. The 3.750% Senior Notes are general unsecured obligations of the Company. The 3.750% Senior Notes bear interest at a rate of 3.750% per year, payable in cash on each April 1 and October 1 of each year, commencing April 1, 2020. The 3.750% Senior Notes will mature on October 1, 2024. We may redeem some or all of the 3.750% Senior Notes at any time or from time to time for cash at certain "make-whole" redemption prices (as set forth in the indenture related to the 3.750% Senior Notes). If a "Change of Control Triggering Event" (as defined in the indenture related to the 3.750% Senior Notes) occurs, holders may require the Company to purchase all or a portion of their notes for cash at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the notes to be purchased plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the purchase date. The initial carrying value of the 3.750% Senior Notes was $296.1 million, net of discount and debt issuance costs of $3.9 million, of which $0.2 million were underwriting fees payable to CF&Co. and $36 thousand were underwriting fees payable to CastleOak Securities, L.P. The issuance costs will be amortized as interest expense and the carrying value of the 3.750% Senior Notes will accrete up to the face amount over the term of the notes. The carrying value of the 3.750% Senior Notes was $298.6 million as of December 31, 2022.
On October 11, 2019, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-4, which was declared effective by the SEC on October 24, 2019. On October 28, 2019, BGC launched an exchange offer in which holders of the 3.750% Senior Notes, issued in a private placement on September 27, 2019, could exchange such notes for new registered notes with substantially identical terms. The exchange offer closed on December 9, 2019, at which point the initial 3.750% Senior Notes were exchanged for new registered notes with substantially identical terms.
4.375% Senior Notes
On July 10, 2020, we issued an aggregate of $300.0 million principal amount of 4.375% Senior Notes. The 4.375% Senior Notes are general unsecured obligations of the Company. The 4.375% Senior Notes bear interest at a rate of 4.375% per year, payable in cash on June 15 and December 15 of each year, commencing December 15, 2020. The 4.375% Senior Notes will mature on December 15, 2025. We may redeem some or all of the 4.375% Senior Notes at any time or from time to time for cash at certain "make-whole" redemption prices (as set forth in the indenture related to the 4.375% Senior Notes). If a "Change of Control Triggering Event" (as defined in the indenture related to the 4.375% Senior Notes) occurs, holders may require the Company to purchase all or a portion of their notes for cash at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount of the notes to be purchased plus any accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the purchase date. Cantor purchased $14.5 million of such senior notes and still holds such notes as of December 31, 2022. The initial carrying value of the 4.375% Senior Notes was $296.8 million, net of discount and debt issuance costs of $3.2 million, of which $0.2 million were underwriting fees payable to CF&Co. The carrying value of the 4.375% Senior Notes was $298.2 million as of December 31, 2022.
On August 28, 2020, we filed a Registration Statement on Form S-4, which was declared effective by the SEC on September 8, 2020. On September 9, 2020, BGC launched an exchange offer in which holders of the 4.375% Senior Notes, issued in a private placement on July 10, 2020, could exchange such notes for new registered notes with substantially identical terms. The exchange offer closed on October 14, 2020, at which point the initial 4.375% Senior Notes were exchanged for new registered notes with substantially identical terms.
Collateralized Borrowings
On May 31, 2017, we entered into a secured loan arrangement of $29.9 million under which we pledged certain fixed assets as security for a loan. This arrangement incurred interest at a fixed rate of 3.44% per year and matured on May 31, 2021,
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therefore, there were no borrowings outstanding as of both December 31, 2022 and 2021. 2021.As of December 31, 2020, we had $4.0 million outstanding related to this secured loan arrangement. The book value of the fixed assets pledged as of December 31, 2020 was $0.8 million.
On April 8, 2019, we entered into a secured loan arrangement of $15.0 million, under which we pledged certain fixed assets as security for a loan. This arrangement incurs interest at a fixed rate of 3.77% and matures on April 8, 2023.As of December 31, 2021, and 2020, the Company had $5.9 million and $9.6 2023. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had $2.0 million and $5.9 million, respectively, outstanding related to this secured loan arrangement. The book value of the fixed assets pledged as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, was $10 thousand and $0.1 million, respectively. 2021, and 2020, was $0.1 million, and $1.2 million, respectively.
On April 19, 2019, we entered into a secured loan arrangement of $10.0 million, under which we pledged certain fixed assets as security for a loan. This arrangement incurs interest at a fixed rate of 3.89% and matures on April 19, 2023. As of
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December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had $1.3 million and $3.8
December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had $3.8 million and $6.3 million, respectively, outstanding related to this secured loan arrangement. The book value of the fixed assets pledged as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, was $1.0 million and $2.7 million, respectively.2022 and 2021, was $0.3 million and $1.0 million, respectively.
Weighted-average Interest Rate
For the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the weighted-average interest rate of our total Notes payable and other borrowings, which include our Unsecured Senior Revolving Credit Agreement, Senior Notes, Revolving Credit Agreement, Company Debt Securities, and collateralized borrowings, was 4.62% and 4.62%, respectively.
Short-term Borrowings
On August 22, 2017, we entered into a committed unsecured loan agreement with Itau Unibanco S.A. The credit agreement provided for short-term loans of up to $3.8 million (BRL 20.0 million). The maturity date of the agreement is March 8, 2023. agreement was automatically renewed every 180 days until August 13, 2021, when it was repaid in full. Borrowings under this agreement bear interest at the Brazilian Interbank offering rate plus 3.20%. As of December 31, 2022, there were $1.9 million (BRL 10.0 million) of borrowings outstanding under the facility. As of December 31, 2020, there were $3.8 million (BRL 20.0 million) of agreement. As of December 31, 2021, there were no borrowings outstanding under the facility. As of December 31, 2022, the interest rate was 17.0%.
On August 23, 2017, we entered into a committed unsecured credit agreement with Itau Unibanco S.A. The credit agreement provided for an intra-day overdraft credit line up to $9.6 million (BRL 50.0 million). On August 20, 2021, the agreement was renegotiated, increasing the credit line to $11.5 million (BRL 60.0 million). The maturity date of the agreement is May 21, 2023. This agreement bears a fee of 1.35% per year. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were no borrowings outstanding under this agreement.
On January 25, 2021, we entered into a committed unsecured loan agreement with Banco Daycoval S.A., which provided for short-term loans of up to $1.9 million (BRL 10.0 million) and was renegotiated on June 1, 2021. The amended agreement provided for short-term loans of up to $3.8 million (BRL 20.0 million). The maturity date of the agreement is January 17, 2023. Borrowings under this agreement bore interest at the Brazilian Interbank offering rate plus 3.66%. During September 2022, the borrowings under this agreement were repaid in full, and the loan was terminated on September 27, 2022, therefore as of December 31, 2022, there were no as of December 31, 2021, there were $3.6 million (BRL 20.0 million) of borrowings outstanding under the agreement. As of December 31, 2021, there were no borrowings outstanding under this agreement.
BGC Credit Agreement with Cantor
On March 19, 2018, we entered into the BGC Credit Agreement with Cantor. The BGC Credit Agreement provides for each party and certain of its subsidiaries to issue loans to the other party or any of its subsidiaries in the lender's discretion in an aggregate principal amount up to $250.0 million outstanding at any time. The BGC Credit Agreement replaced the previous Credit Facility between BGC and an affiliate of Cantor, and was approved by the Audit Committee of BGC. On August 6, 2018, the Company entered into an amendment to the BGC Credit Agreement, which increased the aggregate principal amount that can be loaned to the other party or any of its subsidiaries from $250.0 million to $400.0 million that can be outstanding at any time. The BGC Credit Agreement will mature on the earlier to occur of (a) March 19, 2023, after which the maturity date of the BGC Credit Agreement will continue to be extended for successive one-year periods unless prior written notice of non-extension is given by a lending party to a borrowing party at least six months in advance of such renewal date and (b) the termination of the BGC Credit Agreement by either party pursuant to its terms. The outstanding amounts under the BGC Credit Agreement will bear interest for any rate period at a per annum rate equal to the higher of BGC's or Cantor's short-term borrowing rate in effect at such time plus 1.00%. As of December 31, 2022, there were no borrowings by BGC or Cantor outstanding under this Agreement.
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CREDIT RATINGS
As of December 31, 2022, our public long-term credit ratings and associated outlooks were as follows:
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Rating | | Outlook |
| Fitch Ratings Inc. | BBB- | | Stable |
| Standard & Poor's | BBB- | | Stable |
| Japan Credit Rating Agency, Ltd. | BBB+ | | Stable |
| Kroll Bond Rating Agency | BBB | | Stable |
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Credit ratings and associated outlooks are influenced by a number of factors, including, but not limited to: operating environment, earnings and profitability trends, the prudence of funding and liquidity management practices, balance sheet size/composition and resulting leverage, cash flow coverage of interest, composition and size of the capital base, available liquidity, outstanding borrowing levels and the firm's competitive position in the industry. A credit rating and/or the associated outlook can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides that circumstances warrant such a change. Any downgrade in our credit ratings and/or the associated outlooks could adversely affect the availability of debt financing on terms acceptable to us, as well as the cost and other terms upon which we are able to obtain any such financing. In addition, credit ratings and associated outlooks may be important to customers or counterparties when we compete in certain markets and when we seek to engage in certain transactions. In connection with certain agreements, we may be required to provide additional collateral in the event of a credit ratings downgrade.
LIQUIDITY ANALYSIS
We consider our liquidity to be comprised of the sum of Cash and cash equivalents, Reverse repurchase agreements, Marketable securities, and Securities owned, and Financial instruments owned, at fair value, less Securities loaned and Repurchase agreements. We consider liquidity to be an important metric for determining the amount of cash that is available or that could be readily available to the Company on short notice. The discussion below describes the key components of our liquidity analysis. Our cash, cash flows, and financing arrangements are sufficient to support our cash requirements for the next twelve months and beyond.
We consider the following in analyzing changes in our liquidity:
•Our liquidity analysis includes a comparison of our Consolidated net income (loss) adjusted for certain non-cash items (e.g., Equity-based compensation) as presented on the cash flow statement. Dividends and distributions are payments made to our holders of common shares and limited partnership interests and are related to earnings from prior periods. These timing differences will impact our cash flows in a given period;
•Our investing and funding activities represent a combination of our capital raising activities, including short-term borrowings and repayments, issuances of shares under our CEO Program (net), BGC Class A common stock repurchases and partnership unit redemptions, purchases and sales of securities, dispositions, and other investments (e.g., acquisitions, forgivable loans to new brokers and capital expenditures-all net of depreciation and amortization);
•Our securities settlement activities primarily represent deposits with clearing organizations;
•Other changes in working capital represent changes primarily in receivables and payables and accrued liabilities that impact our liquidity; and
•Changes in Reverse repurchase agreements Securities owned, and Marketable securities and Financial instruments owned, at fair value may result from additional cash investments or sales, which will be offset by a corresponding change in Cash and cash equivalents and, accordingly, will not result in a change in our liquidity. Conversely, changes in the market value of such securities are reflected in our earnings or other comprehensive income (loss) and will result in changes in our liquidity.
At December 31, 2019, the Company completed the calculation of the one-time transition tax on the deemed repatriation of foreign subsidiaries' earnings pursuant to the Tax Act and previously recorded a net cumulative tax expense of $28.6 million, net of foreign tax credits. An installment election can be made to pay the taxes over eight years with 40% paid in equal installments over the first five years and the remaining 60% to be paid in installments of 15%, 20% and 25% in years six, seven and eight, respectively. The cumulative remaining balance as of December 31, 2022 was $20.2 million.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries had $485.0 million of Cash and cash equivalents. In addition, the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries also held securities of $39.3 million within their Liquidity position as of December 31, 2022.
Discussion of the year ended December 31, 2022
The table below presents our Liquidity Analysis as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021:
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2022 | | December 31, 2021 |
| (in thousands) | | | |
| Cash and cash equivalents | $ | 484,989 | | | $ | 553,598 | |
| Financial instruments owned, at fair value | 39,319 | | | 41,244 | |
| Repurchase agreements | - | | | - | |
| Total | $ | 524,308 | | | $ | 594,842 | |
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The $70.5 million decrease in our liquidity position from $594.8 million as of December 31, 2021 to $524.3 million as of December 31, 2022 was primarily related to share and unit repurchases and redemptions, dividends and distributions, tax payments, our continued investment in Fenics Growth Platforms and ordinary movements in working capital,.
Discussion of the year ended December 31, 2021
The table below presents our Liquidity Analysis as of December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2021 | | December 31, 2020 |
| (in thousands) | | | |
| Cash and cash equivalents | $ | 553,598 | | | $ | 596,291 | |
| Securities owned, | 40,838 | | | 58,572 | |
| Financial instruments owned, at fair value | 41,244 | | | 58,921 | |

| Marketable securities | 406 | | | 349 | |

| Repurchase agreements | - | | | - | |
| Total | $ | 594,842 | | | $ | 655,212 | |
The $60.4 million decrease in our liquidity position from $655.2 million as of December 31, 2020 to $594.8 million as of December 31, 2021 was primarily related to 72.9 million repurchases of Class A common stock and LPUs, cash paid with respect to annual employee bonuses, tax payments, our continued investment in Fenics Growth Platforms, and the maturity of the 5.125% Senior Notes paid in full, partially offset by the gross cash proceeds received for the Insurance Business Disposition, earnings, and other ordinary movements in working capital.
Discussion of the year ended December 31, 2020
The table below presents our Liquidity Analysis as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019:
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2020 | | December 31, 2019 |
| (in thousands) | | | |
| Cash and cash equivalents | $ | 596,291 | | | $ | 419,328 | |
| Securities owned | 58,572 | | | 57,525 | |
| Marketable securities1 | 349 | | | 326 | |
| Total | $ | 655,212 | | | $ | 477,179 | |
__________________________
1As of December 31, 2019, $13.9 million of Marketable securities on our balance sheet had been lent in a Securities loaned transaction and, therefore, are not included in this Liquidity Analysis.
The $179.3 million increase in our liquidity position from $473.2 million as of December 31, 2019 to $652.6 million as of December 31, 2020 was primarily related to the issuance of $300.0 million of the 4.375% Senior Notes, partially reduced by the $68.9 million net payoff of the Revolving Credit Agreement and the $44.0 million cash tender offer on the 5.125% Senior Notes. This net increase was partially offset by ordinary movements in working capital (including settlement of payables to related parties), cash paid with respect to annual employee bonuses and associated tax and compensation expenses, cost reduction charges, tax payments, acquisitions and our continued investment in new revenue generating hires.
CLEARING CAPITAL
In November 2008, we entered into a clearing capital agreement with Cantor to clear U.S. Treasury and U.S. government agency securities transactions on our behalf. In June 2020, this clearing capital agreement was amended to cover Cantor providing clearing services in all eligible financial products to us and not just U.S. Treasury and U.S. government agency securities. Pursuant to the terms of this agreement, so long as Cantor is providing clearing services to us, Cantor shall be entitled to request from us cash or other collateral acceptable to Cantor in the amount reasonably requested by Cantor under the clearing capital agreement or Cantor will post cash or other collateral on our behalf for a commercially reasonable charge. Cantor had not requested any cash or other property from us as collateral as of December 31, 2022.
REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
Our liquidity and available cash resources are restricted by regulatory requirements of our operating subsidiaries. Many of these regulators, including U.S. and non-U.S. government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities commissions in the U.S., are empowered to conduct administrative proceedings that can result in civil and criminal judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions, enhanced oversight, remediation, or other relief.
In addition, self-regulatory organizations, such as the FINRA and the NFA, along with statutory bodies such as the FCA, the SEC, and the CFTC require strict compliance with their rules and regulations. The requirements imposed by regulators are designed to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect customers and other third parties who deal
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with broker-dealers and are not designed to specifically protect stockholders. These regulations often serve to limit our activities, including through net capital, customer protection and market conduct requirements.
The final phase of Basel III (unofficially called "Basel IV") is a global prudential regulatory standard designed to make banks more resilient and increase confidence in the banking system. Its wide scope includes reviewing market, credit and operational risk along with targeted changes to leverage ratios. Basel IV includes updates to the calculation of bank capital requirements with the aim of making outcomes more comparable across banks globally. Most of the requirements are expected to be implemented by national and regional authorities by around 2023, with certain delays announced by regulators recently due to COVID-19. The adoption of these proposed rules could restrict the ability of our large bank and broker-dealer customers to operate trading businesses and to maintain current capital market exposures under the present structure of their balance sheets, and will cause these entities to need to raise additional capital in order to stay active in our marketplaces.
The FCA is the relevant statutory regulator in the U.K. The FCA's objectives are to protect customers, maintain the stability of the financial services industry and promote competition between financial services providers. It has broad rule-making, investigative and enforcement powers derived from the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and subsequent and derivative legislation and regulations.
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In addition, the majority of our other foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation by the relevant authorities in the countries in which they do business. Certain other of our foreign subsidiaries are required to maintain non-U.S. net capital requirements. For example, in Hong Kong, BGC Securities (Hong Kong), LLC, GFI (HK) Securities LLC and Sunrise Broker (Hong Kong) Limited are regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission. BGC Capital Markets (Hong Kong), Limited and GFI (HK) Brokers Ltd are regulated by The Hong Kong Monetary Authority. All are subject to Hong Kong net capital requirements. In France, Aurel BGC and BGC France Holdings; in Australia, BGC Partners (Australia) Pty Limited, BGC (Securities) Pty Limited and GFI Australia Pty Ltd.; in Japan, BGC Shoken Kaisha Limited's Tokyo branch and BGC Capital Markets Japan LLC's Tokyo Branch; in Singapore, BGC Partners (Singapore) Limited, GFI Group Pte Ltd and Ginga Global Markets Pte Ltd; in Korea, BGC Capital Markets & Foreign Exchange Broker (Korea) Limited and GFI Korea Money Brokerage Limited; in Philippines GFI Group (Philippines) Inc. and in Turkey, BGC Partners Menkul Degerler AS, all have net capital requirements imposed upon them by local regulators. In addition, BGC is a member of clearing houses such as The London Metal Exchange, which may impose minimum capital requirements. In Latin America, BGC Liquidez Distribuidora De Titulos E Valores Mobiliarios Ltda. (Brazil) has net capital requirements imposed upon it by local regulators.
These subsidiaries may also be prohibited from repaying the borrowings of their parents or affiliates, paying cash dividends, making loans to their parent or affiliates or otherwise entering into transactions, in each case, which result in a significant reduction in their regulatory capital position without prior notification or approval from their principal regulator. See Note 21-"Regulatory Requirements" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details on our regulatory requirements.
As of December 31, 2022, $666.0 million of net assets were held by regulated subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2022, these subsidiaries had aggregate regulatory net capital, as defined, in excess of the aggregate regulatory requirements, as defined, of $342.2 million.
In April 2013, the Board and Audit Committee authorized management to enter into indemnification agreements with Cantor and its affiliates with respect to the provision of any guarantees provided by Cantor and its affiliates from time to time as required by regulators. These services may be provided from time to time at a reasonable and customary fee. In 2020, the introducing broker guarantees were moved from CF&Co to Mint Brokers for the firm's stand alone and foreign NFA registered introducing brokers.
BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange, our subsidiaries, operate as SEFs. Mandatory Dodd-Frank Act compliant execution on SEFs by eligible U.S. persons commenced in February 2014 for "made available to trade" products, and a wide range of other rules relating to the execution and clearing of derivative products were finalized with implementation periods in 2016 and beyond. We also own ELX, which became a dormant contract market on July 1, 2017 and in July 2021, we completed the purchase of the Futures Exchange Group from Cantor, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse. As these rules require authorized execution facilities to maintain robust front-end and back-office IT capabilities and to make large and ongoing technology investments, and because these execution facilities may be supported by a variety of voice and auction-based execution methodologies, we expect our Hybrid and Fully Electronic trading capability to perform strongly in such an environment.
Much of our global derivatives volumes continue to be executed by non-U.S. based clients outside the U.S. and subject to local prudential regulations. As such, we will continue to operate a number of European regulated venues in accordance with EU or U.K. legislation and licensed by the FCA or EU-based national supervisors. These venues are also operated for non-derivative instruments for these clients. MiFID II was published by the European Securities and Markets Authority in September 2015, and implemented in January 2018 and introduced important infrastructural changes.
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MiFID II requires a significant part of the market in these instruments to trade on trading venues subject to transparency regimes, not only in pre- and post-trade prices, but also in fee structures and access. In addition, it has impacted a number of key areas, including corporate governance, transaction reporting, pre- and post-trade transparency, technology synchronization, best execution and investor protection.
MiFID II was intended to help improve the functioning of the EU single market by achieving a greater consistency of regulatory standards. By design, therefore, it was intended that EU member states should have very similar regulatory regimes in relation to the matters addressed to MiFID. MiFID II has also introduced a new regulated execution venue category called an OTF that captures much of the Voice-and Hybrid-oriented trading in the EU. Much of our existing EU derivatives and fixed income execution business now take place on OTFs. Further to its decision to leave the EU, the U.K. has implemented MIFID II's requirements into its own domestic legislation. Brexit may impact future market structures and MiFID II rulemaking and implementation due to potential changes in mutual passporting and equivalence arrangements between the U.K. and EU member states (for further information see "Overview and Business Environment-Brexit" herein).
In addition, the GDPR came into effect in the EU on May 25, 2018 and creates new compliance obligations in relation to personal data. The GDPR may affect our practices, and will increase financial penalties for non-compliance significantly.
On September 30, 2020, the SEC announced a settlement with BGC regarding alleged negligent disclosure violations related to one of BGC's non-GAAP financial measures for periods beginning with the first quarter of 2015 through the first quarter of 2016. All of the relevant disclosures related to those periods and pre-dated the SEC staff's May 2016 detailed compliance and disclosure guidance with respect to non-GAAP presentations. BGC revised its non-GAAP presentation beginning with the second quarter of 2016 as a result of the SEC's guidance, and the SEC has made no allegations with regard to any periods following the first quarter of 2016. In connection with the SEC settlement, BGC was ordered to cease and desist from any future violations of Sections 17(a)(2) and 17(a)(3) of the Securities Act, Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 13a-11 thereunder, and Rule 100(b) of Regulation G, and agreed to pay a civil penalty of $1.4 million without admitting or denying the SEC's allegations.
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Apart from some minor non-material changes, at this time there has not been any legislation from the EU Commission or the U.K. Government that have materially changed how the U.K. and EU approach financial regulation since MiFID II and the implementation of Brexit. Although divergence of U.K. regulation from EU regulation may occur, there has been no firm legislative change signaled or published by the FCA or the U.K. Government. While we generally believe the net impact of the rules and regulations are positive for our business, it is possible that unintended consequences of the rules and regulations may materially adversely affect us in ways yet to be determined. See "Regulation" included in Part I, Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our regulatory environment.
EQUITY
Class A Common Stock
Changes in shares of BGC Class A common stock outstanding were as follows (in thousands):
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 |
| Shares outstanding at beginning of period | 317,023 | | | 323,018 | |
| Share issuances: | | | |
| Redemptions/exchanges of limited partnership interests¹ | 30,998 | | | 58,025 | |
| Vesting of RSUs | 2,167 | | | 1,134 | |
| Vesting of RSUs | 3,284 | | | 2,167 | |
| Acquisitions | 1,206 | | | 1,789 | |
| Other issuances of BGC Class A common stock | 501 | | | 417 | |
| Issuance of BGC Class A common stock for general corporate purposes | - | | |45 | |
| | | | |
| Treasury stock repurchases | (27,087) | | | (68,253) | |
| Forfeitures of restricted BGC Class A common stock | (67) | | | (140) | |
| Shares outstanding at end of period | 325,858 | | | 317,023 | |
__________________________
1Included in redemptions/exchanges of limited partnership interests for the year ended December 31, 2022, are 20.9 million shares of BGC Class A common stock granted in connection with the cancellation of 21.4 million LPUs. Included in redemption/exchanges of limited partnership interests for the year ended December 31, 2021, are 27.5 million shares of BGC Class A common stock granted in connection with the cancellation of 29.7 million LPUs. Because LPUs are included in the Company's fully diluted share count, if dilutive, redemptions/exchanges in connection with the issuance of BGC Class A common stock would not impact the fully diluted number of shares outstanding.
Class B Common Stock
The Company did not issue any shares of BGC Class B common stock during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, 2022 and 2021. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, there were 45.9 million shares of BGC Class B common stock outstanding.
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Unit Redemptions and Share Repurchase Program
The Company's Board and Audit Committee have authorized repurchases of BGC Class A common stock and redemptions of limited partnership interests or other equity interests in the Company's subsidiaries. On August 3, 2021, the Company's Board and Audit Committee increased the BGC Partners share repurchase and unit redemption authorization to $400.0 million, which may include purchases from Cantor, its partners or employees or other affiliated persons or entities. On November 4, 2022, the Board and Audit Committee increased the BGC Partners share repurchase and unit redemption authorization to $400.0 million, which may include purchases from Cantor, its partners or employees or other affiliated persons or entities. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $376.4 million remaining from its share repurchase and unit redemption authorization. From time to time, the Company may actively continue to repurchase shares and/or redeem units.
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The table below represents the units redeemed and/or shares repurchased for cash and does not include units redeemed/cancelled in connection with the grant of shares of BGC Class A common stock nor the limited partnership interests exchanged for shares of BGC Class A common stock. The gross unit redemptions and share repurchases of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2022 were as follows (in thousands, except for weighted-average price data):
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Period | | Total Number | | Weighted- | | Approximate |
| | | of Units | | Average Price | | Dollar Value |
| | | Redeemed | | Paid per Unit | | of Units and |
| | | or Shares | | or Share | | Shares That Could Be Redeemed/ |
| | | Repurchased | | | | Purchased |
| | | | | | | Under the Program at December 31, 2022 |
| Redemptions1 | | | | | | |
| January 1, 2022-March 31, 2022 | | 43 | | | $ | 4.01 | | | |
| April 1, 2022-June 30, 2022 | | 1,010 | | | 3.81 | | | |
| July 1, 2022-September 30, 2022 | | 214 | | | 3.91 | | | |
| October 1, 2022-December 31, 2022 | | 99 | | | 3.88 | | | |
| Total Redemptions | | 1,366 | | | $ | 3.84 | | | |
| Repurchases2 | | | | | | |
| January 1, 2022-March 31, 2022 | | - | | | $ | - | | | |
| April 1, 2022-June 30, 2022 | | 8,745 | | | 3.36 | | | |
| July 1, 2022-September 30, 2022 | | 12,397 | | 4.03 | | | |
| | | repurchased | | | | Yet Be Redeemed/ |
| October 1, 2022-October 31, 2022 | | 307 | | 3.93 | | | |
| November 1, 2022-November 30, 2022 | | 3,834 | | 3.99 | | | |
| December 1, 2022-December 31, 2022 | | 1,804 | | | 4.48 | | | |
| Total Repurchases | | 27,087 | | | 3.84 | | | |
| Total Redemptions and Repurchases | | 28,453 | | | $ | 3.84 | | | $ | 376,413 | |
__________________________
1During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company redeemed 1.3 million LPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $4.9 million for a weighted-average price of $3.87 per unit and 0.1 million FPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $0.4 million for a weighted-average price of $3.41 per unit. The table above does not include units redeemed/cancelled in connection with the grant of 20.9 million shares of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2022, nor the limited partnership interests exchanged for 10.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2022.
2During the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company repurchased 27.1 million shares of BGC Class A common stock at an aggregate price of $103.9 million for a weighted-average price of $3.84 per share.


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The gross unit redemptions and share repurchases of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2021 were as follows (in thousands, except for weighted-average price data):
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| Period | | Total Number | | Weighted- | | Approximate |
| | | of Units | | Average Price | | Dollar Value |
| | | Redeemed | | Paid per Unit | | of Units and |
| | | or Shares | | or Share | | Shares That Could Be Redeemed/ |
| | | Repurchased | | | | Purchased |
| | | | | | | Under the Program at December 31,2021 |
| Redemptions1 | | | | | | |
| January 1, 2021-March 31, 2021 | | 20 | | | $ | 4.40 | | | |
| April 1, 2021-June 30, 2021 | | 4,715 | | | 5.82 | | | |
| July 1, 2021-September 30, 2021 | | 73 | | | 5.14 | | | |
| October 1, 2021-December 31, 2021 | | 38 | | | 5.37 | | | |
| Total Redemptions | | 4,846 | | | $ | 5.80 | | | |
| Repurchases2 | | | | | | |
| January 1, 2021-March 31, 2021 | | 965 | | | $ | 4.56 | | | |
| April 1, 2021-June 30, 2021 | | 16,542 | | | 6.25 | | | |
| July 1, 2021-September 30, 2021 | | 24,433 | | | 5.19 | | | |
| October 1, 2021-December 31, 2021 | | 26,313 | | | 4.97 | | | |
| Total Repurchases | | 68,253 | | | 5.35 | | | |
| Total Redemptions and Repurchases | | 73,099 | | | $ | 5.38 | | | $ | 191,809 | |
____________________________________
1 During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company redeemed 4.7 million LPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $27.5 million for a weighted-average price of $5.83 per unit and 0.1 million FPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $0.6 million for a weighted-average price of $4.86 per unit. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company redeemed 1.8 million LPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $5.5 million for a weighted-average price of $3.03 per unit and 0.7 million FPUs at an aggregate redemption price of $1.3 million for a weighted-average price of $1.79 per unit. The table above does not include units redeemed/cancelled in connection with the grant of 27.5 million shares and 9.5 million shares of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively, nor the limited partnership interests exchanged for 32.2 million and 3.7 million shares of BGC Class A common stock during the year ended December 31, 2021.and 2020, respectively.
2 During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company repurchased 68.3 million shares of BGC Class A common stock at an aggregate price of $365.4 million for a weighted-average price of $5.35 per share.During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company repurchased 2 thousand shares of BGC Class A common stock at an aggregate price of $6 thousand for a weighted-average price of $2.58 per share.

The weighted-average share counts, including securities that were anti-dilutive for our earnings per share calculations, for the three months and year ended December 31, 2022 were as follows (in thousands):
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Three Months Ended December 31, 2022 | | Year Ended December 31, 2022 |
| Common stock outstanding1 | 371,174 | | | 371,561 | |
| Partnership units2 | 132,841 | | | 155,356 | |
| Partnership units2 | 117,528 | | | 124,738 | |
| RSUs (Treasury stock method) | 2,644 | | | 1,913 | |
| Other | 1,203 | | | 1,202 | |
| Total3 | 492,549 | | | 499,414 | |
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1Common stock consisted of shares of BGC Class A common stock, shares of BGC Class B common stock and contingent shares of our Class A common stock for which all necessary conditions have been satisfied except for the passage of time. For the quarter ended December 31, 2022, the weighted-average number of shares of BGC Class A common stock was 324.0 million and Class B shares was 45.9 million. For the year ended December 31, 2022, the weighted-average number of shares of BGC Class A common stock was 324.3 million and Class B shares was 45.9 million.
2Partnership units collectively include FPUs, LPUs, including contingent units of BGC Holdings for which all necessary conditions have been satisfied except for the passage of time, and Cantor units (see Note 2-"Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information).
3For the quarter ended December 31, 2022, approximately 0.2 million potentially dilutive securities were not included in the computation of fully diluted EPS because their effect would have been anti-dilutive. Anti-dilutive securities for the quarter ended December 31, 2022 included, on a weighted-average basis, approximately 0.2 million RSUs. For the year ended December 31, 2022, approximately 0.5 million potentially dilutive securities were not included in the computation of fully diluted EPS because their effect would have been anti-dilutive. Anti-dilutive securities for the year ended December 31, 2022 included, approximately0.1
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0.5 million RSUs. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 50.2 million shares of contingent BGC Class A common stock, N units, RSUs, and LPUs were excluded from fully diluted EPS computations because the conditions for issuance had not been met by the end of the period. The contingent BGC Class A common stock is recorded as a liability and included in "Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities" in our consolidated statement of financial condition as of December 31, 2022.
The fully diluted period-end spot share count was as follows (in thousands):
| | | | | | |
| | As of December 31, 2022 |
| Common stock outstanding | 371,742 | |
| Partnership units | 116,656 | |
| RSUs (Treasury stock method) | 2,739 | |
| Other | 2,481 | |
| Total | 493,618 | |
On June 5, 2015, we entered into the Exchange Agreement with Cantor providing Cantor, CFGM and other Cantor affiliates entitled to hold BGC Class B common stock the right to exchange from time to time, on a one-to-one basis, subject to adjustment, up to an aggregate of 34.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock now owned or subsequently acquired by such Cantor entities for up to an aggregate of 34.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock. Such shares of BGC Class B common stock, which currently can be acquired upon the exchange of Cantor units owned in BGC Holdings, are already included in our fully diluted share count and will not increase Cantor's current maximum potential voting power in the common equity. The Exchange Agreement enabled the Cantor entities to acquire the same number of shares of BGC Class B common stock that they were already entitled to acquire without having to exchange its Cantor units in BGC Holdings. The Audit Committee and Board have determined that it was in the best interests of us and our stockholders to approve the Exchange Agreement because it will help ensure that Cantor retains its Cantor units in BGC Holdings, which is the same partnership in which our partner employees participate, thus continuing to align the interests of Cantor with those of the partner employees.
On November 23, 2018, in the Class B Issuance, BGC issued 10.3 million shares of BGC Class B common stock to Cantor and 0.7 million shares of BGC Class B common stock to CFGM, an affiliate of Cantor, in each case in exchange for shares of BGC Class A common stock from Cantor and CFGM, respectively, on a one-to-one basis pursuant to the Exchange Agreement. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, no additional consideration was paid to BGC by Cantor or CFGM for the Class B Issuance. Following this exchange, Cantor and its affiliates only have the right to exchange under the Exchange Agreement up to an aggregate of 23.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, now owned or subsequently acquired, or its Cantor units in BGC Holdings, into shares of BGC Class B common stock. As of December 31, 2022, Cantor and CFGM did not own any shares of BGC Class A common stock.
We and Cantor have agreed that any shares of BGC Class B common stock issued in connection with the Exchange Agreement would be deducted from the aggregate number of shares of BGC Class B common stock that may be issued to the Cantor entities upon exchange of Cantor units in BGC Holdings. Accordingly, the Cantor entities will not be entitled to receive any more shares of BGC Class B Stock under this agreement than they were previously eligible to receive upon exchange of Cantor units.
On November 4, 2015, partners of BGC Holdings created five new classes of non-distributing partnership units (collectively with the NPSUs, "N Units"). These new N Units carry the same name as the underlying unit with the insertion of an additional "N" to designate them as the N Unit type and are designated as NREUs, NPREUs, NLPUs, NPLPUs and NPPSUs. The N Units are not entitled to participate in partnership distributions, will not be allocated any items of profit or loss and may not be made exchangeable into shares of BGC Class A common stock. The Eleventh Amendment was approved by the Audit Committee and by the Board.
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Subject to the approval of the Compensation Committee or its designee, certain N Units may be converted into the underlying unit type (i.e., an NREU will be converted into an REU) and will then participate in partnership distributions, subject to terms and conditions determined by the general partner of BGC Holdings in its sole discretion, including that the recipient continue to provide substantial services to the Company and comply with his or her partnership obligations. Such N Units are not included in the fully diluted share count.
On December 14, 2016, partners of BGC Holdings amended certain terms and conditions of the partnership's N Units in order to provide flexibility to the Company and the Partnership in using such N Units in connection with compensation arrangements and practices. The amendment provides for a minimum $5 million gross revenue requirement in a given quarter as a condition for an N Unit to be replaced by another type of partnership unit in accordance with the Partnership Agreement and the grant documentation. The amendment was approved by the Audit Committee.
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On December 13, 2017, the Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement was amended and restated a second time to include prior standalone amendments and to make certain other changes related to the Separation. The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement, among other things, reflects changes resulting from the division in the Separation of BGC Holdings into BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings, including:
•an apportionment of the existing economic attributes (including, among others, capital accounts and post-termination payments) of each BGC Holdings limited partnership interests outstanding immediately prior to the Separation between such Legacy BGC Holdings Unit and the fraction of a Newmark Holdings LPU issued in the Separation in respect of such Legacy BGC Holdings Unit, based on the relative value of BGC and Newmark as of after the Newmark IPO;
•an adjustment of the exchange mechanism between the Newmark IPO and the Distribution so that one exchangeable BGC Holdings unit together with a number of exchangeable Newmark Holdings units equal to 0.4545 divided by the Newmark Holdings Exchange Ratio as of such time, must be exchanged in order to receive one share of BGC Class A common stock; and
•a right of the employer of a partner (whether it be Newmark or BGC) to determine whether to grant exchangeability with respect to Legacy BGC Holdings Units or Legacy Newmark Holdings Units held by such partner.
The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement also removes certain classes of BGC Holdings units that are no longer outstanding, and permits the general partner of BGC Holdings to determine the total number of authorized BGC Holdings units. The Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was approved by the Audit Committee.
Registration Statements
We had in place an effective equity shelf registration statement on Form S-3 filed on March 9, 2018 We previously had in place the March 2018 Form S-3 with respect to the issuance and sale of up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis. (the "March 2018 Form S-3"). On March 9, 2018, we entered into the March 2018 Sales Agreement, pursuant to which we could offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock under the CEO Program. Proceeds from shares of BGC Class A common stock sold under this CEO Program Sales Agreement could be used for redemptions of limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings, as well as for general corporate purposes, including acquisitions and the repayment of debt. CF&Co is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cantor and an affiliate of us. Under this Sales Agreement, we have agreed to pay CF&Co 2% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares. For certain transactions during 2020, we paid CF&Co 1% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares of our Class A common stock in our CEO program. The March 2018 Form S-3 and the March 2018 Sales Agreement expired in September 2021. As of the date of expiration, we had sold 17.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock (or $210.8 million) under the March 2018 Sales Agreement, and $89.2 million of stock remained unsold by us under the March 2018 Sales Agreement. For additional information on our CEO Program sales agreements, see Note 13-"Related Party Transactions" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part 8, Item II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. On March 8, 2021, we filed a replacement CEO Program shelf registration statement on Form S-3 which has not yet been declared effective,the March 2021 Form S-3 with respect to the issuance and sale of up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time on a delayed or continuous basis. On July 8, 2022, we filed an amendment to the March 2021 Form S-3. On August 3, 2022, the March 2021 Form S-3 was declared effective by the SEC, and we entered into the August 2022 Sales Agreement on August 12, 2022.
We intend to use the net proceeds of any shares of BGC Class A common stock sold for general corporate purposes for potential acquisitions, redemptions of LPUs and FPUs in BGC Holdings and repurchases of shares of BGC Class A common stock from partners, executive officers and other employees of ours or our subsidiaries and of Cantor and its affiliates. Certain of such partners will be expected to use the proceeds from such sales to repay outstanding loans issued by, or credit enhanced by, Cantor, or BGC Holdings. In addition to general corporate purposes, these sales along with our share repurchase
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authorization are designed as a planning device in order to facilitate the redemption process. Going forward, we may redeem units and reduce our fully diluted share count under our repurchase authorization or later sell shares of BGC Class A common stock under the replacement CEO Program shelf registration statement on Form S-3.which has not yet been declared effective.March 2021 Form S-3.
Further, we have an effective registration statement on Form S-4 filed on September 3, 2010, with respect to the offer and sale of up to 20 million shares of BGC Class A common stock from time to time in connection with business combination transactions, including acquisitions of other businesses, assets, properties or securities. As of December 31, 2022, we have issued an aggregate of 17.2 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under this Form S-4 registration statement. Additionally, on September 13, 2019, we filed a registration statement on Form S-4, with respect to the offer and sale of up to 20 million shares of Class A common stock from time to time in connection with business combination transactions, including acquisitions of other businesses, assets, properties or securities. As of December 31, 2022, we have not issued any shares of BGC Class A common stock under this Form S-4 registration statement. We also have an effective shelf registration statement on Form S-3 pursuant to which we can offer and sell up to 10 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the BGC Partners, Inc. Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan. As of December 31, 2022, we have issued 0.8 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan.
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The Compensation Committee may grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, deferred stock such as RSUs, bonus stock, performance awards, dividend equivalents and other equity-based awards, including to provide exchange rights for shares of BGC Class A common stock upon exchange of LPUs. On November 22, 2021, at our Annual Meeting of Stockholders, our stockholders approved amendments to our Equity Plan to increase from 400 million to 500 million the aggregate number of shares of BGC Class A common stock that may be delivered or cash-settled pursuant to awards granted during the life of the Equity Plan, subject to adjustment, and to remove the annual per-participant limit of 15 million awards that may be granted under the Plan. As of December 31, 2022, the limit on the aggregate number of shares authorized to be delivered allowed for the grant of future awards relating to 128.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock.
On October 20, 2020, we filed a registration statement on Form S-3, which was declared effective on October 28, 2020, pursuant to which CF&Co may make offers and sales of our 5.125% Senior Notes, 5.375% Senior Notes, 3.750% Senior Notes and 4.375% Senior Notes in connection with ongoing market-making transactions which may occur from time to time. Such market-making transactions in these securities may occur in the open market or may be privately negotiated at prevailing market prices at a time of resale or at related or negotiated prices. Neither CF&Co, nor any other of our affiliates, has any obligation to make a market in our securities, and CF&Co or any such other affiliate may discontinue market-making activities at any time without notice.
CONTINGENT PAYMENTS RELATED TO ACQUISITIONS
Since 2016, the Company has completed acquisitions whose purchase price included an aggregate of approximately 2.2 million shares of the BGC Class A common stock (with an acquisition date fair value of approximately $9.2 million), 0.1 million LPUs (with an acquisition date fair value of approximately $0.2 million), 0.2 million RSUs (with an acquisition date fair value of approximately $1.2 million) and $37.5 million in cash that may be issued contingent on certain targets being met through 2023.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company has issued 1.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, 0.2 million of RSUs, and paid $34.7 million in cash related to such contingent payments.
As of December 31, 2022, 1.3 million shares of BGC Class A common stock, 0.1 million RSUs, and $18.4 million in cash remain to be issued if the targets are met, net of forfeitures and other adjustments.
DERIVATIVE SUIT
On October 5, 2018, Roofers Local 149 Pension Fund filed a putative derivative complaint in the Delaware Chancery Court, captioned Roofers Local 149 Pension Fund vs. Howard Lutnick, et al. (Case No. 2018-0722), alleging breaches of fiduciary duty against (i) the members of the Board, (ii) Howard Lutnick, CFGM, and Cantor as controlling stockholders of BGC, and (iii) Howard Lutnick as an officer of BGC. The complaint challenges the transactions by which BGC (i) completed the Berkeley Point acquisition from CCRE for $875 million and (ii) committed to invest $100 million for a 27% interest in Real Estate, L.P. (collectively, the "Transaction"). Among other things, the complaint alleges that (i) the price BGC paid in connection with the Transaction was unfair, (ii) the process leading up to the Transaction was unfair, and (iii) the members of the special committee of the Board were not independent. It seeks to recover for the Company unquantified damages, as well as attorneys' fees.
A month later, on November 5, 2018, the same plaintiffs' firm filed an identical putative derivative complaint against the same defendants seeking the same relief on behalf of a second client, Northern California Pipe Trades Trust Funds. The cases were consolidated into a single action, captioned In re BGC Partners, Inc. Derivative Litigation (Consolidated C.A. No.
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2018-0722-AGB), and the complaint filed by Roofers Local 149 Pension Fund on October 5, 2018 was designated as the operative complaint.
In response to motions to dismiss filed by all defendants in December 2018, Plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to amend the operative complaint in February 2019, requesting that the Court allow them to supplement their allegations, which the Court granted. The amended complaint alleges the same purported breaches of fiduciary duty as the operative complaint, raises no new claims, and seeks identical relief, but includes additional allegations, including alleged reasons for plaintiffs' failure to make a demand on the Board, which was the basis of defendants' motion to dismiss. On March 19, 2019, all defendants filed motions to dismiss the amended complaints, again on demand grounds. On September 30, 2019, the Court denied defendants' motions to dismiss, permitting the case to move forward into discovery. In its ruling, the Court determined that the amended complaint sufficiently pled that plaintiffs were not required to make demand on the Board in order to file a derivative suit, but did not make findings of fact with respect to the underlying merits of plaintiffs' allegations concerning the Transaction. On February 11, 2021, following the close of discovery, the Company and the independent directors of the Board filed motions for summary judgment seeking dismissal of the case based on the discovery record, which plaintiffs opposed. Argument was held on defendants' summary judgment motions on June 22, 2021. On September 20, 2021, the Court partially granted the summary judgment motions, dismissing directors Stephen Curwood and Linda Bell and permitting the trial to move forward against the remaining defendants. A trial was held before Vice Chancellor Lori Will on October 11, 2021, which concluded on October 15, 2021. Following the close of the hearing, the parties submitted post-trial briefing, and presented oral argument on March 2, 2022. On April 14, 2022, the Court requested limited additional briefing, which the parties submitted on May 13, 2022. the parties will submit post-trial briefing, after which the Court is expected to rule on all pending matters in or around the second quarter of 2022.
On August 19, 2022, the Court issued a post-trial memorandum opinion in favor of BGC, its directors, and controlling shareholders, ruling that the Transaction was entirely fair to BGC's shareholders with respect to both process and price. The Court found that "Berkeley Point was, by all accounts, a unique asset particularly appealing to BGC" and that the price negotiated by BGC's Special Committee and agreed to by Cantor Fitzgerald was at the "lower end" of a range of reasonable
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prices. The Court further found the Special Committee was "independent, fully empowered, and well-functioning." Final judgment in the case was entered for Defendants and against the Plaintiffs on September 27, 2022. The same day, Plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal, seeking reversal of the memorandum opinion and final judgment. The briefing of the appeal before the Delaware Supreme Court is now complete, with oral argument yet to be scheduled.
The Company continues to believe that the claims against the Defendants are
BGC believes that any appeal of the Court's final judgement would be without merit, and will continue to defend the case vigorously. However, as in any litigated matter, the outcome cannot be determined with certainty.
PURCHASE OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP INTERESTS
Cantor has the right to purchase Cantor units from BGC Holdings upon redemption of non-exchangeable FPUs redeemed by BGC Holdings upon termination or bankruptcy of the Founding/Working Partner. In addition, pursuant to Article Eight, Section 8.08, of the Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement (previously the Sixth Amendment), where either current, terminating, or terminated partners are permitted by the Company to exchange any portion of their FPUs and Cantor consents to such exchangeability, the Company shall offer to Cantor the opportunity for Cantor to purchase the same number of Cantor units in BGC Holdings at the price that Cantor would have paid for Cantor units had the Company redeemed the FPUs. If Cantor acquires any Cantor units as a result of the purchase or redemption by BGC Holdings of any FPUs, Cantor will be entitled to the benefits (including distributions) of such units it acquires from the date of termination or bankruptcy of the applicable Founding/Working Partner. In addition, any such Cantor units purchased by Cantor are currently exchangeable for up to 23.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock or, at Cantor's election or if there are no such additional shares of BGC Class B common stock, shares of BGC Class A common stock, in each case on a one-for-one basis (subject to customary anti-dilution adjustments).
On March 31, 2021, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 1,149,684 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $2,104,433 as a result of the redemption of 1,149,684 FPUs, and 1,618,376 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $3,040,411 as a result of the exchange of 1,618,376 FPUs.Each Cantor unit in BGC Holdings held by Cantor is exchangeable by Cantor at any time on a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment) for shares of BGC Class A common stock.
On October 28, 2021, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 460,929 Cantor units for an aggregate consideration of $715,605 as a result of the redemption of 460,929 FPUs, and 1,179,942 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $2,033,838 as a result of the exchange of 1,179,942 FPUs.Each Cantor unit in BGC Holdings held by Cantor is exchangeable by Cantor at any time On a one-for-one basis (subject to adjustment) for shares of BGC Class a common stock.
On May 17, 2022, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate 427,494 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $841,010 as a result of the redemption of 427,494 FPUs, and 52,681 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $105,867 as a result of the exchange of 52,681 FPUs.
On October 25, 2022, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 275,833 Cantor units for an aggregate consideration of $397,196 as a result of the redemption of 275,833 FPUs, and 77,507 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $142,613 as a result of the exchange of 77,507 FPUs.

As of December 31, 2022, there were 0.3 million FPUs in BGC Holdings remaining, which BGC Holdings had the right to redeem or exchange and with respect to which Cantor will have the right to purchase an equivalent number of Cantor units following such redemption or exchange.
JOINT SERVICES AGREEMENT WITH CANTOR
In February 2019, the Audit Committee authorized us to enter into a short-term services agreement with Cantor pursuant to which Cantor would be responsible for clearing, settling and processing certain transactions executed on behalf of customers in exchange for a 33% revenue share based on net transaction revenue and the payment by BGC of the fully allocated cost of certain salespersons related thereto. In May 2020, the Audit Committee authorized us to extend the initial term of the short-term services agreement for an additional nine months.
GUARANTEE AGREEMENT FROM MINT BROKERS
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Under rules adopted by the CFTC, all foreign introducing brokers engaging in transactions with U.S. persons are required to register with the NFA and either meet financial reporting and net capital requirements on an individual basis or obtain a guarantee agreement from a registered Futures Commission Merchant. Our European-based brokers engage from time to time in interest rate swap transactions with U.S.-based counterparties, and therefore we are subject to the CFTC requirements. Mint Brokers has entered into guarantees on our behalf (and on behalf of GFI), and we are required to indemnify Mint Brokers for the amounts, if any, paid by Mint Brokers on our behalf pursuant to this arrangement. Effective April 1, 2020, these guarantees were transferred to Mint Brokers from CF&Co. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recorded expenses of $0.1 million with respect to these guarantees.
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BGC SUBLEASE FROM NEWMARK
In May 2020, BGC U.S. OpCo entered into an arrangement to sublease excess space from RKF Retail Holdings LLC, a subsidiary of Newmark, which sublease was approved by the Audit Committee. The deal is a one-year sublease of approximately 21,000 rentable square feet in New York City. Under the terms of the sublease, BGC U.S. OpCo paid a fixed rent amount of $1.1 million in addition to all operating and tax expenses attributable to the lease. In May 2021, the sublease was amended to provide for a rate of $15 thousand per month based on the size of utilized space, with terms extending on a month-to-month basis, and expiring on December 31, 2021. In connection with the sublease, BGC U.S. OpCo paid $0.5 million and $0.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2021.and 2020, respectively.for the year ended December 31, 2021.
DEBT REPURCHASE PROGRAM
On June 11, 2020, the Company's Board of Directors and its Audit Committee authorized a debt repurchase program for the repurchase by the Company of up to $50.0 million of Company Debt Securities. Repurchases of Company Debt Securities, if any, are expected to reduce future cash interest payments, as well as future amounts due at maturity or upon redemption.
Under the authorization, the Company may make repurchases of Company Debt Securities for cash from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions upon such terms and at such prices as management may determine. Additionally, the Company is authorized to make any such repurchases of Company Debt Securities through CF&Co (or its affiliates), in its capacity as agent or principal, or such other broker-dealers as management shall determine to utilize from time to time, and such repurchases shall be subject to brokerage commissions which are no higher than standard market commission rates.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $50.0 million remaining from its debt repurchase authorization.
EQUITY METHOD INVESTMENTS
The Company was authorized to enter into loans, investments or other credit support arrangements for Aqua; such arrangements are proportionally and on the same terms as similar arrangements between Aqua and Cantor. On February 15, 2022 and February 25, 2021, the Company's Board and Audit Committee increased the authorized amount by an additional $1.0 million and $1.0 million respectively, to an aggregate of $21.2 million. The Company has been further authorized to provide counterparty or similar guarantees on behalf of Aqua from time to time, provided that liability for any such guarantees, as well as similar guarantees provided by Cantor, would be shared proportionally with Cantor (see Note 13-"Related Party Transactions" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information).
UNIT REDEMPTIONS AND EXCHANGES-EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
On March 14, 2022, the Compensation Committee approved the grant of exchange rights to Mr. Windeatt with respect to 135,514 non-exchangeable BGC Holdings LPU-NEWs and 27,826 non-exchangeable PLPU-NEWs (at the average determination price of $4.84 per unit). On August 11, 2022, the Company repurchased 135,514 exchangeable BGC Holdings LPU-NEWs held by Mr. Windeatt at the price of $4.08 per unit, which was the closing price of the BGC Class A common stock on August 11, 2022, and redeemed 27,826 exchangeable PLPU-NEWs held by Mr. Windeatt for $134,678, less applicable taxes and withholdings.
On February 22, 2021, the Company granted Sean A. Windeatt 123,713 exchange rights with respect to 123,713 non-exchangeable LPUs that were previously granted to Mr. Windeatt on February 22, 2019. The resulting 123,713 exchangeable LPUs are immediately exchangeable by Mr. Windeatt for an aggregate of 123,713 shares of BGC Class A common stock. The grant was approved by the Compensation Committee. Additionally, the Compensation Committee approved the right to exchange for cash 28,477 non-exchangeable PLPUs held by Mr. Windeatt, for a payment of $178,266 for taxes when the LPU units are exchanged.
On April 8, 2021, the Compensation Committee approved the repurchase by the Company on April 23, 2021 of 123,713 exchangeable BGC Holdings LPU-NEWs held by Mr. Windeatt at the price of $5.65, which was the closing price of our Class A common stock on April 23, 2021, and the redemption of 28,477 exchangeable BGC Holdings PLPU-NEWs held by Mr. Windeatt for $178,266, less applicable taxes and withholdings.
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On April 8, 2021, the Compensation Committee approved the repurchase by the Company of the remaining 62,211 exchangeable BGC Holdings LPUs held by Mr. Windeatt that were granted exchangeability on March 2, 2020 at the price of $5.38, the closing price of Class A common stock on April 8, 2020.
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On April 28, 2021, the Compensation Committee approved an additional monetization opportunity for Mr. Merkel. Effective April 29, 2021, 108,350 of Mr. Merkel's 273,612 non-exchangeable BGC Holdings PSUs were redeemed for zero, 101,358 of Mr. Merkel's 250,659 non- exchangeable BGC Holdings PPSUs were redeemed for a cash payment of $575,687, and 108,350 shares of BGC Class A common stock were issued to Mr. Merkel. On April 29, 2021, the 108,350 shares of BGC Class A common stock were repurchased from Mr. Merkel at the closing price of our Class A common stock on that date, under our stock buyback program.
On June 28, 2021, (i) the Company exchanged 520,380 exchangeable LPUs held by Mr. Lutnick at the price of $5.86, which was the closing price of the BGC Class A common stock on June 28, 2021, for 520,380 shares of BGC Class A common stock, less applicable taxes and withholdings, resulting in the delivery of 365,229 net shares of BGC Class A common stock to Mr. Lutnick, and in connection with the exchange of these 520,380 exchangeable LPUs, 425,765 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for a cash payment of $1,525,705 towards taxes; (ii) 88,636 non-exchangeable LPUs were redeemed for zero, and in connection therewith the Company issued Mr. Lutnick 88,636 shares of BGC Class A common stock, less applicable taxes and withholdings, resulting in the delivery of 41,464 net shares of BGC Class A common stock to Mr. Lutnick; and (iii) 1,131,774 H Units held by Mr. Lutnick were redeemed for 1,131,774 HDUs with a capital account of $7,017,000, and in connection with the redemption of these 1,131,774 H Units, 1,018,390 Preferred H Units were redeemed for $7,983,000 for taxes.
On December 21, 2021, the Compensation Committee approved a monetization opportunity for Mr. Lutnick. Effective December 21, 2021, 1,939,896 of Mr. Lutnick's non-exchangeable BGC Holding PPSUs were redeemed for a payment of $10,851,803. Mr. Lutnick also elected to redeem all of his 425,766 exchangeable BGC Holdings PPSUs for a payment of $1,525,706. In connection with the foregoing, Mr. Lutnick's 2,011,731 non-exchangeable BGC Holdings PSUs were redeemed for zero and 2,011,731 shares of BGC Class A common stock were issued to Mr. Lutnick. In addition, 376,651 H Units held by Mr. Lutnick were redeemed for 376,651 HDUs with a capital account of $2,339,003, and in connection with the redemption of these 376,651 H Units, 463,969 Preferred H Units were redeemed for $2,661,000 for taxes.
On December 21, 2021, the Compensation Committee approved a monetization opportunity for Mr. Merkel. Effective December 21, 2021, 90,366 non-exchangeable BGC Holdings PSUs were redeemed for zero, 149,301 of Mr. Merkel's non-exchangeable BGC Holdings PPSUs were redeemed for a cash payment of $555,990, and 90,366 shares of BGC Class A common stock were issued to Mr. Merkel.
On March 2, 2020, the Company granted Stephen M. Merkel 360,065 exchange rights with respect to 360,065 non-exchangeable PSUs that were previously granted to Mr. Merkel. The resulting 360,065 exchangeable PSUs were immediately exchangeable by Mr. Merkel for an aggregate of 360,065 shares of BGC Class A common stock. The grant was approved by the Compensation Committee. Additionally, the Compensation Committee approved the right to exchange for cash 265,568 non-exchangeable PPSUs held by Mr. Merkel, for a payment of $1,507,285 for taxes when the PSU units were exchanged. On March 20, 2020, the Company redeemed 185,300 of such 360,065 exchangeable PSUs held by Mr. Merkel at the average price of shares of BGC Class A common stock sold under BGC's CEO Program from March 10, 2020 to March 13, 2020 less 1% (approximately $4.0024 per PSU, for an aggregate redemption price of approximately $741,644). This transaction was approved by the Compensation Committee. On July 30, 2020, the Company redeemed the remaining 174,765 exchangeable PSUs held by Mr. Merkel at the price of $2.76, the closing price of our Class A Common Stock on July 30, 2020. This transaction was approved by the Compensation Committee. In connection with the redemption of the 185,300 exchangeable PSUs on March 20, 2020, 122,579 PPSUs were redeemed for $661,303 for taxes. In connection with the redemption of the 174,765 PSUs on July 30, 2020, 142,989 PPSUs were redeemed for $846,182 for taxes.
On March 2, 2020, the Company granted Shaun D. Lynn 883,348 exchange rights with respect to 883,348 non-exchangeable LPUs that were previously granted to Mr. Lynn. The resulting 883,348 exchangeable LPUs were immediately exchangeable by Mr. Lynn for an aggregate of 883,348 shares of BGC Class A common stock. The grant was approved by the Compensation Committee. Additionally, the Compensation Committee approved the right to exchange for cash 245,140 non-exchangeable PLPUs held by Mr. Lynn, for a payment of $1,099,599 for taxes when the LPU units are exchanged. On July 30, 2020, the Company redeemed 797,222 exchangeable LPUs held by Mr. Lynn at the price of $2.76, the closing price of our Class A Common Stock on July 30, 2020. This transaction was approved by the Compensation Committee. In connection with the redemption of the 797,222 exchangeable LPUs, 221,239 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for $992,388 for taxes. In connection with the redemption, Mr. Lynn's remaining 86,126 exchangeable LPUs and 23,901 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for zero upon exchange in connection with his LLP status.
On March 2, 2020, the Company granted Sean A. Windeatt 519,725 exchange rights with respect to 519,725 non-exchangeable LPUs that were previously granted to Mr. Windeatt. The resulting 519,725 exchangeable LPUs were immediately exchangeable by Mr. Windeatt for an aggregate of 519,725 shares of BGC Class A common stock. The grant was approved by the Compensation Committee. Additionally, the Compensation Committee approved the right to exchange for cash 97,656 non-
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non-exchangeable PLPUs held by Mr. Windeatt, for a payment of $645,779 for taxes when the LPU units are exchanged. On August 5, 2020, the Company redeemed 436,665 exchangeable LPUs held by Mr. Windeatt at the price of $2.90, the closing price of our Class A common stock on August 5, 2020. This transaction was approved by the Compensation Committee. In connection with the redemption of the 436,665 exchangeable LPUs, 96,216 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for $637,866 for taxes. In
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connection with the redemption, 20,849 exchangeable LPUs and 1,440 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for zero upon exchange in connection with Mr. Windeatt's LLP status.
Additionally, on August 5, 2020, the Company granted Mr. Windeatt 40,437 exchange rights with respect to 40,437 non-exchangeable LPUs that were previously granted to Mr. Windeatt. The resulting 40,437 exchangeable LPUs were immediately exchangeable by Mr. Windeatt for an aggregate of 40,437 shares of BGC Class A common stock. The grant was approved by the Compensation Committee. Additionally, the Compensation Committee approved the right to exchange for cash 21,774 non-exchangeable PLPUs held by Mr. Windeatt. On August 5, 2020, the Company redeemed these 40,437 exchangeable LPUs held by Mr. Windeatt at the price of $2.90, the closing price of our Class A common stock on August 5, 2020. This transaction was approved by the Compensation Committee. In connection with the redemption of these 40,437 exchangeable LPUs, the 21,774 exchangeable PLPUs were redeemed for $136,305 for taxes.
In addition to the foregoing, on August 6, 2020, Mr. Windeatt was granted exchange rights with respect to 43,890 non-exchangeable Newmark Holding LPUs that were previously granted to Mr. Windeatt. Additionally, Mr. Windeatt was granted the right to exchange for cash 17,068 non-exchangeable Newmark Holdings PLPUs held by Mr. Windeatt. As these Newmark Holdings LPUs and PLPUs were previously non-exchangeable, the Company took a transaction charge of $381,961 upon grant of exchangeability. On August 6, 2020, Newmark redeemed the 40,209 Newmark Holdings exchangeable LPUs held by Mr. Windeatt for an amount equal to the closing price of Newmark's Class A Common Stock on August 6, 2020 ($4.16) multiplied by 37,660 (the amount of shares of Newmark's Class A Common Stock the 40,209 Newmark Holdings LPUs were exchangeable into based on the Exchange Ratio at August 6, 2020). In connection with the redemption of these 40,209 exchangeable Newmark Holdings LPUs, 15,637 exchangeable Newmark Holdings PLPUs were redeemed for $194,086 for taxes. In connection with the redemption, 3,681 exchangeable Newmark Holding LPUs and 1,431 exchangeable Newmark Holdings PLPUs were redeemed for zero upon exchange in connection with Mr. Windeatt's LLP status.
On March 27, 2019, the Audit and Compensation Committees authorized the purchase by the Company from Mr. Merkel of up to 250,000 shares of BGC Class A common stock at the closing price on March 26, 2019. Pursuant to this authorization, 233,172 shares of BGC Class A common stock were purchased by the Company on March 27, 2019 at $5.30 per share, the closing price on March 26, 2019.
On February 27, 2019, the Audit Committee authorized the purchase by Mr. Lutnick's retirement plan of up to $56,038 of BGC Class A common stock at the closing price on March 4, 2019. Pursuant to this authorization, 8,980 shares of BGC Class A common stock were purchased by the plan on March 5, 2019 at $6.24 per share, the closing price on March 4, 2019.
MARKET SUMMARY
The following table provides certain volume and transaction count information for the quarterly periods indicated:
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, | | September 30, | | June 30, | | March 31, | | December 31, |
| | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2022 | | 2021 |
| Notional Volume (in billions) | | | | | | | | | |
| Total Fully Electronic volume | $ | 10,908 | | | $ | 10,059 | | | $ | 10,049 | | | $ | 11,605 | | | $ | 8,736 | |10,596 | | | $ | 10,471 | | | $ | 10,216 | | | $ | 12,027 | | | $ | 9,873 | |
| Total Hybrid volume1 | 61,846 | | | 62,859 | | | 62,345 | | | 68,113 | | | 59,165 | |
| Total Hybrid volume | 58,022 | | | 65,404 | | | 63,558 | | | 59,920 | | | 61,847 | |
| Total Fully Electronic and Hybrid volume | $ | 72,754 | | | $ | 72,918 | | | $ | 72,394 | | | $ | 79,718 | | | $ | 67,901 | |68,618 | | | $ | 75,875 | | | $ | 73,774 | | | $ | 71,947 | | | $ | 71,720 | |
| Transaction Count (in thousands, except for days) | | | | | | | | | |
| Total Fully Electronic transactions | 3,816 | | | 3,366 | | | 3,212 | | | 3,746 | | | 2,895 | |3,912 | | | 3,905 | | | 3,813 | | | 4,404 | | | 3,756 | |
| Total Hybrid transactions | 1,205 | | | 1,070 | | | 1,113 | | | 1,348 | | | 1,129 | |
| Total Hybrid transactions | 1,431 | | | 1,399 | | | 1,499 | | | 1,419 | | | 1,205 | |
| Total Fully Electronic and Hybrid transactions | 5,021 | | | 4,436 | | | 4,325 | | | 5,094 | | | 4,024 | |5,343 | | | 5,304 | | | 5,312 | | | 5,823 | | | 4,961 | |
| Trading days | 64 | | 64 | | 62 | | 62 | | 64 |
_________________________
Note: Certain information may have been recast with current estimates to reflect changes in reporting methodology. Such revisions have no impact on the Company's revenues or earnings.
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1Hybrid is defined as transactions involving some element of electronic trading but executed by BGC's brokers, exclusive of voice-only transactions. Fully electronic involves customer-to-customer trades, free from broker execution.
Fully Electronic volume, including new products, was $43.3 trillion for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to $38.1 trillion for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our Hybrid volume for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $246.9 trillion, compared to $255.2 trillion for the year ended December 31, 2021.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
The following table summarizes certain of our contractual obligations at December 31, 2022 (in thousands):
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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Total | | Less Than | | 1-3 Years | | 3-5 Years | | More Than |
| | | | 1 Year | | | | | | 5 Years |
| Long-term Debt and collateralized borrowings1 | $ | 1,059,642 | | | $ | 6,391 | | | $ | 753,251 | | | $ | 300,000 | | | $ | - | |1,053,251 | | | $ | 453,251 | | | $ | 600,000 | | | $ | - | | | $ | - | |
| Operating leases2 | 221,937 | | | 32,288 | | | 51,751 | | | 34,684 | | | 103,214 | |
| Operating leases2 | 221,363 | | | 35,483 | | | 57,145 | | | 39,517 | | | 89,218 | |
| Finance leases2 | 6,615 | | | 1,802 | | | 2,896 | | | 1,917 | | | - | |
| Interest on long-term debt and collateralized borrowings3 | 122,034 | | | 49,906 | | | 59,732 | | | 12,396 | | | - | |73,877 | | | 38,980 | | | 34,897 | | | - | | | - | |
| Short-term borrowings4 | 1,917 | | | 1,917 | | | - | | | - | | | - | |
| Interest on Short-term borrowings | 107 | | | 86 | | | 21 | | | - | | | - | |
| One-time transition tax5 | 20,231 | | | 2,709 | | | 7,385 | | | 10,137 | | | - | |5,308 | | | 10,965 | | | 3,958 | | | - | |
| Other6 | 21,776 | | | 10,038 | | | 11,738 | | | - | | | - | |
| Other6 | 17,657 | | | 9,160 | | | 8,497 | | | - | | | - | |
| Total contractual obligations | $ | 1,449,709 | | | $ | 105,400 | | | $ | 883,878 | | | $ | 357,217 | | | $ | 103,214 | |1,395,018 | | | $ | 545,987 | | | $ | 714,421 | | | $ | 45,392 | | | $ | 89,218 | |
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1Debt and collateralized borrowings reflects long-term borrowings of $450.0 million of the 5.375% Senior Notes (the $450.0 million represents the principal amount of the debt; the carrying value of the 5.375% Senior Notes as of December 31, 2022 was $449.2 million), $300.0 million of the 3.750% Senior Notes (the $300.0 million represents the principal amount of the debt; the carrying value of the 3.750% Senior Notes as of December 31, 2022 was approximately $298.6 million), $300.0 million of the 4.375% Senior Notes (the $300.0 million represents the principal amount of the debt; the carrying value of the 4.375% Senior Notes as of December 31, 2022 was approximately $298.2 million), $2.0 million of collateralized borrowings due April 8, 2023, and $1.3 million of collateralized borrowings due April 19, 2023. See Note 17-"Notes Payable, Other and Short-term Borrowings" in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10K for more information regarding these obligations, including timing of payments and compliance with debt covenants.
2Operating leases and finance leases are related to rental payments under various non-cancelable leases, principally for office space, data centers and office equipment are presented net of sublease payments to be received. As of December 31, 2022, there were no sublease payments to be received over the life of the agreements.
3Interest on long-term debt and collateralized borrowings also includes interest on the undrawn portion of the committed unsecured senior Revolving Credit Agreement which was calculated through the maturity date of the facility, which is March 10, 2025. As of December 31, 2022, the undrawn portion of the committed unsecured Revolving Credit Agreement was $375.0 million.
4Short-term borrowings reflect approximately $1.9 million (BRL 20.0 million) of borrowing under the Company's committed unsecured loan agreement. See Note 17-"Notes Payable, Other and Short-term Borrowings" in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10K for more information regarding this obligation.
5The Company completed the calculation of the one-time transition tax on the deemed repatriation of foreign subsidiaries' earnings pursuant to the Tax Act and previously recorded a net cumulative tax expense of $28.6 million, net of foreign tax credits, with an election to pay the taxes over eight years with 40% to be paid in equal installments over the first five years and the remaining 60% to be paid in installments of 15%, 20% and 25% in years six, seven and eight, respectively. The cumulative remaining balance as of December 31, 2022 is $20.2 million.
6Other contractual obligations reflect commitments of $9.2 million to make charitable contributions, which are recorded as part of "Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. The amount payable each year reflects an estimate of future Charity Day obligations. In addition, as part of the Insurance Business Disposition, unvested equity and other awards previously granted by BGC to employees of its Insurance brokerage business were converted into the right to receive a cash payment from BGC; a significant portion of these awards was 50% vested and paid in cash at closing, with the remaining 50% vesting and to be paid in cash two years after closing. The remaining portion of these awards will have been 100% vested and paid in cash by two years after the closing. The payments after closing are only made if the applicable employee remains an employee of the Insurance brokerage business. The remaining portion of these awards is reflected as other contractual obligations, and is recorded as part of "Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition.
OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS
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In the ordinary course of business, we enter into arrangements with unconsolidated entities, including variable interest entities. See Note 14-"Investments" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our investments in unconsolidated entities.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
The preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of the assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and the
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disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our Consolidated Financial Statements. These accounting estimates require the use of assumptions about matters, some of which are highly uncertain at the time of estimation. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments, and we evaluate these estimates on an ongoing basis. To the extent actual experience differs from the assumptions used, our Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition, Consolidated Statements of Operations and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows could be materially affected. We believe that the following accounting policies involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity.
Revenue Recognition
We derive our revenues primarily through commissions from brokerage services, the spread between the buy and sell prices on matched principal transactions, fees from related parties, data, software and post-trade services, and other revenues. See Note 3-"Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding revenue recognition.
Equity-Based and Other Compensation
Discretionary Bonus: A portion of our compensation and employee benefits expense is comprised of discretionary bonuses, which may be paid in cash, equity, partnership awards or a combination thereof. We accrue expense in a period based on revenues in that period and on the expected combination of cash, equity and partnership units. Given the assumptions used in estimating discretionary bonuses, actual results may differ.
Restricted Stock Units: We account for equity-based compensation under the fair value recognition provisions of the U.S. GAAP guidanceawards using the guidance in ASC 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. RSUs provided to certain employees are accounted for as equity awards, and in accordance with the U.S. GAAP, we are required to record an expense for the portion of the RSUs that is ultimately expected to vest. Further, forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Because assumptions are used in estimating employee turnover and associated forfeiture rates, actual results may differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
The fair value of RSU awards to employees is determined on the date of grant, based on the fair value of BGC Class A common stock. Generally, RSUs granted by us as employee compensation do not receive dividend equivalents; as such, we adjust the fair value of the RSUs for the present value of expected forgone dividends, which requires us to include an estimate of expected dividends as a valuation input. This grant-date fair value is amortized to expense ratably over the awards' vesting periods. For RSUs with graded vesting features, we have made an accounting policy election to recognize compensation cost on a straight-line basis. The amortization is reflected as part of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Restricted Stock: Restricted stock provided to certain employees is accounted for as an equity award, and as per the U.S. GAAP guidance, we are required to record an expense for the portion of the restricted stock that is ultimately expected to vest. We have granted restricted stock that is not subject to continued employment or service; however, transferability is subject to compliance with our and our affiliates' customary noncompete obligations. Such shares of restricted stock are generally saleable by partners in five to ten years. Because the restricted stock is not subject to continued employment or service, the grant-date fair value of the restricted stock is expensed on the date of grant. The expense is reflected as non-cash equity-based compensation expense in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Limited Partnership Units: LPUs in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings are generally held by employees. Generally, such units receive quarterly allocations of net income, which are cash distributed on a quarterly basis and generally contingent upon services being provided by the unit holders. In addition, Preferred Units are granted in connection with the grant of certain LPUs, such as PSUs, which may be granted exchangeability or redeemed in connection with the grant of shares of common stock to cover the withholding taxes owed by the unit holder upon such exchange or grant. This is an acceptable alternative to the common practice among public companies of issuing the gross amount of shares to employees, subject to cashless withholding of shares to pay applicable withholding taxes. Our Preferred Units are not entitled to participate in partnership distributions other than with respect to a distribution at a rate of either 0.6875% (which is 2.75% per calendar year)
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or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation. The quarterly allocations of net income to such LPUs are reflected as a component of compensation expense under "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Certain of these LPUs entitle the holders to receive post-termination payments equal to the notional amount, generally in four equal yearly installments after the holder's termination. These LPUs are accounted for as post-termination liability awards under the U.S. GAAP. Accordingly, we recognize a liability for these units on our Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition as part of "Accrued compensation" for the amortized portion of the post-termination payment amount, based on the
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current fair value of the expected future cash payout. We amortize the post-termination payment amount, less an expected forfeiture rate, over the vesting period, and record an expense for such awards based on the change in value at each reporting period in our Consolidated Statements of Operations as part of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs."
Certain LPUs are granted exchangeability into shares of BGC or Newmark Class A common stock or are redeemed in connection with the grant of BGC or Newmark Class A common stock issued; BGC Class A common stock is issued on a one-for-one basis, and Newmark Class A common stock is issued based on the number of LPUs exchanged or redeemed multiplied by the then Exchange Ratio. At the time exchangeability is granted or shares of BGC or Newmark Class A common stock are issued, we recognize an expense based on the fair value of the award on that date, which is included in "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. During the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we incurred equity-based compensation expense of $147.5 million, $128.1 million and $85.0 million, and $100.9 million, respectively, related to LPUs and issuance of common stock.
Certain LPUs have a stated vesting schedule and do not receive quarterly allocations of net income. Compensation expense related to these LPUs is recognized over the stated service period, and these units generally vest between two and five years. During the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, we incurred equity-based compensation expense related to these LPUs of $73.7 million, $78.6 million, and $74.3 million, respectively. This expense is included in "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Employee Loans: We have entered into various agreements with certain employees and partners, whereby these individuals receive loans that may be either wholly or in part repaid from distributions that the individuals receive on some or all of their LPUs and from proceeds of the sale of the employees' shares of BGC Class A common stock or may be forgiven over a period of time. Cash advance distribution loans are documented in formal agreements and are repayable in timeframes outlined in the underlying agreements. We intend for these advances to be repaid in full from the future distributions on existing and future awards granted. The distributions are treated as compensation expense when made and the proceeds are used to repay the loan. The forgivable portion of any loans is recognized as compensation expense in our Consolidated Statements of Operations over the life of the loan. We review the loan balances each reporting period for collectability. If we determine that the collectability of a portion of the loan balances is not expected, we recognize a reserve against the loan balances. Actual collectability of loan balances may differ from our estimates.
As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the aggregate balance of employee loans, net of reserve, was $319.6 million and $287.0 million, respectively, and is included as "Loans, forgivable loans and other receivables from employees and partners, net" in our consolidated statements of financial condition. Compensation expense (benefit) for the above-mentioned employee loans for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 was $49.5 million, $217.7 million and $67.0 2021 2020 and 2019 was $217.7 million $67.0 million and $35.7 million, respectively. The compensation expense related to these loans was included as part of "Compensation and employee benefits" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Goodwill
Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired in a business combination. As prescribed in the U.S. GAAP guidance, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, goodwill is not amortized, but instead is periodically tested for impairment. We review goodwill for impairment on an annual basis during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or whenever an event occurs or circumstances change that could reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.
When reviewing goodwill for impairment, we first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the results of the qualitative assessment indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, or if we choose to bypass the qualitative assessment, we perform a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis as follows.
The quantitative goodwill impairment test, used to identify both the existence of impairment and the amount of impairment loss, compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying
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amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss should be recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, goodwill is deemed not to be impaired. To estimate the fair value of the reporting unit, we use a discounted cash flow model and data regarding market comparables. The valuation process requires significant judgment and involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. These assumptions include cash flow projections, estimated cost of capital and the selection of peer companies and relevant multiples. Because assumptions and estimates are used in projecting future cash flows, choosing peer companies and selecting relevant multiples, actual results may differ from our estimates under different
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assumptions or conditions; and changes to these estimates and assumptions, as a result of changing economic and competitive conditions, could materially affect the determination of fair value and/or impairment.
CECL
We present financial assets that are measured at amortized cost net of an allowance for credit losses, which represents the amount expected to be collected over their estimated life. Expected credit losses for newly recognized financial assets carried at amortized cost, as well as changes to expected lifetime credit losses during the period, are recognized in earnings. In accordance with the U.S. GAAP guidance, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, the CECL the CECL methodology became effective for the Company on January 1, 2020, due to the adoption of the new FASB guidance, on credit Losses, the methodology's impact on expected credit losses, among other things, reflects the Company's view of the current state of the economy, forecasted macroeconomic conditions and BGC's portfolios. The amount of the allowance is based on significant estimates and the ultimate losses may vary from such estimates as more information becomes available or conditions change.
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method as prescribed in the U.S. GAAP guidance, Income Taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to basis differences between the Consolidated Financial Statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Certain of our entities are taxed as U.S. partnerships and are subject to UBT in the City of New York. Therefore, the tax liability or benefit related to the partnership income or loss except for UBT rests with the partners (see Note 2-"Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of partnership interests), rather than the partnership entity. As such, the partners' tax liability or benefit is not reflected in our Consolidated Financial Statements. The tax-related assets, liabilities, provisions or benefits included in our consolidated financial statements also reflect the results of the entities that are taxed as corporations, either in the U.S. or in foreign jurisdictions.
We provide for uncertain tax positions based upon management's assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. Management is required to determine whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. Because significant assumptions are used in determining whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities, actual results may differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We recognize interest and penalties related to income tax matters in "Provision for income taxes" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
A valuation allowance is recorded against deferred tax assets if it is deemed more likely than not that those assets will not be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence, including past operating results, the existence of cumulative losses in the most recent fiscal years, estimates of future taxable income and the feasibility of tax planning strategies.
The measurement of current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities is based on provisions of enacted tax laws and involves uncertainties in the application of tax regulations in the U.S. and other tax jurisdictions. Because our interpretation of complex tax law may impact the measurement of current and deferred income taxes, actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions regarding the application of tax law.
The Tax Act was enacted on December 22, 2017, which includes the global intangible low-taxed income, GILTI, provision. This provision requires inclusion in the Company's U.S. income tax return the earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries. The Company has elected to treat taxes associated with the GILTI provision using the Period Cost Method and thus has not recorded deferred taxes for basis differences under this regime.
See Note 3-"Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding these critical accounting policies and other significant accounting policies.
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There have been no other significant changes to the Company's critical accounting policies and estimates during fiscal year 2022.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
See Note 1-"Organization and Basis of Presentation" to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information regarding recent accounting pronouncements.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Credit Risk
Credit risk arises from potential non-performance by counterparties and customers. BGC Partners has established policies and procedures to manage its exposure to credit risk. BGC Partners maintains a thorough credit approval process to limit exposure to counterparty risk and employs stringent monitoring to control the counterparty risk from its matched principal and agency businesses. BGC Partners' account opening and counterparty approval process includes verification of key customer identification, anti-money laundering verification checks and a credit review of financial and operating data. The credit review process includes establishing an internal credit rating and any other information deemed necessary to make an informed credit decision, which may include correspondence, due diligence calls and a visit to the entity's premises, as necessary.
Credit approval is granted subject to certain trading limits and may be subject to additional conditions, such as the receipt of collateral or other credit support. Ongoing credit monitoring procedures include reviewing periodic financial statements and publicly available information on the client and collecting data from credit rating agencies, where available, to assess the ongoing financial condition of the client.
In addition, BGC Partners incurs limited credit risk related to certain brokerage activities. The counterparty risk relates to the collectability of the outstanding brokerage fee receivables. The review process includes monitoring both the clients and the related brokerage receivables. The review includes an evaluation of the ongoing collection process and an aging analysis of the brokerage receivables.
Principal Transaction Risk
Through its subsidiaries, BGC Partners executes matched principal transactions in which it acts as a "middleman" by serving as counterparty to both a buyer and a seller in matching back-to-back trades. These transactions are then settled through a recognized settlement system or third-party clearing organization. Settlement typically occurs within one to three business days after the trade date. Cash settlement of the transaction occurs upon receipt or delivery of the underlying instrument that was traded. BGC Partners generally avoids settlement of principal transactions on a free-of-payment basis or by physical delivery of the underlying instrument. However, free-of-payment transactions may occur on a very limited basis.
The number of matched principal trades BGC Partners executes has continued to grow as compared to prior years. Receivables from broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers and Payables to broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers on the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition primarily represent the simultaneous purchase and sale of the securities associated with those matched principal transactions that have not settled as of their stated settlement dates. BGC Partners' experience has been that substantially all of these transactions ultimately settle at the contracted amounts, however, the ability to settle has the potential to be impacted by unforeseen circumstances.
Market Risk
Market risk refers to the risk that a change in the level of one or more market prices, rates, indices or other factors will result in losses for a specified position. BGC Partners may allow certain of its desks to enter into unmatched principal transactions in the ordinary course of business and hold long and short inventory positions. These transactions are primarily for the purpose of facilitating clients' execution needs, adding liquidity to a market or attracting additional order flow. As a result, BGC Partners may have market risk exposure on these transactions. BGC Partners' exposure varies based on the size of its overall positions, the risk characteristics of the instruments held and the amount of time the positions are held before they are disposed of. BGC Partners has limited ability to track its exposure to market risk and unmatched positions on an intra-day basis; however, it attempts to mitigate its market risk on these positions by strict risk limits, extremely limited holding periods and hedging its exposure. These positions are intended to be held short term to facilitate customer transactions. However, due to a number of factors, including the nature of the position and access to the market on which it trades, BGC Partners may not be able to unwind the position and it may be forced to hold the position for a longer period than anticipated. All positions held longer than intra-day are marked to market.
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We also have investments in marketable equity securities, which are publicly-traded, and which had a fair value of $0.3 million as of December 31, 2022. Investments in equity securities carry a degree of risk, as there can be no assurance that the equity securities will not lose value and, in general, securities markets can be volatile and unpredictable. As a result of these different market risks, our holdings of equity securities could be materially and adversely affected. We may seek to minimize the effect of price changes on a portion of our investments in equity securities through the use of derivative contracts. However, there can be no assurance that our hedging activities will be adequate to protect us against price risks associated with our investments in marketable securities. See Note 10-"Marketable Securities" and Note 12-"Derivatives" to ourequity securities. See Note 11-"Derivatives" and Note 12-"Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities" to our
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Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding these investments and related hedging activities.
Our risk management procedures and strict limits are designed to monitor and limit the risk of unintended loss and have been effective in the past. However, there is no assurance that these procedures and limits will be effective at limiting unanticipated losses in the future. Adverse movements in the securities positions or a downturn or disruption in the markets for these positions could result in a substantial loss. In addition, principal gains and losses resulting from these positions could on occasion have a disproportionate effect, positive or negative, on BGC Partners' Consolidated Financial Condition and results of operations for any particular reporting period.
Operational Risk
Our businesses are highly dependent on our ability to process a large number of transactions across numerous and diverse markets in many currencies on a daily basis. If any of our data processing systems do not operate properly or are disabled or if there are other shortcomings or failures in our internal processes, people or systems, we could suffer impairment to our liquidity, financial loss, a disruption of our businesses, liability to clients, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. These systems may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, including cybersecurity incidents, a disruption of electrical or communications services or our inability to occupy one or more of our buildings. The inability of our systems to accommodate an increasing volume of transactions could also constrain our ability to expand our businesses.
In addition, despite our contingency plans, our ability to conduct business may be adversely impacted by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our businesses and the communities in which they are located. This may include a disruption involving electrical, communications, transportation or other services used by us or third parties with whom we conduct business.
Further, our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks. Although we take protective measures such as software programs, firewalls and similar technology to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our and our clients' information, the nature of the threats continue to evolve. As a result, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, loss or destruction of data (including confidential client information), account takeovers, unavailability or disruption of service, computer viruses, acts of vandalism, or other malicious code, cyber-attacks and other events that could have an adverse security impact. There have also been an increasing number of malicious cyber incidents in recent years in various industries, including ours. Any such cyber incidents involving our computer systems and networks, or those of third parties important to our businesses, could present risks to our operations.
Foreign Currency Risk
BGC Partners is exposed to risks associated with changes in FX rates. Changes in FX rates create volatility in the U.S. dollar equivalent of the Company's revenues and expenses. In addition, changes in the remeasurement of BGC Partners' foreign currency denominated financial assets and liabilities are recorded as part of its results of operations and fluctuate with changes in foreign currency rates. BGC monitors the net exposure in foreign currencies on a daily basis and hedges its exposure as deemed appropriate with highly rated major financial institutions.
The majority of the Company's foreign currency exposure is related to the U.S. dollar versus the British pound and the euro. While our international results of operations, as measured in U.S. Dollars, are subject to FX fluctuations, we do not consider the related risk to be material to our results of operations.pound sterling and the euro. For the financial assets and liabilities denominated in the pound sterling and euro, including foreign currency hedge positions related to these currencies, we evaluated the effects of a 10% shift in exchange rates between those currencies and the U.S. dollar, holding all other assumptions constant. The analysis identified the stress tested scenario as the U.S. dollar strengthening against the euro and weakening against the British poundstress-tested scenario as the U.S. dollar weakening against both the euro and against the pound sterling. If as of December 31, 2022, the U.S. dollar had strengthened against the euro and weakened against the British pound weakened against both the euro and the pound sterling by 10%, the currency movements would have had an aggregate negative impact on our net income of approximately $5.2 million.
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Interest Rate Risk
BGC Partners had $1,049.2 million in fixed-rate debt outstanding as of December 31, 2022. These debt obligations are not currently subject to fluctuations in interest rates, although in the event of refinancing or issuance of new debt, such debt could be subject to changes in interest rates. In addition, as of December 31, 2022, BGC Partners had no borrowings outstanding under its Revolving Credit Agreement. The Revolving Credit Agreement interest rate on borrowings was previously based on LIBOR or a defined base rate plus additional margin. On March 10, 2022, the Revolving Credit Agreement was amended, restated and increased, and the corresponding interest rate on any borrowings under its Revolving Credit Agreement is based on SOFR or a defined base rate plus additional margin.
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Disaster Recovery
Our processes address disaster recovery concerns. We operate most of our technology from U.S. and U.K. primary data centers. Either site alone is typically capable of running all of our essential systems. Replicated instances of this technology are maintained in our redundant data centers. Our data centers are generally built and equipped to best-practice standards of physical security with appropriate environmental monitoring and safeguards.Failover for the majority of our systems is automated.
The economic and financial disruptions from the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as measures taken by various governmental authorities in response to the outbreak, led us to implement operational changes as we executed our business continuity plan. We took significant steps to protect our employees. A majority of BGC staff members are attending work in the office several days a week, while working remotely the other part of the week. Unvaccinated employees are required to wear masks in common spaces and when not able to maintain six feet of distance. We have deferred some corporate events and participation in industry conferences. We are also dependent on third-party vendors for the performance of certain critical processes and such vendors are also operating under business continuity plans.
BGC Technology conducts annual disaster recovery training exercises for each primary data center where failover procedures are tested against defined Recovery Time Objectives (RTOs).
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
BGC Partners, Inc. and Subsidiaries
| | | | | | |
| Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 | |
| | |
| Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm and Independent Auditor (PCAOB ID 42) | 133 |
| | |
| Consolidated Financial Statements- | |
| | |
| Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition | 136 |
| | |
| Consolidated Statements of Operations | 137 |
| | |
| Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) | 138 |
| | |
| Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows | 139 |
| | |
| Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity | 141 |
| | |
| Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements | 144 |

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of BGC Partners, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial condition of BGC Partners, Inc. (the "Company") as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and changes in equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) as applicable and our report dated February 28, 2022 and our report dated March 1, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
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| | | | | | |
| | Accounting for Income Taxes |
| | |
| Description of the Matter | As discussed in Notes 3 and 20 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company is subject to income taxes in the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions, which affect the Company's provision for income taxes. The provision for income taxes is an estimate based on management's understanding of current enacted tax laws and tax rates of each tax jurisdiction. For the year-ended December 31, 2022, the Company recognized a consolidated provision for income taxes of $38.6 million. |
| | |
| | Auditing management's calculation of the provision for income taxes was complex because the Company's global structure required an assessment of the Company's application of tax laws in multiple jurisdictions including the income tax impact of the legal entity ownership structure. The assessment of tax positions involves the evaluation and application of complex statutes and regulations which are subject to legal and factual interpretation. Our audit procedures required significant audit effort including the use of our tax professionals to assist in evaluating the provision for income taxes. |
| | |
| | |
| How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit | We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company's controls related to the Company's global tax structure. For example, we tested management's controls over the completeness and accuracy of the data utilized, the effective tax rate reconciliation and the evaluation of permanent and temporary differences within various jurisdictions. |
| | |
| | To test the Company's provision for income taxes and to address the risks associated with the complexity of the Company's global tax structure, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, evaluating the income tax impact of the Company's structure and operations and considered the impact of any changes in the current year. We used our tax professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in evaluating the provision for income taxes including the application of relevant local and foreign tax laws to management's calculation methodologies and tax positions. Additionally, we tested the related effective tax rate reconciliation, evaluated the tax impact of permanent and temporary differences, and tested the application of new regulations case law, and other authoritative guidance. |
| | |
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2008.
New York, New York
March 1, 2023
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of BGC Partners, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited BGC Partners, Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, BGC Partners, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated statements of financial condition of BGC Partners, Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, andthe Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and changes in equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)(2) and our report dated March 1, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Company's management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying management's report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company's internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company's assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
New York, New York
March 1, 2023
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
(in thousands, except per share data)
| | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2022 | | December 31, 2021 |
| Assets | | | |
| Cash and cash equivalents | $ | 484,989 | | | $ | 553,598 | |
| Cash segregated under regulatory requirements | 17,021 | | | 13,201 | |
| Securities owned, | 40,838 | | | 58,572 | |
| Financial instruments owned, at fair value | 39,319 | | | 41,244 | |
| Marketable securities | 406 | | |349 | |
| | | | |
| Receivables from broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers | 559,680 | | | 782,446 | |
| Accrued commissions and other receivables, net | 288,471 | | | 296,423 | |
| Loans, forgivable loans and other receivables from employees and partners, net | 319,612 | | | 286,967 | |
| Fixed assets, net | 190,112 | | | 216,024 | |
| Fixed assets, net | 183,478 | | | 190,112 | |
| Investments | 38,575 | | | 33,039 | |
| Goodwill | 486,585 | | | 486,919 | |
| Other intangible assets, net | 192,783 | | | 207,747 | |
| Receivables from related parties | 1,444 | | | 5,237 | |
| Other assets | 445,233 | | | 480,427 | |
| Other assets | 463,014 | | | 445,233 | |
| | | | |
| Total assets | $ | 3,342,166 | | | $ | 3,953,242 | |
| Total assets | $ | 3,074,971 | | | $ | 3,342,166 | |
| Liabilities, Redeemable Partnership Interest, and Equity | | | |
| Short-term borrowings | $ | 1,917 | | | $ | 3,584 | |
| | | | |
| Accrued compensation | 214,379 | | | 220,726 | |
| Accrued compensation | 176,781 | | | 214,379 | |
| Payables to broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers | 404,675 | | | 656,278 | |
| Payables to related parties | 10,550 | | | 53,764 | |
| Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities | 683,104 | | | 679,254 | |
| Notes payable and other borrowings | 1,049,217 | | | 1,052,831 | |
| | | | |
| Total liabilities | 2,660,090 | | | 3,121,271 | |
| Total liabilities | 2,326,244 | | | 2,660,090 | |
| Commitments, contingencies and guarantees (Note 19) | | | |
| Redeemable partnership interest | 15,519 | | | 18,761 | |
| Equity | | | |
| Stockholders' equity: | | | |
| Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 750,000 shares authorized; 471,934 and 435,944 shares issued at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2020, respectively; and 317,023 and 323,018 2021, respectively; and 325,858 and 317,023 shares outstanding at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2020, respectively | 4,359 | | | 3,735 | |2021, respectively | 4,719 | | | 4,359 | |
| Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 150,000 shares authorized; 45,884 shares issued and outstanding at each of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, convertible into Class A common stock | 459 | | | 459 | |
| Additional paid-in capital | 2,451,135 | | | 2,375,113 | |
| Additional paid-in capital | 2,559,418 | | | 2,451,135 | |
| Treasury stock, at cost: 146,076 and 118,921 shares of Class A common stock at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2020, respectively | (623,734) | | | (315,313) | |2021, respectively | (711,454) | | | (623,734) | |
| Retained deficit | (1,171,919) | | | (1,280,828) | |
| Retained deficit | (1,138,066) | | | (1,171,919) | |
| Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) | (45,431) | | | (40,548) | |
| Total stockholders' equity | 669,645 | | | 619,752 | |
| Noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries | 63,563 | | | 43,563 | |
| Total equity | 663,315 | | | 811,297 | |
| Total equity | 733,208 | | | 663,315 | |
| Total liabilities, redeemable partnership interest, and equity | $ | 3,074,971 | | | $ | 3,342,166 | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share data)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| Revenues: | | | | | |
| Commissions | $ | 1,541,900 | | | $ | 1,567,668 | | | $ | 1,645,818 | |
| Commissions | $ | 1,281,294 | | | $ | 1,541,900 | | | $ | 1,567,668 | |
| Principal transactions | 327,761 | | | 351,633 | | | 321,923 | |
| Principal transactions | 365,507 | | | 327,761 | | | 351,633 | |
| Fees from related parties | 14,856 | | | 25,754 | | | 29,442 | |
| Fees from related parties | 14,734 | | | 14,856 | | | 25,754 | |
| Data, software and post-trade | 96,389 | | | 89,963 | | | 81,920 | |
| Interest and dividend income | 21,007 | | | 21,977 | | | 12,332 | |
| Other revenues | 18,907 | | | 17,454 | | | 15,938 | |
| Other revenues | 16,371 | | | 18,907 | | | 17,454 | |
| Total revenues | 2,015,364 | | | 2,056,761 | | | 2,104,606 | |
| Total revenues | 1,795,302 | | | 2,015,364 | | | 2,056,761 | |
| Expenses: | | | | | |
| Compensation and employee benefits | 1,271,340 | | | 1,132,557 | | | 1,127,041 | |853,165 | | | 1,271,340 | | | 1,132,557 | |
| Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs | 256,164 | | | 183,545 | | | 170,625 | |251,071 | | | 256,164 | | | 183,545 | |
| Total compensation and employee benefits | 1,527,504 | | | 1,316,102 | | | 1,297,666 | |1,104,236 | | | 1,527,504 | | | 1,316,102 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 188,322 | | | 192,837 | | | 186,111 | |
| Occupancy and equipment | 157,491 | | | 188,322 | | | 192,837 | |
| Fees to related parties | 24,030 | | | 23,618 | | | 19,778 | |
| Fees to related parties | 25,662 | | | 24,030 | | | 23,618 | |
| Professional and consulting fees | 68,775 | | | 67,884 | | | 74,072 | |
| Communications | 117,502 | | | 121,646 | | | 120,037 | |
| Communications | 108,096 | | | 117,502 | | | 121,646 | |
| Selling and promotion | 38,048 | | | 38,234 | | | 81,829 | |
| Selling and promotion | 49,215 | | | 38,048 | | | 38,234 | |
| Commissions and floor brokerage | 58,277 | | | 64,708 | | | 59,376 | |
| Interest expense | 69,329 | | | 76,607 | | | 60,246 | |
| Interest expense | 57,932 | | | 69,329 | | | 76,607 | |
| Other expenses | 80,888 | | | 89,045 | | | 118,671 | |
| Other expenses | 87,431 | | | 80,888 | | | 89,045 | |
| Total expenses | 2,178,215 | | | 1,991,537 | | | 2,041,026 | |
| Total expenses | 1,717,115 | | | 2,178,215 | | | 1,991,537 | |
| Other income (losses), net: | | | | | |
| Gains (losses) on divestitures and sale of investments | (1,029) | | | 312,941 | | | 394 | |
| Gains (losses) on equity method investments | 10,920 | | | 6,706 | | | 5,023 | |
| Other income (loss) | 19,705 | | | 1,580 | | | 30,511 | |
| Other income (loss) | 9,373 | | | 19,705 | | | 1,580 | |
| Total other income (losses), net | 19,264 | | | 339,352 | | | 6,997 | |
| Income (loss) from operations before income taxes | 176,501 | | | 72,221 | | | 116,627 | |97,451 | | | 176,501 | | | 72,221 | |
| Provision (benefit) for income taxes | 38,584 | | | 23,013 | | | 21,303 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | | | $ | 66,816 | |58,867 | | | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | |
| Less: Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries | 10,155 | | | 29,481 | | | 5,856 | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | $ | 124,007 | | | $ | 45,062 | | | $ | 43,901 | |48,712 | | | $ | 124,007 | | | $ | 45,062 | |
| Per share data: | | | | | |
| Basic earnings (loss) per share | | | | | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | $ | 124,007 | | | $ | 45,062 | | | $ | 43,901 | |48,712 | | | $ | 124,007 | | | $ | 45,062 | |
| Basic earnings (loss) per share | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | 0.33 | | | $ | 0.12 | |
| Basic weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding | 379,215 | | | 361,736 | | | 344,332 | |371,561 | | | 379,215 | | | 361,736 | |
| Fully diluted earnings (loss) per share | | | | | |
| Net income (loss) for fully diluted shares | $ | 173,995 | | | $ | 64,787 | | | $ | 58,871 | |63,479 | | | $ | 173,995 | | | $ | 64,787 | |
| Fully diluted earnings (loss) per share | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | 0.32 | | | $ | 0.12 | |
| Fully diluted weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding | 540,020 | | | 546,848 | | | 472,187 | |499,414 | | | 540,020 | | | 546,848 | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | | | $ | 66,816 | |58,867 | | | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | |
| Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax: | | | | | |
| Foreign currency translation adjustments | (5,668) | | | (13,747) | | | 6,457 | |
| Benefit plans | 301 | | | (1,840) | | | (12,928) | |
| Benefit plans | - | | | 301 | | | (1,840) | |
| Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax | (13,446) | | | 4,617 | | | (13,014) | |(5,668) | | | (13,446) | | | 4,617 | |
| Comprehensive income (loss) | 140,042 | | | 55,535 | | | 53,802 | |
| Comprehensive income (loss) | 53,199 | | | 140,042 | | | 55,535 | |
| Less: Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries, net of tax | 9,370 | | | 27,653 | | | 6,301 | |
| Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to common stockholders | $ | 112,389 | | | $ | 49,234 | | | $ | 35,264 | |43,829 | | | $ | 112,389 | | | $ | 49,234 | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWSCONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS-(Continued)
(in thousands)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: | | | | | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | | | $ | 66,816 | |58,867 | | | $ | 153,488 | | | $ | 50,918 | |
| Adjustments to reconcile consolidated net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities: | | | | | |
| Gain on Insurance Business Disposition | - | | | (312,941) | | | - | |
| Fixed asset depreciation and intangible asset amortization | 75,054 | | | 81,874 | | | 85,422 | |
| Employee loan amortization and reserves on employee loans | 49,533 | | | 217,655 | | | 67,032 | |
| Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs | 256,164 | | | 183,545 | | | 170,625 | |251,071 | | | 256,164 | | | 183,545 | |
| Deferred compensation expense | (542) | | | 347 | | | 630 | |
| Losses (gains) on equity method investments | (6,706) | | | (1,126) | | | (4,115) | |(10,920) | | | (6,706) | | | (1,126) | |
| Realized losses (gains) on marketable securities | - | | | (289) | | | (3,528) | |
| Unrealized/realized losses (gains) on financial instruments owned, at fair value and other investments | 1,208 | | | 17 | | | 73 | |
| Unrealized losses (gains) on marketable securities | (56) | | | (69) | | | (3,204) | |
| | | | | | |
| Loss (gains) on other investments | 73 | | | 431 | | | (18,163) | |
| | | | | | |
| Amortization of discount (premium) on notes payable | 2,801 | | | 3,592 | | | 4,187 | |
| Impairment of fixed assets, intangible assets and investments | 6,139 | | | 11,246 | | | 11,431 | |
| Deferred tax provision (benefit) | (11,947) | | | (16,549) | | | (4,196) | |(14,628) | | | (11,947) | | | (16,549) | |
| Change in estimated acquisition earn-out payables | 1,034 | | | 4,285 | | | 4,661 | |
| Forfeitures of Class A common stock | (263) | | | (553) | | | - | |
| | | | | | |
| Loss (gain) on divestiture | 1,029 | | | - | | | - | |
| Other | (4,915) | | | 2,730 | | | (5,682) | |
| Other | (1,914) | | | (4,915) | | | 2,730 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss), adjusted for non-cash and non-operating items | 391,606 | | | 392,954 | | | 335,192 | |418,469 | | | 391,606 | | | 392,954 | |
| Decrease (increase) in operating assets: | | | | | |
| Securities owned, | 17,626 | | | (1,346) | | | 883 | |
| Financial instruments owned, at fair value | 2,383 | | | 17,626 | | | (1,346) | |
| Receivables from broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers | (482,669) | | | 246,498 | | | 389,058 | |222,567 | | | (482,669) | | | 246,498 | |
| Accrued commissions receivable, net | (101,314) | | | 44,389 | | | (22,287) | |6,287 | | | (101,314) | | | 44,389 | |
| Loans, forgivable loans and other receivables from employees and partners, net | (38,571) | | | (149,145) | | | (119,469) | |(61,205) | | | (38,571) | | | (149,145) | |
| Receivables from related parties | 3,621 | | | 8,377 | | | 5,465 | |
| Other assets | 1,543 | | | (20,074) | | | 5,239 | |
| Other assets | (8,469) | | | 1,543 | | | (20,074) | |
| Increase (decrease) in operating liabilities: | | | | | |
| Repurchase agreements | - | | | - | | | (986) | |
| | | | | | |
| Securities loaned, | - | | | (13,902) | | | (1,238) | |
| Financial instruments loaned, at fair value | - | | | - | | | (13,902) | |
| Accrued compensation | 17,989 | | | 13,752 | | | (7,231) | |
| Accrued compensation | (25,178) | | | 17,989 | | | 13,752 | |
| Payables to broker-dealers, clearing organizations, customers and related broker-dealers | 477,083 | | | (236,314) | | | (353,281) | |(252,490) | | | 477,083 | | | (236,314) | |
| Payables to related parties | 18,596 | | | (37,613) | | | 36,855 | |
| Payables to related parties | (43,782) | | | 18,596 | | | (37,613) | |
| Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities | 106,919 | | | 57,949 | | | (17,420) | |(37,841) | | | 106,919 | | | 57,949 | |
| Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities | $ | 417,185 | | | $ | 302,613 | | | $ | 241,100 | |224,362 | | | $ | 417,185 | | | $ | 302,613 | |
| CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: | | | | | |
| Gross proceeds from Insurance Business Disposition | $ | - | | | $ | 534,916 | | | $ | - | |
| Cash and restricted cash transferred as part of Insurance Business Disposition | - | | | (369,407) | | | - | |
| Proceeds from disposal of subsidiary | 512 | | | - | | | - | |
| Purchases of fixed assets | (10,112) | | | (30,829) | | | (46,665) | |
| Purchases of fixed assets | (10,591) | | | (10,112) | | | (30,829) | |
| Capitalization of software development costs | (43,178) | | | (54,342) | | | (50,833) | |(48,169) | | | (43,178) | | | (54,342) | |
| Purchase of equity method investments | (1,115) | | | (1,458) | | | (1,715) | |(588) | | | (1,115) | | | (1,458) | |
| Proceeds from equity method investments | 6,118 | | | 10,029 | | | 4,326 | |
| Payments for acquisitions, net of cash acquired | - | | | - | | | (7,871) | |
| Proceeds from sale of marketable securities | - | | | 14,237 | | | 24,626 | |
| Proceeds from sale of financial instruments owned, at fair value | - | | | - | | | 14,237 | |
| Purchase of other assets | - | | | (2,000) | | | - | |
| Purchase of other assets | (612) | | | - | | | (2,000) | |
| Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities | $ | 121,133 | | | $ | (77,937) | | | $ | (42,589) | |
| CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: | | | | | |
| Repayments of long-term debt and collateralized borrowings | $ | (566,244) | | | $ | (357,789) | | | $ | (332,378) | |
(53,330) | | | $ | 121,133 | | | $ | (77,937) | |
| Issuance of long-term debt and collateralized borrowings, net of deferred issuance costs | 298,419 | | | 524,396 | | | 709,849 | |
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS-(Continued)
(in thousands)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: | | | | | |
| Repayments of debt and collateralized borrowings | $ | (6,391) | | | $ | (566,244) | | | $ | (357,789) | |
| Issuance of debt and collateralized borrowings, net of deferred issuance costs | (75) | | | 298,419 | | | 524,396 | |
| Earnings distributions to limited partnership interests and other noncontrolling interests | (52,169) | | | (63,109) | | | (113,673) | |(28,877) | | | (52,169) | | | (63,109) | |
| Redemption and repurchase of limited partnership interests | (110,565) | | | (47,613) | | | (43,270) | |(76,219) | | | (110,565) | | | (47,613) | |
| Dividends to stockholders | (15,098) | | | (60,440) | | | (192,442) | |
| Dividends to stockholders | (14,859) | | | (15,098) | | | (60,440) | |
| Repurchase of Class A common stock | (103,888) | | | (365,398) | | | (6) | |
| Cancellation of RSUs in satisfaction of withholding tax requirements | - | | | - | | | (458) | |
| | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| Proceeds from sale of Cantor Units in BGC Holdings | 1,487 | | | 7,894 | | | - | |
| Pre-acquisition cash capital contribution to Futures Exchange Group | - | | | 3,845 | | | - | |
| Acquisition of Futures Exchange Group | - | | | (9,022) | | | - | |
| | | | | | |
| Payments on acquisition earn-outs | (11,199) | | | (8,540) | | | (8,146) | |(4,384) | | | (11,199) | | | (8,540) | |
| Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities | $ | (819,537) | | | $ | (13,101) | | | $ | 18,246 | |(233,206) | | | $ | (819,537) | | | $ | (13,101) | |
| Effect of exchange rate changes on Cash and cash equivalents, and Cash segregated under regulatory requirements | (2,615) | | | (5,388) | | | 993 | |
| | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
| Net increase (decrease) in Cash and cash equivalents, and Cash segregated under regulatory requirements | (286,607) | | | 212,568 | | | 219,387 | |(64,789) | | | (286,607) | | | 212,568 | |
| Cash and cash equivalents, and Cash segregated under regulatory requirements at beginning of period | 853,406 | | | 640,838 | | | 421,451 | |566,799 | | | 853,406 | | | 640,838 | |
| Cash and cash equivalents, and Cash segregated under regulatory requirements at end of period | $ | 566,799 | | | $ | 853,406 | | | $ | 640,838 | |502,010 | | | $ | 566,799 | | | $ | 853,406 | |
| Supplemental cash information: | | | | | |
| Cash paid during the period for taxes | $ | 43,357 | | | $ | 41,910 | | | $ | 47,997 | |35,782 | | | $ | 43,357 | | | $ | 41,910 | |
| Cash paid during the period for interest | 53,655 | | | 66,450 | | | 69,572 | |
| Supplemental non-cash information: | | | | | |
| Issuance of Class A common stock upon exchange of limited partnership interests | $ | 157,547 | | | $ | 11,388 | | | $ | 26,146 | |34,889 | | | $ | 157,547 | | | $ | 11,388 | |
| Issuance of Class A and contingent Class A common stock and limited partnership interests for acquisitions | 2,710 | | | 1,160 | | | 1,578 | |
| ROU assets and liabilities | 7,367 | | | 34,456 | | | 169,065 | |
| ROU assets and liabilities | 44,123 | | | 7,367 | | | 34,456 | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.

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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
For the Year Ended December 31, 2020
(in thousands, except share amounts)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | BGC Partners, Inc. Stockholders | | | | | | |
| | Class A | | Class B | | Additional | | Treasury | | Retained | | Accumulated | | Noncontrolling | | Total | | |
| | Common | | Common | | Paid-in | | Stock | | Deficit | | Other | | Interest in | | | | |
| | Stock | | Stock | | Capital | | | | | | Comprehensive | | Subsidiaries | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | Income (Loss) | | | | | | |
| Balance, January 1, 2019 | $ | 3,417 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,217,340 | | | $ | (314,240) | | | $ | (1,116,026) | | | $ | (24,465) | | | $ | 88,974 | | | $ | 855,459 | | | |
| Balance, January 1, 2020 | $ | 3,584 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,289,064 | | | $ | (315,308) | | | $ | (1,264,567) | | | $ | (33,102) | | | $ | 48,976 | | | $ | 729,106 | | | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 43,901 | | | - | | | 22,915 | | | 66,816 | | | |45,062 | | | - | | | 5,856 | | | 50,918 | | | |
| Other comprehensive gain, net of tax | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (8,637) | | | (4,377) | | | (13,014) | | | |4,172 | | | 445 | | | 4,617 | | | |
| Equity-based compensation, 1,133,725 shares | 11 | | | - | | | 8,565 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 4,096 | | | 12,672 | | | |
| Dividends to common stockholders | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (60,440) | | | - | | | - | | | (60,440) | | | |
| Earnings distributions to limited partnership interests and other noncontrolling interests | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (36,569) | | | (36,569) | | | |
| Grant of exchangeability and redemption of limited partnership interests, issuance of 15,008,431 shares | 150 | | | - | | | 56,455 13,190,311 shares | 132 | | | - | | | 61,766 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 31,895 | | | 93,793 | | | |
| Issuance of Class A common stock (net of costs), 390,570 shares | 4 | | | - | | | 5,381 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 120 | | | 5,505 | | | |
| Redemption of FPUs, 730,141 units | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (102) | | | (102) | | | |
| Repurchase of Class A common stock, 2,259 shares | - | | | - | | | - | | | (5) | | | - | | | - | | | (1) | | | (6) | | | |
| Forfeiture of Class A common stock, 22,046 shares | -| | | | | - | | | | | | | | | - | | | - | | | (29) | | | (139) | | | |
| Contributions of capital to and from Cantor for equity-based compensation | - | | | - | | | 3,613 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 1,906 | | | 5,519 | | | |
| Issuance of Class A common stock and RSUs for acquisitions, 390,775 shares | 4 | | | - | | | 1,664 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (90) | | | 1,578 | | | |
| Cumulative effect of CECL standard adoption | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (883) | | | - | | | (417) | | | (1,300) | | | |
| Other | - | | | - | | | 5,060 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 946 | | | 6,006 | | | |
| Balance, December 31, 2019 | $ | 3,584 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,289,064 | | | $ | (315,308) | | | $ | (1,264,567) | | | $ | (33,102) | | | $ | 48,976 | | | $ | 729,106 | | | |
| Balance, December 31, 2020 | $ | 3,735 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,375,113 | | | $ | (315,313) | | | $ | (1,280,828) | | | $ | (28,930) | | | $ | 57,061 | | | $ | 811,297 | | | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
For the Year Ended December 31, 2021
(in thousands, except share amounts)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | BGC Partners, Inc. Stockholders | | | | | |
| | Class A | | Class B | | Additional | | Treasury | | Retained | | Accumulated | | Noncontrolling | | Total | |
| | Common | | Common | | Paid-in | | Stock | | Deficit | | Other | | Interest in | | | |
| | Stock | | Stock | | Capital | | | | | | Comprehensive | | Subsidiaries | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | Income (Loss) | | | | | |
| Balance, January 1, 2020 | $ | 3,584 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,289,064 | | | $ | (315,308) | | | $ | (1,264,567) | | | $ | (33,102) | | | $ | 48,976 | | | $ | 729,106 | | |
| Balance, January 1, 2021 | $ | 3,735 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,375,113 | | | $ | (315,313) | | | $ | (1,280,828) | | | $ | (28,930) | | | $ | 57,061 | | | $ | 811,297 | | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 45,062 | | | - | | | 5,856 | | | 50,918 | | |124,007 | | | - | | | 29,481 | | | 153,488 | | |
| Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (11,618) | | | (1,828) | | | (13,446) | | |
| Equity-based compensation, 2,167,170 shares | 22 | | | - | | | 13,015 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 4,887 | | | 17,924 | | |
| Dividends to common stockholders | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (15,098) | | | - | | | - | | | (15,098) | | |
| Earnings distributions to limited partnership interests and other noncontrolling interests | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (22,658) | | | (22,658) | | |
| Grant of exchangeability and redemption of limited partnership interests, issuance of 13,190,311 shares | 132 | | | - | | | 61,766 58,024,858 shares | 580 | | | - | | | 69,855 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 49,524 | | | 119,959 | | |
| Issuance of Class A common stock (net of costs), 417,247 shares | 4 | | | - | | | 1,492 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 14 | | | 1,510 | | |
| Redemption of FPUs, 1,198,131 units | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (408) | | | (408) | | |
| Repurchase of Class A common stock, 68,253,498 shares | - | | | - | | | - | | | (307,773) | | | - | | | - | | | (57,625) | | | (365,398) | | |
| Forfeiture of Class A common stock, 140,188 shares | - | | | - | | | 181 | | | (648) | | | - | | | - | | | (86) | | | (553) | | |
| Contributions of capital to and from Cantor for equity-based compensation | - | | | - | | | (15,429) | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (12,582) | | | (28,011) | | |
| Grant of exchangeability, redemption of limited partnership interests and issuance of Class A common stock and RSUs for acquisitions, 1,789,018 shares | 18 | | | - | | | 9,825 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (8,683) | | | 1,160 | | |
| Cumulative effect of CECL standard adoption | Cantor purchase of Cantor units from BGC Holdings upon redemption of FPUs, 4,408,931 units | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 7,894 | | | 7,894 | | |
| Acquisition of Futures Exchange Group | - | | | - | | | (7,616) | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (1,406) | | | (9,022) | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| Other | - | | | - | | | 4,699 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (22) | | | 4,677 | | |
| Balance, December 31, 2020 | $ | 3,735 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,375,113 | | | $ | (315,313) | | | $ | (1,280,828) | | | $ | (28,930) | | | $ | 57,061 | | | $ | 811,297 | | |
| Balance, December 31, 2021 | $ | 4,359 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,451,135 | | | $ | (623,734) | | | $ | (1,171,919) | | | $ | (40,548) | | | $ | 43,563 | | | $ | 663,315 | | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY
For the Year Ended December 31, 2022
(in thousands, except share amounts)
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | BGC Partners, Inc. Stockholders | | | | |
| | Class A | | Class B | | Additional | | Treasury | | Retained | | Accumulated | | Noncontrolling | | Total |
| | Common | | Common | | Paid-in | | Stock | | Deficit | | Other | | Interest in | | |
| | Stock | | Stock | | Capital | | | | | | Comprehensive | | Subsidiaries | | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | Income (Loss) | | | | |
| Balance, January 1, 2021 | $ | 3,735 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,375,113 | | | $ | (315,313) | | | $ | (1,280,828) | | | $ | (28,930) | | | $ | 57,061 | | | $ | 811,297 | |
| Balance, January 1, 2022 | $ | 4,359 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,451,135 | | | $ | (623,734) | | | $ | (1,171,919) | | | $ | (40,548) | | | $ | 43,563 | | | $ | 663,315 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 124,007 | | | - | | | 29,481 | | | 153,488 | |48,712 | | | - | | | 10,155 | | | 58,867 | |
| Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (11,618) | | | (1,828) | | | (13,446) | |(4,883) | | | (785) | | | (5,668) | |
| Equity-based compensation, 3,284,120 shares | 33 | | | - | | | 10,599 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 3,314 | | | 13,946 | |
| Dividends to common stockholders | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (14,859) | | | - | | | - | | | (14,859) | |
| Earnings distributions to limited partnership interests and other noncontrolling interests | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (7,598) | | | (7,598) | |
| Grant of exchangeability and redemption of limited partnership interests, issuance of 58,024,858 shares | 580 | | | - | | | 69,855 30,998,136 shares | 310 | | | - | | | 92,245 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 30,286 | | | 122,841 | |
| Issuance of Class A common stock (net of costs), 500,697 shares | 5 | | | - | | | 3,780 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 17 | | | 3,802 | |
| Redemption of FPUs, 113,203 units | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (249) | | | (249) | |
| Repurchase of Class A common stock, 27,086,884 shares | - | | | - | | | - | | | (87,507) | | | - | | | - | | | (16,381) | | | (103,888) | |
| Forfeiture of Class A common stock, 66,693 shares | - | | | - | | | 181 | | | (648) | | | - | | | - | | | (86) | | | (553) | |(8) | | | (213) | | | - | | | - | | | (41) | | | (262) | |
| Contributions of capital to and from Cantor for equity-based compensation | - | | | - | | | (1,946) | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | (624) | | | (2,570) | |
| Grant of exchangeability, redemption of limited partnership interests and issuance of Class A common stock and RSUs for acquisitions, 1,205,767 shares | 12 | | | - | | | 2,279 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 419 | | | 2,710 | |
| Cantor purchase of Cantor units from BGC Holdings upon redemption of FPUs, 833,515 units | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 1,487 | | | 1,487 | |
| Acquisition of Futures Exchange Group | -| | | | | - | | | (7,616) | | | - | | | - | | |- | | | (1,406) | | | (9,022) | |
| Other | - | | | - | | | 1,334 | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | - | | | 1,334 | |
| Balance, December 31, 2021 | $ | 4,359 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,451,135 | | | $ | (623,734) | | | $ | (1,171,919) | | | $ | (40,548) | | | $ | 43,563 | | | $ | 663,315 | |
| Balance, December 31, 2022 | $ | 4,719 | | | $ | 459 | | | $ | 2,559,418 | | | $ | (711,454) | | | $ | (1,138,066) | | | $ | (45,431) | | | $ | 63,563 | | | $ | 733,208 | |
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | For the Year Ended December 31, |
| | 2022 | | 2021 | | 2020 |
| Dividends declared per share of common stock | $ | 0.04 | | | $ | 0.04 | | | $ | 0.17 | |
| Dividends declared and paid per share of common stock | $ | 0.04 | | | $ | 0.04 | | | $ | 0.17 | |
The accompanying Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements are an integral part of these financial statements.
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BGC PARTNERS, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
| | | | | | | | | |
| | | Page |
| Note 1 | Organization and Basis of Presentation | 144 |
| Note 2 | Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings | 147 |
| Note 3 | Summary of Significant Accounting Policies | 149 |
| Note 4 | Acquisitions | 157 |
| Note 5 | Divestitures | 157 |
| Note 6 | Earnings Per Share | 158 |
| Note 7 | Stock Transactions and Unit Redemptions | 159 |
| Note 8 | Financial Instruments Owned, at Fair Value | 162 |
| Note 9 | Collateralized Transactions | 162 |
| Note 10 | Receivables from and Payables to Broker-Dealers, Clearing Organizations, Customers and Related Broker-Dealers | 162 |
| Note 11 | Derivatives | 163 |
| Note 12 | Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities | 165 |
| Note 13 | Related Party Transactions | 168 |
| Note 14 | Investments | 177 |
| Note 15 | Fixed Assets, Net | 179 |
| Note 16 | Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net | 179 |
| Note 17 | Notes Payable, Other and Short-Term Borrowings | 181 |
| Note 18 | Compensation | 183 |
| Note 19 | Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees | 188 |
| Note 20 | Income Taxes | 191 |
| Note 21 | Regulatory Requirements | 194 |
| Note 22 | Segment, Geographic and Product Information | 194 |
| Note 23 | Revenues from Contracts with Customers | 196 |
| Note 24 | Leases | 196 |
| Note 25 | Current Expected Credit Losses (CECL) | 198 |
| Note 26 | Supplemental Balance Sheet Information | 199 |
| Note 27 | Subsequent Events | 200 |
1. Organization and Basis of Presentation
Business Overview
BGC Partners, Inc. is a leading global financial brokerage and technology company servicing the global financial markets. Through brands including BGC®, Fenics®, GFI®, Sunrise Brokers™, Poten & Partners®, and RP Martin®, and Fenics, among others, the Company specializes among others, the Company's businesses specialize in the brokerage of a broad range of products, including fixed income such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments, as well as related interest rate derivatives and credit derivatives. Additionally, the Company provides brokerage products across FX, the Company also brokers products across FX, equity derivatives and cash Equities, Energy and Commodities, Shipping, and Futures and Options. The Company's businesses also provide a wide variety of services, including trade execution, connectivity solutions, brokerage services, clearing, trade compression, and other post-trade services, information, and other back-office services to a broad assortment of financial and non-financial institutions.
BGC Partners' integrated platform is designed to provide flexibility to customers with regard to price discovery, execution and processing of transactions, and enables them to use the Company's Voice, Hybrid, or in many markets, Fully Electronic brokerage services in connection with transactions executed either OTC or through an exchange. Through the Company's Fenics® group of electronic brands, BGC Partners offers a number of market infrastructure and connectivity services, including the Company's Fully Electronic marketplaces, and the Fully Electronic brokerage of certain products that also may trade via the Company's Voice and Hybrid execution platforms. The full suite of Fenics® offerings includes the Company's Fully Electronic and Hybrid brokerage, market data and related information services, trade compression and other post-trade services, analytics related to financial instruments and markets, and other financial technology solutions. Fenics® brands also operate under the names Fenics®, FMX™, FMX Futures Exchange™, Fenics Markets Xchange™, Fenics Futures
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Exchange™, Fenics UST™, Fenics FX™, Fenics Repo™, Fenics Direct™, Fenics MID™, Fenics Market Data™, Fenics GO™, BGC Market Data, kACE2®, Capitalab, Swaptioniser, CBID, Lucera®.and LumeAlfa.Fenics PortfolioMatch™, kACE2®, and Lucera®.
BGC, BGC Partners, BGC Trader, GFI, GFI Ginga, CreditMatch, Fenics, Fenics.com, FMX, Sunrise Brokers, Poten & Partners, RP Martin, kACE2, Capitalab, Swaptioniser, CBID, and Lucera are trademarks/service marks, and/or registered trademarks/service marks of BGC Partners, Inc. and/or its affiliates.
The Company's customers include many of the world's largest banks, broker-dealers, investment banks, trading firms, hedge funds, governments, corporations, and investment firms. BGC Partners has dozens of offices globally in major markets including New York and London, as well as in Bahrain, Beijing, Bogotá, Brisbane, Cape Town, Chicago, Copenhagen, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hong Kong, Houston, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Monaco, Nyon, Paris, Perth, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Toronto, and Zurich.
Basis of Presentation
The Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC and in conformity with U.S. GAAP. The Company's Consolidated Financial Statements include the Company's accounts and all subsidiaries in which the Company has a controlling interest. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain reclassifications have been made to previously reported amounts to conform to the current presentation.
On November 1, 2021, the Company completed the Insurance Business Disposition (see Note 5-"Divestitures" for additional information).
On July 30, 2021, the Company completed the purchase of the Futures Exchange Group for a purchase price of $4.9 million at closing, plus the cash held at closing by the Futures Exchange Group, and an earn-out, only payable out of the Company's portion of the profits of the Futures Exchange Group, capped at the amount Cantor contributed to the Futures Exchange Group prior to closing.
The Futures Exchange Group acquisition has been determined to be a combination of entities under common control that resulted in a change in the reporting entity. Accordingly, the financial results of the Company have been recast to include the financial results of the Futures Exchange Group in the current and prior periods as if the Futures Exchange Group had always been consolidated. The assets and liabilities of the Futures Exchange Group have been recorded in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition at the seller's historical carrying value. The purchase of the Futures Exchange Group was accounted for as an equity transaction for the period ended September 30, 2021 (the period in which the transaction occurred).
The following tables summarize the impact of the Futures Exchange Group acquisition to the Company's consolidated statement of financial condition as of December 31, 2020, and to the Company's consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands, except per share amounts):
During the first quarter of 2022, the Company changed the name of the brokerage product line formerly labeled as "Equity derivatives and cash equity" to "Equities" to better align the caption with the underlying activity.
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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | December 31, 2020 |
| | as Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted |
| Total assets | $ | 3,949,300 | | | $ | 3,942 | | | $ | 3,953,242 | |
| Total liabilities | $ | 3,120,397 | | | $ | 874 | | | $ | 3,121,271 | |
| Total equity | $ | 808,229 | | | $ | 3,068 | | | $ | 811,297 | |
| Total liabilities, redeemable partnership interest, and equity" | $ | 3,949,300 | | | $ | 3,942 | | | $ | 3,953,242 | |

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
| | | Year Ended December 31, 2020 | | Year Ended December 31, 2019 |
| | | As Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted | | As Previously Reported | | Retrospective Adjustments | | As Adjusted |
| Income (loss) from operations before income taxes | | $ | 77,905 | | | $ | (5,684) | | | $ | 72,221 | | | $ | 122,064 | | | $ | (5,437) | | | $ | 116,627 | |
| Consolidated net income (loss) | | $ | 56,602 | | | $ | (5,684) | | | $ | 50,918 | | | $ | 72,253 | | | $ | (5,437) | | | $ | 66,816 | |
| Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries | | $ | 7,694 | | | $ | (1,838) | | | $ | 5,856 | | | $ | 24,691 | | | $ | (1,776) | | | $ | 22,915 | |
| Net income (loss) available to common stockholders | | $ | 48,908 | | | $ | (3,846) | | | $ | 45,062 | | | $ | 47,562 | | | $ | (3,661) | | | $ | 43,901 | |
| Basic earnings (loss) per share | | $ | 0.14 | | | $ | (0.02) | | | $ | 0.12 | | | $ | 0.14 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.13 | |
| Diluted earnings (loss) per share | | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.12 | | | $ | 0.13 | | | $ | (0.01) | | | $ | 0.12 | |
Additionally, the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), consolidated statements of cash flows and consolidated statements of changes in equity have been adjusted to reflect these retrospective adjustments.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company changed the line item formerly known as "Interest income" to "Interest and dividend income" in the Company's consolidated statements of operation. The change did not result in any reclassification of revenue, had no impact on the Company's "Total revenues and is viewed only as a name change to better reflect the underlying activity.revenues and had no impact on the Company's Total brokerage revenues.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company changed the line item formerly known as "Allocations of net income and grant of exchangeability to limited partnership units and FPUs and issuance of common stock" to "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in the Company's consolidated statements of operations and consolidated statements of cash flows. The change resulted in the reclassification of amortization charges related to equity-based awards such as REUs and RSUs from "Compensation and employee benefits" to "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs." This change in presentation had no impact on the Company's "Total compensation and employee benefits" nor "Total expenses."
The consolidated financial statements contain all normal and recurring adjustments that, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated statements of financial condition, the consolidated statements of operations, the consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), the consolidated statements of cash flows and the consolidated statements of changes in equity of the Company for the periods presented.
During the second quarter of 2022, the Company combined "Realized losses (gains) on marketable securities", "Unrealized losses (gains) on marketable securities", and "Losses (gains) on other investments" on the unaudited Condensed
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This standard requires lessees to recognize an ROU asset and lease liability for all leases with terms of more than 12 months. Recognition, measurement and presentation of expenses will depend on classification as a finance or operating lease. The amendments also require certain quantitative and qualitative disclosures. Accounting guidance for lessors is mostly unchanged. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases, to clarify how to apply certain aspects of the new leases standard. The amendments address the rate implicit in the lease, impairment of the net investment in the lease, lessee reassessment of lease classification, lessor reassessment of lease term and purchase options, variable payments that depend on an index or rate and certain transition adjustments, among other issues. In addition, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842), Targeted Improvements, which provided an additional (and optional) transition method to adopt the new leases standard.
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Under the new transition method, a reporting entity would initially apply the new lease requirements at the effective date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption; continue to report comparative periods presented in the financial statements in the period of adoption in accordance with legacy U.S. GAAP (i.e., ASC 840, Leases); and provide the required disclosures under ASC 840 for all periods presented under legacy U.S. GAAP. Further, ASU No. 2018-11 contains a practical expedient that allows lessors to avoid separating lease and associated non-lease components within a contract if certain criteria are met. In December 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-20, Leases (Topic 842), Narrow-Scope Improvements for Lessors, to clarify guidance for lessors on sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from lessees, certain lessor costs and recognition of variable payments for contracts with lease and non-lease components. In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842), Codification Improvements, to clarify certain application and transitional disclosure aspects of the new leases standard. The amendments address determination of the fair value of the underlying asset by lessors that are not manufacturers or dealers and clarify interim period transition disclosure requirements, among other issues. The guidance in ASUs No. 2016-02, 2018-10, 2018-11 and 2018-20 was effective beginning January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted; whereas the guidance in ASU No. 2019-01 was effective beginning January 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the above-mentioned standards on January 1, 2019 using the effective date as the date of initial application. Therefore, pursuant to this transition method financial information was not updated and the disclosures required under the new leases standards were not provided for dates and periods before January 1, 2019. The guidance provides a number of optional practical expedients to be utilized by lessees upon transition. Accordingly, BGC elected the "package of practical expedients," which permitted the Company not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. BGC did not elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements, with the latter not being applicable to the Company. The standard also provides practical expedients for an entity's ongoing accounting as a lessee. BGC elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, the Company will not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets and lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets upon transition. The Company also elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for all of leases other than leases of real estate. As a result, upon adoption, acting primarily as a lessee, BGC recognized a $192.4 million ROU asset and a $206.0 million lease liability on its consolidated statements of financial condition for its real estate and equipment operating leases. The adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated statements of operations, consolidated statements of changes in equity and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows See Note 25-"Leases" for additional information on the Company's leasing arrangements.into "Losses (gains) on marketable securities and other investments". The recognition of gains and losses related to these investments are similar in nature and immaterial to the financial statements in 2022 and 2021.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. The guidance intends to better align an entity's risk management activities and financial reporting for hedging relationships through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships and the presentation of hedge results. To meet that objective, the amendments expand and refine hedge accounting for both nonfinancial and financial risk components and align The recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements. In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-16, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Inclusion of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) Overnight Index Swap (OIS) Rate as a Benchmark Interest Rate for Hedge Accounting Purposes. Based on concerns about the sustainability of LIBOR, in 2017, a committee convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York identified a broad Treasury repurchase agreement (repo) financing rate referred to as the SOFR as its preferred alternative reference rate. The guidance in ASU No. 2018-16 adds the OIS rate based on SOFR as a U.S. benchmark interest rate to facilitate the LIBOR to SOFR transition and provide sufficient lead time for entities to prepare for changes to interest rate risk hedging strategies for both risk management and hedge accounting purposes. The amendments in this ASU were required to be adopted concurrently with the guidance in ASU No. 2017-12. The guidance became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019 and was required to be applied on a prospective and modified retrospective basis. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on BGC's consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The guidance helps organizations address certain stranded income tax effects in accumulated other comprehensive income resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act by providing an option to reclassify these stranded tax effects to retained earnings in each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (or portion thereof) is recorded. The standard became effective for BGC on January 1, 2019. The guidance was required to be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period (or periods) in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act is recognized. The Company adopted the guidance starting on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements
in June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The guidance largely aligns the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to employees and nonemployees, whereby the existing employee guidance will apply to nonemployee share-based

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transactions (as long as the transaction is not effectively a form of financing), with the exception of specific guidance related to the attribution of compensation cost. The cost of nonemployee awards will continue to be recorded as if the grantor had paid cash for the goods or services. In addition, the contractual term will be able to be used in lieu of an expected term in the option-pricing model for nonemployee awards. The standard became effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. The ASU was required to be applied on a prospective basis to all new awards granted after the date of adoption. In addition, any liability-classified awards that were not settled and equity-classified awards for which a measurement date had not been established by the adoption date were remeasured at fair value" as of the adoption date with a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings in the year of adoption. BGC adopted this standard on its effective date. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
During the third quarter of 2022, the Company renamed "Securities owned" as "Financial instruments owned, at fair value" and combined it with "Marketable securities" on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. In addition, "Losses (gains) on marketable securities and other investments" was renamed as "Unrealized/realized losses (gains) on financial instruments owned, at fair value and other investments" on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
In July 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-07, Codification Updates to SEC Sections-Amendments to SEC Paragraphs Pursuant to SEC Final Rule Releases No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, and Nos. 33-10231 and 33-10442, Investment Company Reporting Modernization, and Miscellaneous Updates. The guidance clarifies or improves the disclosure and presentation requirements of a variety of codification topics by aligning them with already effective SEC final rules, thereby eliminating redundancies and making the codification easier to apply. This ASU was effective upon issuance, and it did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated financial Statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)-Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires Financial assets that are measured at amortized cost to be presented, net of an allowance for credit losses, at the amount expected to be collected over their estimated life. Expected credit losses for newly recognized financial assets, as well as changes to credit losses during the period, are recognized In earnings. For certain PCD assets, the initial allowance for expected credit losses is recorded as an increase to the purchase price. Expected credit losses, including losses on off-balance-sheet exposures such as lending commitments, are measured based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. The new standard became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2020, under a modified retrospective approach, and early adoption was permitted. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-19, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit losses to clarify that operating lease receivables accounted for under ASC 842, Leases, are not in the scope of the new credit losses guidance, and, instead, impairment of receivables arising from operating leases should be accounted for in accordance with ASC 842, Leases. In April 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments. The ASU makes changes to the guidance introduced or amended by ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)-Measurement of Credit Losses on financial instruments See below for the description of the amendments stipulated in ASU No. 2019-04. In addition, in May 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-05, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Targeted Transition Relief. The amendments in this ASU allow entities, upon adoption of ASU No. 2016-13, to irrevocably elect the fair value option for financial instruments that were previously carried at amortized cost and are eligible for the fair value option under ASC 825-10, Financial Instruments: Overall. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-11, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses. The amendments in this ASU require entities to include certain expected recoveries of the amortized cost basis previously written off, or expected to be written off, in the allowance for credit losses for PCD assets; provide transition relief related to troubled debt restructurings; allow entities to exclude accrued interest amounts from certain required disclosures; and clarify the requirements for applying the collateral maintenance practical expedient. The amendments in ASUs No. 2018-19, 2019-04, 2019-05 and 2019-11 were required to be adopted concurrently with the guidance in ASU No. 2016-13. BGC adopted the standards on their required effective date beginning January 1, 2020. The primary effect of adoption related to the increase in the allowances for credit losses for Accrued commissions receivable, and Loans, forgivable loans and other receivables from employees and partners. As a result, on a pre-tax basis, the Company recognized a decrease in assets and noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries, and an increase in retained deficit, of approximately $1.9 million, $0.6 million, and $1.3 million, respectively, as of January 1, 2020. The tax effect of the impact of the adoption was an increase in assets and noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries, and a decrease in retained deficit of approximately $0.6 million, $0.2 million, and $0.4 million, respectively.
In January 2017, The FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which eliminates the requirement to determine the fair value of individual assets and liabilities of a reporting unit to measure goodwill impairment. Under the amendments in the ASU, goodwill impairment testing is performed by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value. The Company adopted the standard on its required effective date beginning January 1, 2020, and the guidance was applied on a prospective basis starting with the goodwill impairment test during the year ended December 31, 2020. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company's The Consolidated Financial Statements
in August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The guidance is part of the FASB's disclosure framework project, whose objective and primary focus are to improve the effectiveness of disclosures in the notes to financial
contain all normal and recurring adjustments that, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair presentation of the Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition, the Consolidated Statements of Operations, the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss), the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows and the Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity of the Company for the periods presented.
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statements. The ASU eliminates, amends and adds certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The FASB concluded that these changes improve the overall usefulness of the footnote disclosures for financial statement users and reduce costs for preparers. Certain disclosures are required to be applied prospectively and other disclosures need to be adopted retrospectively in the period of adoption. As permitted by the transition guidance in the ASU, the Company early adopted, eliminated and modified disclosure requirements as of September 30, 2018. the early adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the Company's Consolidated financial Statements The additional disclosure requirements were adopted by BGC beginning January 1, 2020, and the adoption of these fair value measurement disclosures did not have an impact on the Company's Consolidated financial Statements See Note 13-"Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities" for additional information.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force). The guidance on the accounting for implementation, setup, and other upfront costs (collectively referred to as implementation costs) applies to entities that are a customer in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract. The amendments align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The accounting for the service element of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract is not affected by the guidance in this ASU. BGC adopted the standard on its effective date beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated financial Statements
In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-17, Consolidation (Topic 810): Targeted Improvements to Related Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities. The guidance was issued in response to stakeholders' observations that Topic 810, Consolidation, could be improved in the areas of applying the variable interest entity guidance to private companies under common control and in considering indirect interests held through related parties under common control for determining whether fees paid to decision makers and service providers are variable interests. BGC adopted the standard on its effective date beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

Spin-Off of Newmark
In April 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments. The ASU amends guidance introduced or amended by ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326)-Measurement of Credit Losses On Financial Instruments, ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, and ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments-Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The amendments to ASU No. 2016-13 clarify the scope of the credit losses standard and address guidance related to accrued interest receivable balances, recoveries, variable interest rates and prepayments, among other issues. With respect to amendments to ASU No. 2017-12, the guidance addresses partial-term fair value hedges, fair value hedge basis adjustments, and certain transition requirements, along with other issues. the clarifying guidance pertaining to ASU No. 2016-01 requires an entity to remeasure an equity security without a readily determinable fair value accounted for under the measurement alternative at fair value in accordance with guidance in ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement; specifies that equity securities without a readily determinable fair value denominated in nonfunctional currency must be remeasured at historical exchange rates; and provides fair value measurement disclosure guidance. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption of the hedge accounting and the recognition and measurement guidance amendments did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements. See above for the impact of adoption of the amendments related to the credit losses standard.
On November 30, 2018, the Company completed the Spin-Off. See Note 2-"Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings," and Note 13-"Related Party Transactions" for more information.
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In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-08, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718) and Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Codification Improvements-Share-Based Consideration Payable to a Customer. The ASU simplifies and increases comparability of Accounting for nonemployee share-based payments, specifically those made to customers. Under the guidance, such awards will be accounted for as a reduction of the transaction price in revenue, but should be measured and classified following the stock compensation guidance in ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date beginning January 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The ASU is part of the FASB's simplification initiative, and it is expected to reduce cost and complexity related to accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions to the guidance in ASC 740, Income Taxes related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates, and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of
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goodwill. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date beginning January 1, 2021 on a prospective basis. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815)-Clarifying the Interactions between Topic 321, Topic 323, and Topic 815 (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force). These amendments improve previous guidance by reducing diversity in practice and increasing comparability of the accounting for the interactions between these codification topics as they pertain to certain equity securities, investments under the equity method of accounting and forward contracts or purchased options to purchase securities that, upon settlement of the forward contract or exercise of the purchased option, would be accounted for under the equity method of accounting or the fair value option. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date beginning January 1, 2021 on a prospective basis. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-03, Codification Improvements to Financial Instruments. This ASU makes narrow-scope amendments related to various aspects pertaining to financial instruments and related disclosures by clarifying or improving the Codification. For the most part, the guidance was effective upon issuance, and the adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In October 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-10, Codification Improvements. The standard amends the Codification by moving existing disclosure requirements to (or adding appropriate references in) the relevant disclosure sections. The ASU also clarifies various provisions of the Codification by amending and adding new headings, cross-referencing, and refining or correcting terminology. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date beginning January 1, 2021 and it was applied using a modified retrospective method of transition. The adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. The guidance is designed to provide relief from the accounting analysis and impacts that may otherwise be required for modifications to agreements (e.g., loans, debt securities, derivatives, and borrowings) necessitated by reference rate reform as entities transition away from LIBOR and other interbank offered rates to alternative reference rates. This ASU also provides optional expedients to enable companies to continue to apply hedge accounting to certain hedging relationships impacted by reference rate reform. Application of the guidance is optional and only available in certain situations. The ASU is effective upon issuance and generally can be applied through December 31, 2022. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope. The amendments in this standard are elective and principally apply to entities that have derivative instruments that use an interest rate for margining, discounting, or contract price alignment that is modified as a result of reference rate reform (referred to as the "discounting transition"). The standard expands the scope of ASC 848, Reference Rate Reform and allows entities to elect optional expedients to derivative contracts impacted by the discounting transition. Similar to ASU No. 2020-04, provisions of this ASU are effective upon issuance and generally can be applied through December 31, 2022. Management is evaluating and planning for adoption of the new guidance including forming a cross-functional LIBOR transition team to determine the Company's transition plan and facilitate an orderly transition to alternative reference rates, and continuing its assessment During the first quarter of 2022, the Company elected to apply the practical expedients to modifications of qualifying contracts as continuation of the existing contract rather than as a new contract. The adoption of the new guidance did not have an impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt-Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity's Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity. The standard is expected to reduce complexity and improve comparability of financial reporting associated with accounting for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity's own equity. The ASU also enhances information transparency by making targeted improvements to the related disclosures guidance. Additionally, the amendments affect the diluted EPS calculation for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares and for convertible instruments. BGC adopted the standard on the required effective date the new standard became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2022, and it was applied using either a modified retrospective or a fully retrospective method of transition. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance. The standard requires business entities to make annual disclosures about transactions with a government they account for by analogizing to a grant or contribution accounting model. The guidance is aimed at increasing transparency about government assistance transactions that are not in the scope of other U.S. GAAP guidance. The ASU requires disclosure of the nature and significant terms and considerations of the transactions, the accounting policies used and the effects of those transactions on an entity's financial statements. The new standard became effective for the Company's
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financial statements issued for annual reporting periods beginning on January 1, 2022, and it will be applied prospectively. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The standard improves the accounting for acquired revenue contracts with customers in a business combination by addressing diversity in practice and inconsistency related to the recognition of an acquired contract liability, as well as payment terms and their effect on subsequent revenue recognized by the acquirer. The ASU requires companies to apply guidance in ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities from contracts with customers acquired in a business combination, and, thus, creates an exception to the general recognition and measurement principle in ASC 805, Business Combinations. The new
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standard will become
standard became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2023, and will be applied prospectively for business combinations occurring on or after the effective date. and early adoption is permitted. Management is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures. by Business Entities about Government Assistance. The standard requires business entities to make annual disclosures about transactions with a government they account for by analogizing to a grant or contribution accounting model. the guidance is aimed at increasing transparency about government assistance transactions that are not In the scope of other U.S. GAAP guidance. The ASU requires disclosure of the nature and significant terms and considerations of the transactions, the accounting policies used and the effects of those transactions on an entity's financial statements. The new standard will become effective for the Company's financial statements issued for annual reporting periods beginning on January 1, 2022, can be applied prospectively. or retrospectively, and early adoption is permitted
In March 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-02, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Troubled Debt Restructurings and Vintage Disclosures. The guidance is intended to improve the decision usefulness of information provided to investors about certain loan refinancings, restructurings, and write-offs. The standard eliminates the recognition and measurement guidance on TDRs for creditors that have adopted ASC 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses and requires them to make enhanced disclosures about loan modifications for borrowers experiencing financial difficulty. The new guidance also requires public business entities to present current-period gross write-offs (on a current year-to-date basis for interim-period disclosures) by year of origination in their vintage disclosures. The new standard became effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2023. The guidance for recognition and measurement of TDRs will be applied using a prospective transition method, and the amendments related to disclosures will be applied prospectively. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.
In September 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-04, Liabilities-Supplier Finance Programs (Subtopic 405-50): Debt Restructurings Disclosure of Supplier Finance Program Obligations. The guidance requires entities to disclose the key terms of supplier finance programs they use in connection with the purchase of goods and services along with information about their obligations under these programs, including a rollforward of those obligations. The new standard became effective for the Company beginning on January 1, 2023, except for the rollforward requirement, which is effective beginning January 1, 2024. The guidance requires retrospective application to all periods in which a balance sheet is presented, except for the rollforward requirement, which will be applied prospectively. The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements.

In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-06, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848. ASU No. 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting provided optional guidance to ease the potential burden in accounting for (or recognizing the effects of) reference rate reform on financial reporting. The ASU was effective upon issuance and generally could be applied through December 31, 2022. Because the current relief in ASC 848, Reference Rate Reform may not cover a period of time during which a significant number of modifications may take place, the amendments in ASU No. 2022-06 defer the sunset date from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2024, after which entities will no longer be permitted to apply the relief in ASC 848. The ASU is effective upon issuance. Management is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
2. Limited Partnership Interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings
BGC Partners is a holding company with no direct operations and conducts substantially all of its operations through its operating subsidiaries. Virtually all of the Company's consolidated net assets and net income are those of consolidated variable interest entities. BGC Holdings is a consolidated subsidiary of the Company for which the Company is the general partner. The Company and BGC Holdings jointly own BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo, the two operating partnerships. In addition, Newmark Holdings is a consolidated subsidiary of Newmark for which Newmark is the general partner. Newmark and Newmark Holdings jointly own Newmark OpCo, the operating partnership. Listed below are the limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings. The FPUs, LPUs and limited partnership interests held by Cantor, each as described below, collectively represent all of the limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings.
As a result of the Separation, limited partnership interests in Newmark Holdings were distributed to the holders of limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings, whereby each holder of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests at that time who held a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest received a corresponding Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest, determined by the Contribution Ratio, which was equal to a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest multiplied by one
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divided by 2.2, divided by the Exchange Ratio. Initially, the Exchange Ratio equaled one, so that each Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest was exchangeable for one share of Newmark Class A common stock. For reinvestment, acquisition or other purposes, Newmark may determine on a quarterly basis to distribute to its stockholders a smaller percentage than Newmark Holdings distributes to its equity holders (excluding tax distributions from Newmark Holdings) of cash that it received from Newmark OpCo. In such circumstances, the Separation and Distribution Agreement provides that the Exchange Ratio will be reduced to reflect the amount of additional cash retained by Newmark as a result of the distribution of such smaller percentage, after the payment of taxes. The Exchange Ratio as of December 31, 2022 equaled 0.9303.
Founding/Working Partner Units
Founding/Working Partners have FPUs in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings. The Company accounts for FPUs outside of permanent capital, as "Redeemable partnership interest," in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. This classification is applicable to Founding/Working Partner units because these units are redeemable upon termination of a partner, including a termination of employment, which can be at the option of the partner and not within the control of the issuer.
FPUs are held by limited partners who are employees and generally receive quarterly allocations of net income. Upon termination of employment or otherwise ceasing to provide substantive services, the FPUs are generally redeemed, and the unit holders are no longer entitled to participate in the quarterly allocations of net income. Since these allocations of net income are cash distributed on a quarterly basis and are contingent upon services being provided by the unit holder, they are reflected as a component of compensation expense under "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Limited Partnership Units
Certain BGC employees hold LPUs in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings (e.g., REUs, RPUs, PSUs, and PSIs). Prior to the Separation, certain employees of both BGC and Newmark received LPUs in BGC Holdings. As a result of the Separation, these employees were distributed LPUs in Newmark Holdings equal to a BGC Holdings LPU multiplied by the Contribution Ratio. Subsequent to the Separation, BGC employees are only granted LPUs in BGC Holdings, and Newmark employees are only granted LPUs in Newmark Holdings.
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Generally, LPUs receive quarterly allocations of net income, which are cash distributed and generally are contingent upon services being provided by the unit holder. As prescribed in U.S. GAAP guidance, following the Spin-Off, the quarterly allocations of net income on BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings LPUs held by BGC employees are reflected as a component of compensation expense under "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations, and the quarterly allocations of net income on BGC Holdings LPUs held by Newmark employees are reflected as a component of "Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations. From time to time, the Company also issues BGC LPUs as part of the consideration for acquisitions.
Certain of these LPUs in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings, such as REUs, entitle the holders to receive post-termination payments equal to the notional amount of the units in four equal yearly installments after the holder's termination. These LPUs held by BGC employees are accounted for as post-termination liability awards, and in accordance with U.S. GAAP guidance, the Company records compensation expense for the awards based on the change in value at each reporting date in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations as part of "Equity-based compensation and allocations of net income to limited partnership units and FPUs".
The Company has also awarded certain Preferred Units. Each quarter, the net profits of BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings are allocated to such units at a rate of either 0.6875% (which is 2.75% per calendar year) or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation. These allocations are deducted before the calculation and distribution of the quarterly partnership distribution for the remaining partnership interests and are generally contingent upon services being provided by the unit holder. The Preferred Units are not entitled to participate in partnership distributions other than with respect to the Preferred Distribution. Preferred Units may not be made exchangeable into Class A common stock, and are only entitled to the Preferred Distribution; accordingly, they are not included in the fully diluted share count. The quarterly allocations of net income on Preferred Units are reflected the same as those of the LPUs described above in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations. After deduction of the Preferred Distribution, the remaining partnership units generally receive quarterly allocations of net income based on their weighted-average pro rata share of economic ownership of the operating subsidiaries. Preferred Units are granted in connection with the grant of certain LPUs, such as PSUs, which may be granted exchangeability or redeemed in connection with the issuance of shares of common stock to cover the withholding taxes owed by the unit holder, rather than issuing the gross amount of shares to employees, subject to cashless withholding of shares to pay applicable withholding taxes.
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Cantor Units
Cantor holds limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings. Cantor units are reflected as a component of "Noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. Cantor receives allocations of net income (loss), which are cash distributed on a quarterly basis and are reflected as a component of "Net income (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interest in subsidiaries" in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations. Cantor units in BGC Holdings are generally exchangeable for up to 23.6 million shares of BGC Class B common stock.
General
Certain of the limited partnership interests, described above, have been granted exchangeability into shares of BGC or Newmark Class A common stock, and additional limited partnership interests may become exchangeable into shares of BGC or Newmark Class A common stock. In addition, certain limited partnership interests have been granted the right to exchange into or have been exchanged into a partnership unit with a capital account, such as HDUs. HDUs have a stated capital account which is initially based on the closing trading price of Class A common stock at the time the HDU is granted. HDUs participate in quarterly partnership distributi